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life of Ariosto. His birth, i. His early studies, a. He 
enteiB the serrice of tlie Canfinal of Este, iii. His em- 
bassies, IT. His military services, ▼. He begins the 
Furioto, Yu. Is not salMJied with his patroo, iz. First 
edition of the poem, and MadiiaveOi's opinion on it, iz. 

, Cardinal Ippofito's eoarse semark, z. Character of this 

prelate, zi. His cmelty, zii. He did not patronise 

literatnre, zit. He did not rewaid tiie poet for his woik, 

Z7. Calcagiiini's praises of him are not to be trusted, 

zriii. A. flattered him, ziz. They qoarrel, zz. The 

Cardinal did not well repay Arioeto's services, zzv« Leo 

X. aiid AriostOy zzvi. Why did diat Pope neg^ 

the poet 1 zzvii. Arioeto enters the service of tiie Dvke 

of Ferrara, zzviii. Publishes the second edition of tiie 

Furiaso, zziz. Is deprived of the prop e rty of his uncle, 

zzz. Amount of the poet's monthly aUowanoe, zzz. 

He is appointed governor of Garftignana, zzzii. He is 

offiered tiie embassy of Rome, zzziii. which he refuses, 

xzziv. His. Satirei zzzv. A cursory view of the satire 

on liarriage, zzzviL The poef s objections to manying, 

. xli. He marries, zlv. His intrigues, zlvi. His visit to 

Florence, zlvii. Absurd stories respecting his imperfect 

knowledge of Italian, zlviiL His Latin poems, zliz. 

His Italian lyrics, 1. He builds a house, liL His 

coQiedies, liii, ' The Negromaute, liv. He takes part in 

the performan^ of comedies, Ivi. He was the first who 

wrote a regular comedy in Italian, hiL Analysis of the 

NegromAnte, lir. Remarks on it, Izni. His coronation 

as poet, Izvi. He is sent to the Bfarqnis Del Vasto, 

who settles an annuity on him, Izvii. He publishes the 

third edition of his poem, Izviii. He receives no present 

from those to whom be sent copies of it, Iziz. His health 

[viii] CONTENTS. 

grows worse, Ixx. His death, Ixxi. His character, Ixxil 
B£MBo, Ixxxi. Ariosto's confession before dying, ac- 
cording to Baruppaldi, Ixxxiv. His epitaph, Ixxxv. 
Unfounded stories concerning the poet/ Ixxxvi. His 
funerals, Ixxxviiu His several monuments, Ixxxix. 
Anecdotes, xc. His portrait, xciv. 
The Furioso is a connected poem, xcv. Its main subject, 
xcvi. Analysis of the work, xcvii. Connection of the 
collateral stories with the principal subject of the poem, 
cvi. The Furioso contains few episodes, cix. Comparison 
of that' of Nisus and Eurialus with that of Cloridano and 
Medoro, cxi. Pblleo ring's mistake, cxiii. Tales, 
stories, &c. are not episodes, cxiv« Differences between 
the first and third edition of the poem enumerated, cxvi. 
Remarks, cxvit. Care bestowed by Ariostoon his poetry, 
cxix. B«asons for calling the poem Orlando Furioso^ 
cxxii. Continuators of Bojardo, cxxiii^ ARiosto's 
original plan, cxxvi. The einqtu canti, cxxvii. Analysis 
of them, cxxviii. Remarks, cxxxix. Aldo's edition of 
the einqui eanti, cxliv. GiOLiTo's disregard for truth, 
cxlv. Ariosto never wrote a poem called Rinaldo, cxlvU 
The edition of 1532 ofiers the only genuine text of the 
Furuno, cxlviii. Mora Li's invaluable edition of the 
FuriotOf cxlix. Advantages derived from it in the present 
publication, cl. On the severe judgment passed on 
RuscELLi by Mora LI and others, cli. Facts and obser- 
vations, clii. GiRALDi and Pigna, civil. A few words 
on the present edition of the poem, clix. 

Orlando Furio»o. Canto I. page 1. Canto II. page 22« 
Canto III. page 41. Canto IV. page 61. Canto V. 
page 79. Canto VI. page 102. Canto VII. page 123. 
Canto VIII. page 143. 

Notes to Canto I. page 167. To Canto II. page 176^ To 
Canto III. page 180. To Canto IV. page 182. To 
Canto V. page 184. To Canto VI. page 186. To 
Canto VII. page 189. To Canto VIII. page 196. 




The following List has heen drawn up from actual inspec- 
tion of the various editions, for the unrestricted use of which 
I am indebted to the liberality of the several Noblemen and 
Gentlemen wh(»e names are prefixed to each Notice. It 
comprises nearly all the rare editions of the Furioto printed 
before 1551. 



Orlando Fvrioso de Lvdovico Ariosto da Fer- 


Underneath is the device of the printer, Mazocco, with the 
initials of his name, I. M. (that is, Ioanne in dialect, or 
loHANNES in Ladn, for Giovanni, the Christian name of 
Mazocco.) Beneath it the words : 

Con gratia e priuilegio. 4to. 

The above is the title of the first edition of the Furioto ; 
the reverse is blank. On the recto of the following leaf, 
marked 2, sig< a 2, is the privilege of Leo X., signed by 

BIB. NOT. * A 


Sadoleto, dated March 2 7, 1 5 1 6. The first fart of this briefi 
addressed to Ariosto, is not without interest, and is as fol- 
lows: Smgularis tua et peruetus erga nos familiamque nos- 
tram obseniantia, egregiaque bonarum artlum et litterarum 
doctrinay atque in studiis mitioribusy praesertimque poetices 
elegans ac prseclarum ingeniuiUy iure prope suo a nobis ez- 
poscere uidentur, ut quae tibi usui futura sint, iusta praesertim 
et honesta petenti, ea tibi liberaliter et gratiosd concedamus. 
Quamobrem cum libros uernaculo sermone et carmine quos 
Orlandi furiosi titulo inscripsisti, ludicro more, longo tamen 
studio et cogitatione, multisque uigiliis, confeceris, eosque con- 
ductis abs te impressoribus ac librariis edere cupias .... 
▼olumus, &c. On the same page are mentioned the privileges 
granted by the King of France, by the Republic of Venice, 
and other potentates, who are not individually specified. 
On the reverse is a wood-cut representing a hive, out of 
which the bees are driven by a fire placed below it, sur- 
rounded by a border containing several devices of a mallet 
and hatchet entwined by a snake. The motto, pro bono ma- 
LYM, is distributed in the four comers. On the recto of the 
third leaf, marked 3, sig. a 3, begins the poem. Each page 
has two columns, containing four stanzas in each. The type is 
Roman, with accented vowels. Capitals are not used at the 
beginning of the lines, but only to the stanzas, which are se- 
parated by a blank space. At the end of each canto there is, 
in capitals : 

Finisce il primo (secondo, terzo, &c.) Incomin- 
cia il secondo (terzo, quarto, &c.) Canto di Or- 
lando Furioso. 

The poem, which in this as well as in all editions previous 
to 1532, is diWded into forty cantos only, ends on the reverse 
of leaf 262, which is the sixth of sig. K. On the recto of the 
following leaf is the errata, with this modest declaration of the 
author : 

S altri (errori) se ne son fatti nel imprimere 
non son tali che li lettori da se stessi non li pos- 


sano connoscere et emendar, et se pur ue ne se- 
raoo alcuni chabbiano de 1 opera de 1 author bi- 
sogno se egli li uedera o che gli sieno mostrati si 
sforzera ne 1 altre impressioni d emendarli. 
Then the three linei of HoaACS, printed in a luger type : 

Qui ne tuberibus propriis offendat amicum 
Postulat, ignoscat uerucis illius, equum est 
Peccatis ueniam poscentem reddere rursus. 

The Register follows from a to s, and from A to K 
Tutti sono quaderni. 

Lastly, the colophon: 

Impresso in Ferrara per Maestro Giouanni Ma- 

zocco dalBondenoadi. xxii. de Aprile. M.D.XVI. 
The reverse of this, as well as the whole of the next lea£, is blank. 
The copy before me is in the highest state of preservation. 
It is not only dean and perfect, but with rough edges. I have 
seen one other coffj, in Mr. Quin's collection, now in Trinity 
College, DubliOf and although remarkably fine, it is much 
inferior to Mr. Grenville's. The date of the brief of Leo X. 
is the same in both copies : which I observe particulariy, be- 
cause Baruffaldi (F. ffJiHo. peg. 169) erroneously asserts 
that the date of that document is 1515; and therefrom draws 
certain conclusions as if it were a &ct In his Caialogo of the 
editions of the Furioso at the end of his biographical work, 
he seems to intimate, that there is a Venetian privilege, dated 
Oct 25th, 1515, in this edition, which is likewise incorrect; 
although it is true that such a privilege was granted on that 
day, as we find from a posterior one which was printed la 
the edition of 1532, as will hereafter be described. 

quin's collection. 

Orlando Fvrioso di Lvdovico Ariosto Nobile 
Ferrarese ristampato et con molta diligentia da 


Ivi corretto et qvasi tvtto formato di nvovo et 
aropliato con grade et privilegii ; 4to. 

The title, in red ink| ii surrounded by the devices of the 
mallet and hatchet tied by a snake, in black, accompanied by 
the motto, fro bono malym, in the four comers, also red. 
On the reverse of the title-page is the privilege of Leo X., 
27th March, 1516. (Baruffaldi, describing this edition, 
properly observes, that this privilege is the same as was 
printed in the first edition, although he contradicts thb state- 
ment elsewhere.) After the privil^;e follows : 

SImilmente (not similemente, as in 1516) il 
Christianissimo Re di Francia: & la Tllustrissima 
Signoria de Venetiani & de Fiorentini: & de 
Genouesi : & altri Signori & potentie prohibiscono 
die ne le lor terre a nessuno sia licito stampare 
ne uendere : ne far uendere questa opera senza 
expressa licentia del suo authore : sotto le gra- 
uissime pene che he li ampli lor priuilegii fi (siCf 
instead of si) contengono. 

The poem begins on the recto of leaf ii, sig. a il. The first 


page has only six stanzas, three in each column ; the others 
have eight. The leaves are numbered in Roman numerals. 
The fourth leaf is, by mistake, marked vi ; the fifth is correct, 
but the sixth has iiii ; the 42d has xlviii ; the 48th and 
49th have both xlvii ; firom the 90th to the 100th the 
numbers are lc, lci, &c. instead of xc, xci, &c. ; the 209th 
has ccxY, and the 215th has ccix (here, at the top of the 
page, in the running title, instead of Trigesimo, there is 
Trioemo); the 25ist has ccxxxvi. The poem ends on the 
reverse of cclix, on which are six stanzas only and the co- 
lophon : 

Finisse Orlando Furioso de Ludouico Ariosto : 
Stampato in Ferrara per Giouanni Battista da la 



Pigna Milanese (sic, that is, Milanese), A di. xui. 

de Febraro. M. D. XXI. 

The raster is from a to &, and A to I, each of eight leaves, 
marked from i to iiii, with the exception of I, which has only 
i and 5, and (in this copy) three leaves, instead of four, as it 
ought. By an error of the binder, sig. I is put before H ; hence I 
hare concluded that this is the copy from the Crevenna 
library, which sold for 32 francs, and of which the present 
possessor was unknown. This copy forms part of the col- 
lection of Mr. QuiN, which he bequeathed to the library of 
Trinity College, Dublin, where I examined it as well as I 
could during the short period I was allowed, consistently with 
the absurd, illiberal, and worse than monkish conditions, 
which that gentleman attached to his bequest, and which are 
unworthy of a scholar and a man of education, as he must 
have been. The volume is cut very close, and stained ; but 
is highly valuable, as only one other copy is known, which is 
described as perfect, and exists in the Angelica at Rome. Its 
extreme rarity will be my apology for adding a few particulars 
of the edition. 

The paper is tolerably fair, the types Roman, larger than 
those of 1 5 1 6, nearer 1532, and without accents. The colon (:) 
is often used instead of the comma (,). The form is smaller 
than either 1516 or 1532. The lines commence with a 
small letter, but the stanzas with a capital. The cantos are 
simply distinguished by the progressive number at the be- 
ginning, generally in capitals. The first letter of a canto is 
small, in a space, as if to be illuminated; the next is a capital 
(as is also the case in the first edition), for instance : 

i Ngiustissimo Amor per che si raro 

corrispondenti fai nostri disiri ? 
onde perfido auien che ti e si caro 
il discorde uoler che in dui cor miri ? 

Sometimes the first three lines are indented, and the first 
letter lower down, thus : 


Hi mi dara la uoce e le parole 

c conuenienti a si nobil suggetto 

chi lale al uerso prestera : che uole 

tanto ch arriui a lalto mio concetto, &c. 
This edition, I am inclined to pronounce incorrect The 
following I obsenred among other errors : 
C. X. St. 22, line 1. (C. xii. sU 18, line 1, of 1532.) 

Tosto che pon dentro a \&foglia il piede. 
C. XIV. St. 3, line 6. (C. xvi. st. 3, line 6, of 1532 ) 

ferito : ouuqre ua porta la freccia. 
And St. 5, line 1. 

Dico la bella historia ripiglando. 
C. XXXIV. St. 75, line 5. (C. xxxViii. st 75, fine 5, of 1532.) 

comhatrer senza spada fur daccordo. 
It is to be remarked, that the preposition di is generally 
either spelt so, or de, even before a vowel, and not with an 
apostrophe : for instance : 

di amoroso disio luna empie il core 

chi bee de laltra senza amor rimane 

e uolge tutto in giaccio il primo ardore 

Rinaldo gusto de una, &c. 
Some other observations on two or three particular passages 
in this edition, and on its orthography, will be fimnd in |he 
notes annexed to the poem. 



Orlando Furioso di Ludouico Ariosto nobile 
Ferrarese ristampato & con molta diligentia da 
lui corretto & quasi tutto formato di nuouo & 

Underneath a wood-cut, which does not seem to have any 
reference to the Furioso, and beneath it : 


Se vendano alia botecha di Legnano al segno 

de Langelo. 4to. 

The title-page is in black and red ink. On the reverse is a 
wood-cut representing Orlando on horseback. The poem 
b^^ on the recto of A ii. It is printed in two columnsi con- 
taining eleven stanzas on each page. The leaves are nam" 
bered in Roman, and the poem concludes on the reverse of 
CLXXXix with the following colophon : 

^ Finisse Orlando Furioso de Ludouico Ario- 
sto : Stampato in Milano per Augustino da Vi- 
mercato alle spexe de Messere lo. lacobo 8c fra- 
telli de Legnano Nel. M.D. XXIIII. a di. XXII. 
de Aprile. 

Under this the Register from A to &. 

Tutti sono quaderni excetto. &. che Terno. 

Then follows the sixth leaf of &, with two wood-cuts on the 
recto, which do not seem connected with the poem, and on 
the reverse Leonano's device. 

On perusing several of the editions divided into only forty 
cantos, I observed that sometimes they followed the text of 
1516, others that of J 521. I have selected as tests, the fol- 
lowing passages, which are ^ven here with a progressive 
numeration ; which will enable me to point out, by re- 
ferring to these numbers, whether an edition follows 1516 or 

I. St. 62, c. xvii. (which is under the same number in c. xix. 
according to the edit, of 1532,) was added in the edit, of 1621, 
and is not in 1516. 

II. St. 81 and S2, c. xxiii. (which are under the same num- 
bers, c. XXV. in the edit, of 1532,) are likewise added in the 
edit of 1521, and are not in 1516. 

III. St. 6 to 10 of c. XXX. (which are 6 to 10 of c. xxzii. in 
the edit, of 1532,) are added in 1521, and are not in 1516. 

IV. The last two lines of st. 5, c. xl. (st. 7, c'xlvi. in 1532,) 


tre formed of names in the lingular number in 1516, but 
plural in 1521. 

y. The seventh Une of st 6, c. zl» (st. 10, c. 1532,) 
is as follows in 1516: 

Locchio del mirar fiso in si bei volti ; 
in 1521 it reads 

Del splendore ofluscato de bei volti. 

VI. The first three lines of st 7 in that canto (7th aiso of 
xlvi. in 1532,) areas follows in 1516 : 

Mario Equicolo k quel che gli k piu appresso 

Che stringe i labri e manda in su le ciglia 

£ fa con man di tutti i detti d esso ; 
The edition of 1521 reads : 

Vegho Nicolo Tiepoli & con esso 
Nicolo Amanio in me affissar le ciglia 
Mario doluito cbe uedermi appresso. 

VII. In the 8th st. of that canto (13th of c. xlvi. in 1532,) 
the name of 

* Vida Cremonese* 

has been substituted in the edition of 1521 to that of 
' Bosso Cremonese,* 

which occurs in 1516. 

VIII. In the 10th st. of that canto (16th of c. xlvi. in 
1532,) the name 

* Furgoso* 

occurs in 16, instead of 

. • Fulgoso/ 

which is used in 1521. 

IX. Between st. 50 and 51 of c. xl. a stanza occurs in the 
edit of 1516, which was omitted in that of 1521. It is also 
omitted in 1532 : it should be between st 97 and 98 of c. xlvi. 

This edition of 1524 agrees in every one of these instances 
with 1521. It may be as well to observe, that the re- 
verse of leaf 37, by a mistake in imposing the types, was 


printed on the retro of leaf 35 : and the reverse of leaf 35 
was put on the reverse of leaf 37. 



Orlando Fvrioso di Lvdovico Ariosto Nobile 

Ferrarese ristampato et con molta diligentia da 

Ivi corretto et qvasi tvtto formato di nvovo et am- 

pliato. Cvm gratie et privilegii. M.D.XXVII. 4to. 
This title, almost all in red ink, is surrounded by a frame, 
haidng several groups, as usual, of the mallet and hatchet tied 
together by a snake, and the motto, pro bono malvm, in the 
comers, all in black ink. On the reverse, the hive and the bees, 
suirounded by the same border. On the next leaf, marked 
Ilsig. A ii, begins the poem, printed in fine Roman characters; 
the pages consisting of two columns, containing five stanzas in 
each. The stanzas are separated by a blank space, and the 
cantos by their progressive numbers. The leaves are num- 
bered, and the poem concludes, on the recto of ccviii, with the 
following colophon : 

Finisse Orlando Furioso de Ludouico Ariosto : 

Stampato in linclita Citta di Venetia Per Madonna 

Helisabetta de Rusconi Nel. M.D.XXVII. Adi. 

XXVII. De Zugno Regnante linclyto Principe 

Andrea Gritti. Con Hcentia del ditto auttore. 

Then the Register from A to Z, and from A A to C C, 

Tutti sono quaderni. 

On the reverse, the hive and the bees, with the frame, as on 
the verso of the title-page. It follows the text of 1521. 



Orlando Fvrioso di Lvdovico Ariosto Nobile 
Ferrarese ristampato et con molta diligentia da Ivi 


corretto et qvasi tvto formato di nvovo et ampliato 

Cum grade : & priuilegii. M.D. XXVIII. 4to. 

Th!B title-page, printed almost all In red, is surrounded by the 
frame, containing the groups of hatchet, hammer, and serpent, 
in black, and the motto, pro bono malvm, in the comers, in 
red ink. On the reverse is a sonnet of Giouan Battista 
Dragon ZINC da Fang, 

A lo eccellente messer Ludouico Ariosto da 



8 £ dar si deue rhonorata fronde 

In corona di Lauro triomphale, &c. 

on the recto of leaf II ; sig. A ii begins the poem. The first 
page contuns eight stanzas, the others ten, in two columns. 
The whole poem, occupies cc?iii leaves, numbered with Ro- 
man numerals ; and on the recto of the last, containing only 
six stanzas, is the colophon : 

Finisse Orlando Furioso de Ludovico Ariosto, 
da Ferrara, nouarnente impresso nella inclita citta 
di FiRENZE Nel. M.D. XXVIII. Adi. XXV. Del 

mese di Luio. 

Beneath is the register from A to Z, and from AA to C C 

Tutti sono quaderni ; 
and on the reverse the same frame as in the title-page, sur- 
rounding the hive, all in black. 

The edition supposed of Ferrara, 1528, is this same of Flo- 
rence, with an altered colophon : It stands as follows in the 
copy belonging to the Right Hon. T. Grenville : 

Finisse Orlando Furioso de L vdovico Ariosto, da 

Ferrara, nouarnente impresso nel M.D.XXVIII. 

Adi. XXV. Del mese di Luio. 

That the two books are copies of the same edition, there 
is no doubt. There are, however, some slight differences in 
the title. In the copy without the word Firenze, the word 


DILIGENTIA u spelt with a Greek T instead of a T, m 
well as A instead of A, and OA is written instead of DA. 

It has been observed that the last stanza of c. i. is not like 
that of the edidon of 1516, but Uke that of 1532. Tins is 
not a peculiarity; for the editions of 1524 and 1527 read the 
same ; consequently the observation ofFRANc£scoNitoMEL- 
zi, that this edition of 1528 presented various readings, is not 
correct. There is very little doubt that the alteration of this 
stanza was introduced by Ariosto in the edition of 1521. 
The various readings in the edition of the classics of Milan 
would lead us to believe that the edition of 1521 has the Ist 
and 5th line like 1516, but not the 3d. Yet the third line, 
too, must be like 1516 in 1521, else the rhyme would be 
&ulty. It is, therefore, evident that, according to the plan of 
the classics edition, an asterisk should have been prefixed to 
this line also, or no asterisk at all put to the 1st and 5th, which 
would have been more correct. It is also incorrect to say that 
this edition follows the text of 1516 throughout ; as far as I 
have been able to compare, it follows that of 1521. 

The description above was written before I had the oppor- 
tunity of examining the edition of 1521 in Dublin, and I 
found that the stanza in question had been in fact altered 
in it, as I suspected. I am of Morali's opinion, that no 
alteration was introduced in the Furioso between 1521 and 



Orlando Furioso di Ludouico Ariosto nobile 

Ferrarese Ristampato & con molta diligentia da 

lui Corretto : £t quasi tutto formato di nuouo & 

ampliato. 4to. 

This title is almost all in red ink, semi-gothic letters, with a 
blackborderwood'Cut. The reverse is blank. The poem begins 
on the recto of leaf II. sig. A ii, and is printed in two columns 
each page, and five stanzas each column. It occupies ccviii 


let? et| numbered with Roman numerals. The poem conduces 
on the recto of ccviii, with this colophon : 

^ Finisse Orlando Furioso deLudouico Ariosto: 
Stampato in linclita Citta di Venetia, per Marchio 
Sessa. Nel. M.D. XXX. Adi. XII. Septembrio. 

Regnante linclito Principe Andrea Gritti. 
Then the Register, from A to Z, and from A A to C C, 

Tutti sono quaderni * %+* carte ii. 
and on the reverse the device of Sessa in a fiwne. 

The poem is printed in fine Roman characters. The stanzas 
are only separated by a blank space, the cantos by their 
progressive nnmbers. It follows the edition of 1521. 

I have seen a copy of the Furioio, made up of the two 
editions, 1527 and this, which very much resemble each 
other, and afford facilities for deception in consequence. The 
page of 1527 is somewhat shorter than this of 1530 ; and 
the former has a kind of trefoil leaf on both sides of the 
number of the cantos in the running title, at the top of the 
page, whilst the latter has the single numbers in Roman 
numerals. Moreover, in the edition of 1527, the colon (prO' 
perly :) is used instead of almost any other stops, whilst it 
never occurs in the Sessa edition, which abounds in comas (,)• 



Orlando Fvrioso di Lvdovico Ariosto Nobile 
Ferrarese, con somma diligenza tratto dal suo 
fedelissimo esemplare, historiato, corretto, et 
nuouamente stampato. 4to. 

This title-page, mostly in red ink and italics, is surrounded 
by a frame in black, representing the usual group of the 
hammer, hatchet, and snake ; the words pro bono malw, 
distributed in the sides, are in red; and the date also, 
which is about the middle, MD on the left, and XXX on the 
right. A wood- cut, intended for a portrait of Ariosto, as we 


may judge JGnom the initials over it, is on the title. On the 
reverse occurs a curious letter printed in italics, of Zoppino 
to the readers. On the recto of a ii begins the poem, each 
page containing tyro columns, with five stanzas in each. The 
characters of this edition are very neat and fine, and the paper 
thick. There is a small wood-cut filling the space of a stanza 
at the beginning of each canto.* The poem occupies ccx 
leaves, numbered with Roman numerals. It ends on the re- 
verse of leaf ccx, with the word finis, then the three lines, 
Qttt ne tuberibuSf &c. and the colophon : 

Starapato in Vinegia per Nicolo d' Aristotile 

di Ferrara detto Zoppino del mese dl Nouembrio. 

M.D.XXX. La sua botega si ^ sul campo della 

Madonna di san Fantino. 

Then follows the register from a to z, and from A to D, 

Tutti sono quaderni, eccetto D che e duerno ; 
and underneath a St. Nicholas on wood, the patron of Zoppino. 
The recto of the next leaf Is blank. On the reverse is repeated 
the same frame as in the title-page, all in black, with the hive 
in the middle ; the word YENETIIS at the top, and the date 
MDXXX at the bottom. The fourth leaf of D is wanting in 
this copy, which was most probably blank. 

This edition follows 1516 with respect to N. i. iii. v. and 
VII. ; and with respect to N. ii. iv. vi. viii. and ix., it agrees 
with the edition of 1521. 



Orlando Fvrioso di Lvdovico Ariosto Nobile 

* Baruffaldi observed, speaking of an edition of the 
poem by Zoppino, dated 1536, that this printer was the first 
to prefix wood-cuts to each canto of the Furioso ; which, if 
true, he had begun to do long before the time referred to by 
Baruffaldi, to whom the present edition was unknown, as 
it was also to Morali. 


Ferrarese, Con somma diligenza tratto dal suo 
fedelissimo essemplare, Nouamente ristampato & 

Uoder this title» which is duefly printed with red ink, is a 
wood-cut portrait of Ariosto in black ink, copied from the one 

in ZoPPiNo's edition of 1530. The year M.D. XXXI. in 

red, is placed on the right and left of the portrait. A wood- 
cot frame, in black ink, surrounds the whole. 4to. 

On the reverse of the title-page is a pedantic letter of Pasini, 
" AIH Nobeli Lettori." On the recto of the following leaf, sig. 
A ii, the poem b^ns, in fine Rinnan character ; each page con- 
sists of two columns, with five stanias in each. The stanzas 
are separated by a blank space, and each begins with a capital 
letter, which is not the case with the lines. The cantos are 
separated by their pn^ressive numbers. Neither the pages 
nor the leaves are numbered ; but there is the register ; and 
the poem concludes on the recto of the last leaf of CC, with 
this colophon, after the word finis : 

Stampato in Vinegia a santo Moyse nelle case 

nuoue lustiniane, per Francesco di Alessandro 

Bindoni, & Mapbeo Pasini, compagnL Nel anno 

del Signore. M. D. XXXI. Del mese di Genaro. 

Then the R^ter from A to Z, and from AA to CC, 

Tutti sono quademi. 
On the reverse the hive and bees, with the motto, pro bono 
MALVM, alongside, both on the right and left hand, the word 
Venetiis on the top, and the date, M.D.XXXI. at the bottom; 
the whole surrounded by a wood-cut, like the title. This 
edition follows the text of 1521. 



Orlando Fvrioso di Messer Lvdovico Ariosto 


Nobile Ferrarese nvovamente da Ivi proprio cor- 
retto e d' altri canti nvovi ampliato con gratie e 
privilegii. 4>to. 

The title, aa above, is printed in red, and surrounded by a 
well>executed wood-cut, representing armorial trophies, on the 
sides, and ^ntastical centaurs with a mask between two tnakes 
and two serpents interlaced in the centre, on the upper part. 
The lower is occupied by two grotesque sea-horses, with a 
Cupid on each, an eagle in the centre, and the name of the 
engraver is separated by the head of the bird, thus : f. de — 
NANTO ; the letters appearing white. On the reverse is the 
privilege of Clement YII. to Ariosto, for this edition, dated 
on the Slst of January, 1532, and also that of Charles V., 
dated October 17th, 15t31. The poem begins on the following 
page, sig. Aii, which has only seven stanzas. It is printed in 
Roman letters, each page contuns two columns, with five 
stanzas in each, except at the beginning of a new canto, when 
the column has only four stanzas, owing to the space occupied 
by the arabesque letter with which the cantos begin. The 
stanzas are separated by a narrow white space. The poem con- 
cludes on the reverse of the sixth leaf of sig. h, on which are 
only nine stanzas, five in the first, and four in the second 
column. In the space which is left blank at the end of the 
second column, in some copies, the words, pro bono malvm, 
only occur, (as in the vellum copy belonging to Ma. Gren- 
viLLE ;) others have a rude wood-cut representing a she-wolf 
suckling a young one. Such is the case in the paper copy of 
this edition belonging to Mr. Hanrott. On the recto of the 
seventh leaf of h, the portrait of Ariosto drawn by Tiziano, 
surrounded by the same border as the title-page, by De Nanto, 
and on the reverse the privilege of the Doge of Venice, dated 
on the 14th of January, 1527, followed by that of the Duke of 
Milan, of the 20th of July, 1531 ; to which moreover is added r 

^ £ la medesima gratia hanno concesso all* Au- 
thore r Illustrissimi Duel di Ferrara di Mantua 
e d' Vrbino, & altre potentie : come in altri priui- 


legi si contiene, che per non aggiungere piu carte al 

volume si son lasciati d' imprimere. 

On the recto of the following leaf there is the colophon : 
Impresso in Ferrara per maestro Francesco 

Rosso da Valenza, a di primo d' Ottobre. M.D. 


Then the register from A to Z, and from a to h, J 

^ Tutti quest! sono quademi. 
Beneath these words a wood-cut representing two vipers, with 
a hand over, holding a pair of shears, with which the tongue 
of one is cut off; the hand being directed to perform the same 
operation on the other, with the motto dilexisti malitiam 
SUPER BENIONITATEM. The reverse of this leaf is blank. 
The volume is not numbered, but firom the register it appears 
that a perfect copy has 248 leaves. 

The value of the text of this edition is particularly noticed 
in the life of the Poet. Bibliographers have often described 
it; butGAMBAis the only one who has observed, that the 
border was cut in wood by one De Nan to, of whom that 
bibliographer has not given us any particulars, and, there- 
fore, the following may not be deemed irrelevant. Zani, 
EncicL Met deUe Bel, Arti, part. L vol. vii. pag. 396, con- 
fesses that he has no information respecting tlie life of this 
engraver, on whom he passes a high enconuum. He de- 
scribes a border engraved by him for the following book: 
Bessarionis Niceni CardinaUs orationes de gravissimis peri- 
culis, quae Reip. Christianse a Turca iam providebat .... 
Romse in sedibus Frandsci Priscianensis Florentini, 1543. 
From the description and the measurement which he gives of 
the engraving, there is no doubt whatever that the same blocks 
were used at Rome in 1543 for that border, as were employed 
for this edition of Ariosto at Ferrara, in 1532. Zani says 
of this work of art : II lavoro e ben inventato, ed il taglio d 
bello. No other writer has mentioned it. FiJssLi, Allge- 
meines Kunstlerlexikon, 1791, pag. 462, col. 2, registers De 
Nanto under the name of Nano or Nanto, without giving 


any authority for this alteration of the name, but only referring 
to Papillon, pag. 202. Zani has the name Denan among 
others ; but refers to Denon, and says that the former is 
an erroneous name instead of the latter. As for PapilloNj 
vol. i. pag. 202y he only says, " Frandscus De Nanto a 
beaucoup giav6 d'aprds le Titien ;" and he quotes the first 
.italogue of Maroles. In this first catalogue, of 1666, 
pag. 34, occurs the name of ' Frandscus De Nano ;' and pag. 
152, among the 'Pieces en bois de divers vieuz maitres,' 
there is mentioned ' Frandscus De Nanto.' But it is not 
said that De Nano and De Nanto are the same person ; nor 
is it S£ud that this artist, < a beaucoup grav6 d'aprds le 
Titien.' Far from haWng engraved a great deal, it seems 
that few works of his are known. Bryan had altogether 
omitted him, but has inserted his name in his supplement, as 
*' An engraver on wood, who flourished about the year 1530. 
Among others, we have a lai^ wooden cut by him, repre- 
senting Christ healing the lame man. It is executed in a spirited, 
tastefiil style, and is probably firom a design of his own, as it 
is inscribed : Franciscus Denanto de Sabaudia." It is 
to be regretted that the other wood-cuts, so slightly alluded 
to, have not been more spedfically mentioned. Bryan ap- 
pears to have followed Strutt, voL i. pag. 248 ; who, in 
his description of the same work, says : " Part of the back- 
ground is performed in a very singular manner : small round 
holes, close to each other, were punched into the block of 
wood, which in the impression make a multitude of white 
spots, and the effect of them is by no means unpleasant" 
This nuinner of executing the back ground is adopted in the 
border to the title of Ariosto. But it is not so very singular, 
as here asserted, and occurs in the works of other artists. 

Of works undoubtedly by De Nanto, there are three others : 
the Burial of Christ, which is registered by Zani, part ii. 
voL ix. pag. 31, as very good and very rare, not only engraved, 
but also drawn by him ; the Nativity, by Tizi and, mentioned in 
the catabgue of engravings firom Tiziano in the BihUoth^que 
du Rri at Paris, and added to the Notices of the Life and 

BIB. NOT. * B 


Worki qf Titian, 8vo. London, 1829, pag. iv. and a land- 
scape, with naked boys, once in the collection of Thomas 
Lloyd, Esq., has been pointed out to me by Francis DoucEt 
Esq. If the mark D > N were proved to be De Nanto's, one 
more engraving might be added to this list; but Zani, partii. 
vol. V. pag. 296, contends, that an engraving, with that mark, 
generally siud to be after Tiziano, is neither drawn by this 
painter, nor engraved by an Italian ; and he affirms that the 
mark is merely mercantile. If the mark were D ' N instead 
of D'4~N, as possibly may be the case, it would clearly mean 
Franciscus De Nanto. There is a landscape mentioned, 
pag. 86, of the catalogue already quoted, of engravings after 
Tiziano, which may be by De Nanto, as there is the initial 
D in it, as will appear from the description : '* A landscape; 
in the back-ground of it a town, vfith a water mill; in 
fh>nt to the right, four children, and a dog near a stone, on 
which is the letter D." 

It is doubtful whether De Nanto be a fiimily name, or a 
surname taken by the artist, from his native place, Nantms, in 
Savoy. The Italian artists in the sixteenth century, generally 
took their surnames from their native town, but not from 
the province in which the place of their birth was situated. 

Gamba considered De Nanto as the undoubted engraver 
of the portrait, (which is quite separate from the border,) and 
supposed that probably he had engraved the border, on which 
is his name. The portrait is exquisitely well drawn, and in a 
style hx superior to the border ; and even if De Nanto en- 
graved both, he has no claim to the drawing of the former, 
although he may have drawn the latter. Competent judges 
(amongst others, Mr. Ottley) have agreed that it was drawn 
by Tiziano, without being aware of the following proof of 
the fact In a letter of Verdizotti, a pupil of Tiziano, 
dated February 27, 1588, to Orazio Ariosti, a nephew of 
the Poet, the following words occur : Or veda V. S. quanto io 
amo e stimo questo suo parente, del quale le mando un riiratto 
in carta stampata di due copie che mi dond gik reccellentissimo 
Tiziano, che lo dipinse, e ne fece anco questo disegno 


nel primo libro cbe n stampd del suo Furioso, o per dhr megUo 
nette pritae edizioni. This o per dir meglio, coupled with the 
feet, that of the three editUma published by the author, only 
that of 1532 has the portrait of the Poet, proves it to be the 
one drawn by Tiziano. Part of this letter of Verdizgtti was 
published by Baeuffaldi {V. di A. p. 251,) from the original 
in the library at Ferrara. The wood-cut in this edition is a 
fac-fllmile of the one of 1582. 

The minute description here g^ven of the original edi- 
tions of the Furioso (the existence of an edition of 1515 is 
now admitted to be an invention,) will afford one more proof 
of the injustice of Fontanini's attack on Ariosto, and of the 
utter disregard of truth, for which that writer was distinguished. 
He says (BibL deW Eloq. ItaL Clas. III. cap. 4.) that 
Abiobto obtained the Pontiff's privilege for the first edition 
of the poem, which did not contain any objectionable passages; 
and that such passages were introduced in a clandestine and 
dexterous (that is, dishonest) manner, by the Poet, on repub- 
lishing the poem in forty-six cantos. Now, besides there being 
a special pririlege for the edition of 1532, it is utterly untrue 
that any objectionable passage was added by Ariosto to the 
last edition of his work, which Fontanini must have known ; 
nor could he have been ignorant of the privilege granted for 
the edition of 1532. 

Fontanini says, that certain heretics should keep in view 
what he says (and which is untrue) before finding fault with 
the Pope ; and he no doubt meant Batle, who in his Art. 
Leo X. (copied by Voltaire), has the following words : 
£toit-ce garder le decorum de la Papaut6 que d'expedier 
une BuUe si fovorable aux Poesies de I'Arioste ? Le Cardinal 
Hippolyte d'Este, k qui TOrlando Furioso de ce podte fut 
dedi6, en jugea trds-bien lorsqu'il demanda & Tauteur : D'oii 
diable avez vous pris tant de iadaises ? Leon X. fut infiniment 
plus dibonnaire pour cette auteur. Then he quotes what 
follows, from Blondel : Presque au meme temps qu'il (Leon) 
ibudroya ses anathlmes contre Martin Luther, il n'eut point 
honte de publier une Bulle en faveur des Poesies profanes de 


Louys Arioste, mena^ant d'excomunication ceux qui les bla- 
meroienti ou empescheroient le profit de Tauteur. Fonta- 
NiNi'a story will not, certainly, do much good to the memory 
of his Holiness. In justice it must be observed, that what 
Blondel says of the Bull threatening excommunicadon to 
any who should blame Ariosto's poem, is not true. As for 
Batle's judgment of Ariobto's poetical merits, and bis 
praises on the Cardinal's coarse question, it is unnecessary to 
comment or discuss. Voltaire's solemn retractation of what 
he had said against Ariosto, precludes any observation : En 
le relisant je I'ai trouv6 aussi sublime que plaisant : et je lui 
fiiit trds-humblement reparation. He, however, wrongly per- 
sisted in saying that Leo had excommunicated those who 
spoke ill of the Furioso, See Diet. Philot. Art. Epopee, FoN- 
TANiNi's dbhonest conduct toward Ariosto was exposed by 
Zeno and Barotti as it deserved. 

In speaking of the. devices adopted by Ariosto in his edi- 
tions of the poem, Fontanini commits another mistake, by 
saying, that in the second edition (meaning the first of 1516), 
he used the emblem of the . two. vipers, and the hand cutting 
off their tongues, and that he substituted that of the hive in the 
third edition, which, according to Fontanini, was that of 1521. 
This is not the fact : the emblem of the hive was used in the 
first; that of the two serpents was first introduced in the third 
edition, that of 1532. Ariosto was so fond of the former of 
these two devices, that he supposed Rinaldo to have had it 
embroidered on his knightly cloak {Cinque Canti, c. v. st. 46). 
It is also to be seen on the reverse of a medal, with Ariosto's 
head on the other side. The meaning was, probably, as .sup- 
posed by Giovio in his treatise DeUe Imprese, of which I shall 
quote an old English translation : " Master Lodouico Aristo, 
(read Ariosto) inuented a notable impresa, figuring a hiue of 
bees with their honie, whom the ungratefull peasant doth stlffle, 
with smoke, bereauing them of life to recover their honie and 
waxe : with this mot. Pro bono malum, signifying thereby, 
as it is thought, how he had been ill intreated of a certaine 
nobleman (the original says : maltrattato da qualche suo pa. 


dnme), which may also bee gessed by Ms satyrs." l%e worthy 
trad of Paulus louiu* contayning a discourse qf rare in- 
uemiiont, both vnlitarie and amorous, called Imprese : where^ 
MMto is added a Preface contayning the Arte of composing 
thewiy with many other notable deuises. By Samuell DanieU 
Late Student in Oxenforde. At London. Printed for Simon 
Waterson, 1585. 

Dolce, in his Dialogo de* Colori, speaks of both these de- 
vices as follows: L'Ariosto essendo nella prima editione del 
sao Furioao stato mono dalla inuidia de' detrattori^ e dipol 
col tempo hauendo la verity come tagliato la lingua a que' 
maligni, conoscendosi il suo poema raro et eccelleate, nella 
seconda (he ought to have said terxa) editione leud questa 
impresa che fece stampare nella fine del libro; due bifde, all' 
una delle quali ^a stata tagliata la lingua, & all' altra che 
gonfiata di ueleno la uibrana, si mostraua di sopra una mano 
con una forbice in atto di tagliaria anche a lei, oon un motto 
che diceua: Dilexisti malitiam super benionitateii. 
Che fu non meno bella impresa di quell' altra, che pose nella 
prima (add e seconda) sua editione subito nella prima carta 
(he should have said dietro la seconda) che fu un alueo di Apl, 
le. quali dall' ingrato uiUano erano &tte fuggire col fuooo, 
quelle procacdando d' ucddere, quantunque elle faauessero 
prodotto il mele» ponendoui il motto pro bono if alvm . This 
emblem, with some slight alteration, and the same motto, Is to 
be seen on the reverse of another medal, in which, however, 
there is only one ^iper instead of two. Baruffaldi (K 
di L. A.f p. 253) very property observes, that the motto, pro 
bono malum, is absurd with this device. In the frontispiece 
of the edition of Zatta, Venice, 1772, 4to. there is a medal of 
Ariosto, having, on the reverse, two vipers by the side of 
each other (Ariosto*s device was of two vipers opposite one 
to the other), and the correct motto ; but that medal never 
existed but in the fimcy of the engraver of that frontispiece. 
It was incorrect to say, as has been done in the Museum 
MazzuchelUanum, that the hand attempts to cut the tongue 
of the viper, whilst it is already cut off, and the part severed 


represented fidling. Both these medals are now befisre me, 
from the King's collection in the British Musemn. The engrav- 
ing of one of them at the head of the third book of Ariosto's 
Lift by Baeuffaldi, is larger than the original, and with the 
words round the head given incorrectly : they are, Ludovicus 
Ariostus (not Areostus) Poet. (This word has been omitted 
in Baruffaldi). The medal engraved in the firontbpiece of 
Z ATTARS edition, isi on the contrary, much smaller than the 
one intended. Mazzuchelli's description u quite correct as 
to sue. 



II Fvrioso Orlando Furioso di messer Lu- 
douico Ariosto nobile Ferrarese Da lui proprio 
con la gionta d' altri canti nuoui ampliato & cor- 
retto. Nuouamente con somma diligentia stam- 
pato. MDXXXIII. 8vo. 

This title, with the exception of the two first words, which 
are in capital letters, is in Italic, from the word Orlando to the 
word Nuottamentet in red, the remainder being in black ink. A 
wood-cut border surrounds this page: the upper part represents 
a combat, the outer side a soldier full armed, with the exception 
of his head, carrying a lance (with his left hand) as a sentinel, 
with the following letters engraved on the pedestal on which 
he stands : * A N. C ; the inner side (considerably narrower 
than the ether) has also a soldier full armed, with the hehnet on 
his head, and a lance resting on the ground with its butt-end, 
but which he grasps with both hands, and having on the 
pedestal the letters : 'SP* The lower part represents the sea 

vnih two ships, and a town burning on the shore. On the 
walls are the letters *C AR*. The reverse is blank. The poem 
begins on the recto of the next leaf, sig. A ii. It is printed in 
Gothic types, each page containing two columns, with five 
stanzas in each. The cantos are distinguished only by their 
progressive numbers, and the stanzas are separated by a blank 


space, and begin with a capital letter ; the ▼enes beg^n with a 
small letter. The pages are not numbered, and the poem con- 
dudes on the repto of the fourth leaf of HH. The colophon 
comes immediately after : 

Finisse Orlando Furioso di Messer Ludouico 
Ariosto da Ferrara, nuouamente da lui proprio 
con la gionta d* altri canti nuoui ampliato et cor- 
retto, Stampato in Vinegia, appresso santo Moyse 
al segno de 1' Angelo Raphaello, per Francesco 
di Alessandro Bindoni & Mapheo Pasini com- 
pagni, Nelli anni del Signore. MDXXXIK. Del 
mese di Agosto, Regnante il Serenissimo Principe 

messer Andrea Gritti. 

Then the register, from A to Z, and from AA to HH^ 

Tutti sono quaderni eccetto HH che e duemo. 
Then a wood-cut with the device of the printers, yiz. the Angel 
Raphael leading a man. The reverse has a portrait of 
Ariosto, like those of the edition of 1530, by Zopfiho, and 
1531, Bindoni and Pasini, surrounded by a frame, with the 
hatchet, the snakes, and the mallet; the motto, PRO Bono 
MALVM, in the corners; and the back-ground covered with 
small round white spots, formed by holes being made in the 
block, after the manner of De Nanto. I bdieve this to be the 
only copy known of this edition of the Fwrioto, 



Orlando Fvrioso di Messer Lvdovico Ariosto 
nobile Ferrarese nvovamente da Ivi proprio cor- 
retto e daltri canti nvovi ampliato nvovaniente 


Then a wood-cut of Ariosto from 1532, and, beneath it, only, 

MDXXXV. 4to. 


The reverae of this title, almost all in red ink, u blank. The 
poem begins on the second leaf, sig. A ii, and concludes on the 
recto of 244, fourth of sig. h. After the word Finis, comes 
the register from A to Z ; and from a to h, 

Tutti questi sono quaderni eccetto h che duerno. 
Then the colophon : 

Finisse il Libro Chiamato Orlando Furioso. 

Stampato in Vinegia per Aluise Torti. Nelli anni 

del Signore. M.D.XXX V. Adi. XXI. del mese de 

Marzo. Regnante linclito Principe Andrea Griti. 
The reyerse is blank. Each page consists of two columns, con- 
taining five stanzas in each. The cantos, as well as the stanzas, 
are disdnguished by a blank space, and a capital letter, larger 
for the cantos than for the stanzas. The lines begin with a 
small letter. The 2d, 7th, 8th, 9th, and 10th leaves, are num- 
bered ; then no more ciphers occur till the 193d lea^ which 
is numbered, as well as those that follow, to the end of the 



Orlando Furioso di Miser Lvdovico Ariosto 
con la noua giunta, & le notationi di tutti gli 
luoghi, doue per lui e stato tal opra ampliata: come 
nella noua Tauola nel fine per ordine vedere si 

puole, Stampato e corretto. 

Under this a wood-cut of Ariosto from 1532, and beneath : 
Impresso per Aluuise de Torti. MDXXXVI. 


The reverse of the title-page is blank. The poem begins on 
the recto of A ii, leaf ii. The leaves are numbered through- 
out vnih Roman numerals, from ii to ccxliiii, on the recto of 
which the poem ends. On the same page is the following 
colophon : 

Finisse Orlando Furioso di Messer Ludouico 


Ariosto da Ferrara, nuouamente da lui proprio 
con la nuoua giunta 3! altri canti nuoui ampliato 
& corretto, Stampato in Vinegia, per Aluuise de 
Torti. NelliannidelSignore. MDXXXVI. Del 
xnese di Setember, Regnante il Serenissimo Prin- 
cipe Messer Andrea Gritti. 
Then the register from A to Z ; and from AA to HH, 

Tutti sono quaderni eccetto HH che e temo. 
The reverse is blank. On the recto of the following leaf (fifth 

Notationi delli Ivoghi dove sono le stanze nuoue 

aggiunte per Messer Ludouico Ariosto con le 

materie lori. £t per ordine qui poste, senza 

molte altre stanze per il detto auttore mutate. 
These notationi are concluded. about the end of the second 
column on the next page, simply with the word 

The sixth and last leaf of HH is wanting. The book is printed 
in small semi-gothic type, with the exception of the title-page, 
which is in Roman. There are two columns in each page, 
and five stanzas in each column. The stanzas and cantos are 
distinguished only by a blank space. The lines begin with a 
small letter, and the stanzas with a capital. 



Orlando Fvrioso di Messer Lvdovico Ariosto 
Nobile Ferrarese, di nuouo ristampato, & histo- 
riato : con ogni diligenza dal suo originale tolto : 
con la i' uoua giunta : & le notationi di tutti gli 
luoghi, doue per lui e stato tal opra ampliata: 
come nella noua Tauola nel fine per ordine ve- 
dere si puole. 



238, by the tame mistake as was noticed in the foregoing 
edition. The poem ends with the words : 

On the recto of 247 (not numbered) begin the 

Notation! delli loghi dove sono le stanze nuoue 

aggiunte con le materie lori. £t per me 

Marco Guazzo per ordine qui poste . . • • £t 

anchora per ine delli ertori che per difetto de 

stampa gli erano occorsi e tutta V opera purgata. 
This concludes simply with finisse at the end of the next 
page. On the recto of the following leaf is the Register from 
A to Z, and from AA to HH, 

Then the colophon : 

In Vinegia per Benedetto de Bendonis De V 

Isella del Lago magiore. Ne V Anno del Signore. 

MDXXXVII. a di primo Marzo. Regnante 1* 

Inclito Principe Messer Andrea Griti. 
Beneath is the device of Bendonis. The reverse is blank. This 
copy is quite perfect. The book is printed in fine Roman let- 
ters, five stanzas in each column, and two columns in each page* 
At the beginning of each canto is a wood-cut of the size of a 
stanza, like those (but not the same) used by Zoppino in his 
edition of 1530, with the exception of the one preceding 
Canto I., which in this edition is much larger, and in a different 
style from the rest. 



Orlando Fvrioso di Messer Lodovico Ariosto 
Nobile Ferrarese, di nuouo ristampato, & hi- 
storiato : Con ogni diligenza dal suo Originale 
tolto : Con la nuoua giunta : £t le notationi di 


tutti li luoghi, doue per lui e stato tal Opra am- 
pliata : come nella noua Tauola nel fine per or- 
dine vedere si puole. 

Underneath the portrait of Artosto, wood-cut from 1532. 4to. 
The reverse of the title-page (ahnost all in red ink) is blank. 
The poem beg^is on the recto of leaf 2, sig. A ii. The leaves 
are numbered ; but, on account of the error before mentioned, 
the poem concludes on the reverse of 238, which should be 
246, being the sixth leaf of HH. At the end there are only 
the words : 

On the recto of 247 (not marked) begin the 

Notation! delli Ivoghi dove sono le stanze nuoue 

aggiunte per messer Ludouico Ariosto con le ma- 

terie lori per me Marco Guazzo • . • . Et an- 

chora per me delli errori che per diffetto de Stampa 

gli erano occcorsi e tutta V opera purgata. 
These fwtationi occupy both sides of that leaf, and conclude 
with the word finisse. On the recto of the next leaf there 
is the Register from A to Z, and from AA to HH, 

Tutti son Quademi : 
then the colophon : 

In Venetia per Domenego Zio, & Fratelli Ve- 

neti. Ne Y anno del nostro Signore. M D XXXIX. 

del mese di Aprile. 

Under this the device of the printer, containing the initials 
V. D. z. F. (the third of these being a Z upside down). The 
reverse is blank. 

The copy in the collection of the Earl Spencer, and now 
before me, described by the Rev. Dr. Dibdin, is made up of this 
and of the edition by NicoLiNi, 1540, in which the numbers 
of dg. S and T. not being repeated, the poem concludes on 
the reverse of 246. These two editions much resemble each 
other : yet that of Zio has capital letters only at the be- 


leaning of each itansa, and that of Nicolini has them at the 
beginning of each line : the numbers of cantos at the top of 
the page are in Roman numerals in Zio's, but expressed in 
words in NicoLiNi's. Both have wood-cuts at the begin- 
ning of each canto, like those in Bendonis's edition, 1537, 
and are both printed ^n Roman characters ; they have two 
columns iu each page/and five stanzas in each Column, with 
a blank space to separate the stanzas. 



Orlando Furioso de Ludouico Ariosto Nobile 

Under these words the hive and bees, with the usual frame 
and motto. 4to. 

The reverse of the title-page is blank ; the poem begins on 
the recto of next leaf, marked II, sig. aii. It is printed in 
Roman character, rather worn, two columns in each page, 
and five stanzas in each column. The stanzas are separated 
by a narrow blank space, and begin with a capital preceded 
by C: The lines have no capital at the beginning. The 
cantos are separated by their progressive number. The poem 
concludes on the recto of CCVIII, which, by a mistake, be- 
ginning on leaf CC (marked only C) is numbered CVIII. Co 
the same page : 

^ Finisse Orlando Furioso de Ludouico Ario- 
sto da Ferrara: ^ Impressum Mediolani. 

Then the Registe", from a to z & o]^. 

^ Tutti sono quatterni. Car. 52. 

The reverse is blank. Dr. Dibdin has already judged this to 
be an edition by Scinzenzeler ; and I am of the same 
opinion. It was, perhaps, intended to correspond with the In- 
namorato printed the same year in that city, and probably by 
the same printer. The initial O in the word Orlando in 


the title-page, of a very pmJiar and ilaaiiij tmm, u Bke tint 
used in the editioo of the Pcuoao of 1524, deaoi 

This very remaAaMe edition wwifajnt eke poesi as k 
at first published, divided into fiMty caaios only, it 
with the edition of 1516 with mpect to Nol L IV. (eaoept the 
words Catherine and Leomare^ vrhkh are Eke 1521) ¥. TL 
VII. and Vin. ; but it fiillows the editioa of 1521 
No. II. III. and IX. It wooU be lEffiodt Id explain 
after the edition of 1532, an edition Eke this dbouU be 
iished. I bdieve no later e^tion of the pocao, divided into 
forty cantos, is known. 



Orlando Fvrioso di Messer LTdoTioo Ariosto 

Di Nuouo listampatOy & historiato : con ogni dDi- 

genza dal suo originale tollo : con la naoaa giimta, 

& le notationi ditutti gli luoghi, dooe per loi e stato 

tal opra ampliata: come ndla noaa Taaola net 

fine per ordine si uede. 

Underneath a portrait ci AaiosTO, Eke that in the e£iion of 
1536 by the same printer, and then aoonthraation of the title, 
as follows : 

Con Vna Apol(^a di M. Lodouico Dolcio contra 

a i detrattori dell' Autore, et vn modo breuissimo 

di trouar le cose aggiunte. e Tauola di tutto qnello 

eh* e contenute nel Libro. Aggiiintoni vna breue 

expositione de i luc^hi difficili. Con soma dili- 

gentia stampato & corretto. M. D. XXXIX. 8vo. 
The reverse of this page is blank. The poem begins on 
the recto of leaf II, nnmbered, rig. A ii. It is printed in small 
semi-gothic tjrpc ; each page contains two oolomns, and each 
column five stanzas. The stanzas are distingnished one fimn 
the other by a blank space, and a capital letter at the beginning 
of each. The lines begin with a small letter. There are wood- 


cuUlike tboMof ZappiHouidBKiiDONia(but not tbeiuie) 
■t ibe beginniDg of each cuito. The teavea *re numbertd in 
AoaMn, and the poem coneludei od ihe reverae of CCXLIS, 
■ig. II iii. On ihe Tedo of the fbllowiog loT, nol Dombered, 
bepni Ihe AfOLOoiA Dl M. LoDovico DOLCio, which con- 
dudes abiuptly an the levene of the Mh leaf of II, nilh 
thue woids: 

Ma Be questi voglion risponder : cbe cio ei con- 
cede nela Latins lingua di cui sintende. 
And immedialelr >fter the worda 

Not only more than one half of Dolce's jlpotogia a want- 
ing, but the wotda tramcribed above are only port of a »en- 
teiux, which ii left incomplele. On the recto of next page 
(aiilh leaf of sig. II) there la : 

Tauola delle HistorJe et nouelle, &c., 
which end) on (he recto of the lerenth leaf, with the words 

once more. On (he reverie, (he device of the pnn(er, and 

Finiase Orlando Furioso di Messer Lodouico 
Arioato da Ferrara, Nouamente da lui proprio con 
la noua giunta d' altri canti niioui ampliato et cot- 
retto, Stampato in Vinegia per Aluuise de Tord, 
Nelli anni del Signore. M D XXXIX. Del meae 
di Aprile, Regoante H Serenissimo Principe Mes- 
ser Pietro Lando. 
Then the Raster from A (o Z, and bom AA to II, 

Tutti sono quaderni. 
The last leaf has the portrait of Ahiosto, the same aa on 
the title-page, on ibe recto ; the reverae is blank. 

This carious, and, I believe, unknown edition, contains, as 
inU be easily observed, much less than what is promised in 
(he title-page i and the cop; of it before me is as periect and 


complete as eould be desired. I most obserre, that tkis is i 
Uunly not the same as the edition described by Melxi, page 
3 1 6 of his Giunte e correzumL It may, however, be dou bted , 
whether it be the same mentioned by him in his Bth U w grw^u 
de* Romanzi, on the fiiith of the Catakgoe Flokcel. 



Orlando Fvrioso di Messer Lvdovioo Ariosto 

con la giunta, novissimamente stampato e oorretio. 
Beneath this, the hand holding the shears, die two vipen, wiA 
the usual motto ; and then, in italics. 

Con Vna Apologia di M. Lodouico Dolcio contn 

ai detrattori dell* Autore, & vn modo breniMiino 

di trouar le cose aggiunte ; e Tavola di tutto qneUo, 

eh' ^ contenuto nel Libro. Aggiuntoui vna biene 

espositione dei luogbi difficili. Hassi la con- 

cessione del Senate Veneto per anni diece. Ap- 

presso Mapbeo Pasini. MDXXXX. 8vo. 

On the rererse of the title-page a dedication of tibe edition 
by Dolcio to his cousin Gasparo Spiselli, in itafics; on 
the recto of the following leaf 2, sig. flii begins the poem, wfaidi 
ends on the recto of page 244, with the motto, pro boho ma- 
LVM. It is printed in small Gothic type ; there are two oolomna 
in each page, and five stansas in each oofannn. There is no 
capital at the beginning of the lines, but only of the stanzas ; 
snd these capitals are not always Gothic, but often Roman, and 
of diflTerent founts. On the reverse of 244 is a letter, in italics, 
of Dolcio to Pietro Giustiniano, to whom the Apologia is 
dedicated. The Apologia^ dichiaratume de* iMoghi eUffieiU, ii 
&r«ve modo di trooar i luogM aggittnti and the TauotOf occupy 
nine leaves, not numbered ; that is, tag. II eight leaves, and 
KK one leaf; the other leaf of KK has the date, thus : 
Impresso in Vinegia appresso di Mapbeo Pa- 

BIB. NOT. * c 


sini, 8c Francesco di Alessandro Bindoni, com- 
pagni. Negli anni del Signore. M.D.XXXX. 

Then follows the Reg:uter from A to Z, and AA to KK : 

Tutti 80D0 quaderniy eccetto HH e KK. cbe 

sono duerni. 

KK is not even duemo, however, having only two leaves in 
all. The first alphabet is of Gothic capitals in the signatures, 
although Roman capitals are substituted in the Register. 
Then the device of the printers. On the reverse of the second 
leaf of KK» is a wood-cut of Ariosto, the same as in the 
edition of 1537, by Bendonis. 

The Right Hon. Thom&b Grenville had once the poem 
printed by Bindoni (only) in 1540 ; but finding that it did 
not contain either of the two dedications by Dolce, or the 
Apologia, he did not think it worth keeping. The accurate 
and extensive information of this accomplished gentleman, 
whose invaluable bibUographical notes on the choice volumes 
which he possesses do infinite honour to his learning, taste, 
and judgment, are a guarantee that the edition which he men< 
tions undoubtedly exists, although it has hitherto escaped the 
researches of bibliographers. 



Orlando Fvrioso di Messer Lodovico Ariosto 

Nobile Ferrarese, di nuouo ristampato, & hi- 

storiato : con ogni diligenza dal suo originale tolto : 

eon la nuoua giunta : e le AnnotatioDi di tutti gli 

luoghi, done per lui h stata tal opra ampliata : 

come nella nuoua TauoTa nel fine per ordine ueder 

si puote. Con la giunta di alcune stanze nuoue. 
Under it a wood-cut portrait of the Poet firom 1532, and be- 
neath it the date ; M.D.XYXX. 4to. 

The title-page is surrounded by a wood-cut frame, at the top 
of which the hand with the shears, and the usual motto ; at the 


bottom two serpents (they should be vipers), one of them with 
its tongue cut off. The two sides of this frame are emblematic, 
and with mystical numbers and hieroglyphics which I cannot 
decypber. At the top of the outer side there is the number 
'54302, and the numbers '2* and '8* beneath. Lower down, 
an enchanter, dressed in Oriental costume, with the compass 
in his right hand raised above his head, over which are the sun 
and the moon in a circular space, with numbers scattered over 
it. In the inner side, two angels; one toward the middle, 
writing with his left band, and one with a tablet, upon which 
there is Deo viv; and in the lower extremity a female 
with a tablet on which are the three quantities 201. 34. 001., 
written separately, one beneath the other. The reverse of t)ie 
title is blank. The poem begins on the recto of leaf 2, sig. 
A ii, and concludes on the reverse of 246, sixth of HH. At 
the end are the words finiva. pro, bono malvm. Then 
the Register from A to Z, and from A A to HH, 

Tutti Quaderui ; 
sbd this is followed by the colophon : 

In Yinegia* Nelle Case di Pietro di Nicolini 
da Sabbio. Ne glianni dil nostro Signore. 
M.D.XXXX. Dil mese di Ottobre. 

On the recto of 247, four stanzas, which are to be found in 
several editions of the Furio9o, as the beginning of a conti- 
nuation of that po§Bi } the first line is. 

Per seguir quel che V Ariosto altiero. 

On the reverse the Annotationi by GuAZZo, which conclude 
on the recto of 248, with the words il fine ; on the verso, 
simply the hive and the bees, without either border or motto. 
The leaves are numbered, and each page contains two columns, 
having five stanzas in each. The stanzas are separated by a 
blank space, and at the beginning of the cantos there are wood- 
cuts after the manner of those of Zoppino*s edit of 1530, so 
often imitated. The type is Roman. The copy before me is 
beautifully bound by Roger Payne. 




Orlando Fvrioso di Messer Lvdovico Ariosto 
con la noua giunta, e le notation! di tutti gli luoghi, 
doue per lui e stato tal opra ampliata : come nella 
noua Tauola nel fine per ordine vedere si puole, 
Stampato e corretto. Impresso per Zuan' An- 
tonio di Uolpini. MDXXXXI. 

Small 8to. with a wood-cut of Ariosto's portrait from 1532. 
* The title-page (the reverse of which is blank) is in Roman 
characters, with the exception of the date, which is small 
Gothic; and so is the poem, which is printed in pages of 
two columns, having five stanzas in each. The leaves are 
numbered, and the poem, which begins on leaf 2, dg. ft ii, 
ends on'^the recto of 244, sig. |^ |^ iiii. The Register in 
this copy is from 21 to S> and 21 21 to |^ }|, each containing 
eight leaves, with the exception of the last, which in a 
complete copy would most probably be followed by another 
signature or more, but the copy before me is imperfect. Im- 
mediately after the poem, and on the same leaf, follow the 
four stanzas : 

Per seguir quel che TAriosto altiero, &c. 
On the reverse of the 244th leaf, begins the Apologia of 
DoLCio against the detractors of Ariosto ; but it does not 
proceed ferther than this page, which ends at the words non 
ti trovasse ptU che feritOf owing to the imperfection already 
mentioned. This volume once belonged to King Henry VIII. 

king's library in the BRITISH MUSEUM (vellum copy)* 


Orlando Fvrioso di M. Ludovico Ariosto nouis- 
simamente alia sua integrita ridotto et ornato di 


varie figure. Con alcvne stanze del S. Aluigi 
Gonzaga in lode del medesimo. Aggiuntovi per 
ciascun Canto alcune allegorie & nel fine vna 
breue espositione et tavola di tvtto quelle, che 
nell' opera si contiene. Con gratia et privilegio. 
In Venetia appresso Gabriel lolito di Ferrarii. 
M.D.XLII. 4to. 

This title is framed in an elegant wood-cut, with the well- 
known device of Giolito. The reverse is blank. On the next 
leaf, not numbered, sig. A 11, there is the dedication of Gio- 
lito to the Dauphin of France, dated on the last day of May, 
1542; and the reverse of this leaf is likewise blank. The 
types are very neat italic : the poem begins on the recto of 
the third leaf, not numbered, sig. A iij. There are two columns 
in each page, and five stanzas in each column. The numbered 
leaves are from 4 to 260 ; the register from A to Z, and from A A 
to KK, each sig. of eight leaves, except KK, which has only two. 
The poem ends on the reverse of the 258th leaf. Then follow 
28 stanzas of Aluigi Gonzaga, to be found in later editions, 
and added here for the first time, as it would seem from a kind 
of advertisement at the end of the poem. Of these stanzas 
of Gonzaga, twelve are in praise of Ariosto, and the other 
sixteen are in praise of Gonzaga's lady. Now in this edition, 
as well as in the following two of 1543 by the same printer, 
after the fourth stanza in praise of Ariosto, those in praise 
of the lady are inserted as if they belonged to the same subject ; 
and, after the whole sixteen, the continuation of those in praise 
of Ariosto is to be found, still, however, without any inter- 
ruption ; and in fact, as if the whole 28 stanzas were intended 
for Ariosto. This glaring blunder denotes the utmost care- 
lessness in the person who corrected the press; and hence we 
may argue, that although Dolce lent his name to the publica- . 
tion, he did not actually attend to it. I find the error rectified 
in the Giolito edition of 1544. On the reverse of pag. 260, 



there U an oy«l wood-cnt portrait of Ariosto, and under it 
tlie sonnet of Dolce in praiae of Ludovico : 

Spirito divin, ne le cui dotte carte, &c. 

On the recto of the next leaf there is the foUowmg title : 

Espositione di tvtti i vocaboli et Ivoghi difficili 
ehe nel Libro si trouano ; con vna brieve dime- 
stratione di molte comparationi & sentenze dali' 
Ariostx) in diuersi autori imitate. Raccolte da 
M. Lodovico Dolce. Con gratia et privilegio ddlo 
iUustriss. Senato Vinitiano per anni XV. 

tJndemeath the pheeniz ; and then, 

In Venetia appresso Gabriel lolito di Ferrarii. 

On the reverse, a short pre&ce by Dolce, and on the recto 
of the next lea^ sig. * ii, begins the 

Breve dimostratione di molte comparationi et 
sentenze dall' Ariosto in diversi avtori imitate. 

This occupies twenty-one pages, which are not numbered, but 
there is * * iiii on the twenty-first On the reverse begms an 

Espositione di tvtti i vocaboli et Ivogbi difficili, 
che neL libro si contengono, 

which fiUs five pages, and then the tavola, which is contained 
in eleven pages more. At the end of it, the errtatt, and after 
the colophon : 

In Venetia appresso Gabriel loiito di Ferrarii. 


On the reverse, the phoenix. The whole of this addition con- 
Msts, therefore, of twenty leaves not numbered, • and • • being 
of eight leaves each, and • • • of only four. In this, as well 
as in an his subsequent editions, Giolito prefixed some very 
spirited wood-cuts to each canto, which were repeatedly copied 
by other printers of (hat time, who published the Furioso, 


fe it gOKntty admitted thftt this it the flnt edition of Um 
by GioLiTo. RuscBLLi, in the beginning of the 
tbiid Ditnrm agvinst Dolce, printed at Venicey by Pietra- 
aaKTA in 1553,* ipealu of several editions of the FwiosOf by 
GioiJTO, pidilished from MDXXXYII. to 1551{ but as no 
editioii of 1537 is known, it has been concluded that this 
was a aniiprint, a V having erroneously been substituted (br 
an X, and tfans the MDXXXXII printed MDXXXYII. Pier 
Cateriho Zend, in die catalogue of the editions of the 
FvrioM^ prefijred to the folio edition of Aeiosto's works, by 
Oklamdimi, Venice, 1730, was the first who made this sup- 
position, which seems correct. We may argue, that such Is 
in &ct the case, by observing that Ruscelli (who wished to 
prove that Dolce had been a long time in translating Ovid's 
Metamorphoses,) adds, a little after, that Dolce, da giU XII 
OMm ee non sono piu, had mentioned that he was engaged upon 
that work. Ruscelli, to prove Ids assertion, quotes a letter 
of Giolito, which he contends to have been written by Dolce, 
and which is prefixed to the Espotitione in Oiolito's editions. 
Now, from 1542 to 1553, (both inclusive, as Ruscelli, to 
make his case stronger, must have computed them,) there is, 
in fiurt, a period of twelve years, whilst from 1537 to 1553, it 
is more. It must be observed, however, that in the edition of 
1542, there is no letter of Giolito ; It occurs only in bis later 
editions of the Furioso, 

A copy of this edition, on vellum, but unfortunately im* 
perfect, forms part of the King's Library in the British Mu- 
seum. Several leaves which were wanting, have been rt- 

* I find this edition quoted as printed in 1552. The copy 
before me has 1553, but probably there are copies dated 1552, 
as may be argued from the following words in tliat very 
publication : II Petrarca fu stampato dal Giolito .... I'anno 
MJ).LI, o L, secondo che nelle stampe i librari mettono 11 
millesimo parte d' un anno e parte d' un altro, perchfi que' 
che nei primi mesi non sono venduti, pajano stampati pi& dl 
fresco, pijli nuovamente. Disc, II. pag. 70. 


priDUd in » Ttrj canlcM rouuKr. But tbe more ettnatt- 
uarir put ta, tbtt on the revcnc of (he Mcond leaf, on tbe no* 
of wbich I> tlie dcdiotion to the Dauphin, a kind of preTut 
bom OioLlTo to Ibe resdrr hu been printed, in whidi thai 
piinler apetka o( bit numerout editioni of the poem, and pni- 
miiet one in folio. I un ■! a lou to diicover the reuon why, 
the leaf not being wanting, (be trouble baa been taken gf 
printing on tbe lecond page of Ibe old leaf a preface, wbicli 
DO man in hit aenaes could have luppoied erer to have been 
Ibere. Tbii prcbce belongs to Ibe eiUtion of the Furiou, 
printed by OtoUTO in 1S59, u I find &oid comparing it wilb 
an extract gitta by PiBK Caiekimo Zbho, in the aboie- 
mentioDcd catak^e. 



Orlando Fvrioso di Messer Lvdovico Ariosto 
con la givnia, novamente stampato e corretto. 
Con la citatione de la maggior Parte de i luocbi, 
d' onde il Conte Matteo Maria Boiardo, e M. 
Ludouico Ariosto hanno tolto i ao^etti. Et ap- 
presso vno Epilogo de le raateiie de lo inamora- 
mento d' Orlando, Con la vita, statura, effigie, e 
coatumi di Carlo Magno. Con alcune Stanze 

Under this the aame wood-cut aa in the edition of Pasiki, 
mo, Svo., denrlbed abore. The title is cootiaaed thus: 

Con vna Tauola de le materie sparse in tutta 
V opera. Con la dichiaratione de luochi, di Pa- 
role, di Fauole, di Storie, d' Allegorie : Con 1' 
auertenze de pass! Fiaici, Poetici, e Mattiali, Con 
la defensione de !' Autore a i luochi suoi, Con 
Tauola de la continuatione de le materie princi- 


pali : Con vna dimostratione de le cose da V Aa- 

tore aggiunte. Con privilegio. 8vo. 
On the reverse there is a dedication : 

Ala illvstrissima signora sempre osservandissi- 

ma ala Signora Cornelia Varana da Monte Vecchio. 

D. Tullio Fausto da Longiano. 

It is dated 

Bologna adi. 12. di Marzo. M.D.XL. 

On the recto of the next leaf, not numbered, sig. -^ ii, is the 

Citatione de luochi, onde tolsero Le Materie il 
Conte Matteo Maria, e M. Ludouico, 

followed by an 

Epilogo de le materie de lo inamoramento d' 

which ends on the reverse of the fourth and last leaf of sig. -f- ; 
all in small Roman types. The poem begins on the recto of 
21, leaf 1, so marked,^uid ends on the recto of the third leaf 
of HH, numbered 243, with the words 

Under it, on the same page, the four stanzas already men- 
tioned as existing in the edition of 1540. On the reverse, a 

Vita di Carlo Magno, 

succeeded by his 

Statura, effigie, e costumi, 

from Turpi n . Some more historical circumstances respecting 
Charlemagne, are added from the Chronicles of Antonine of 
Florence and from Sioibertus. This fills the whole of leaf 
244, 4he last marked in the volume, and ends with the words 

The types used for the Furioto, and for these few additions, 
is small semi-gothic. Each page contains two columns, with 
five stanzas in each. The stanzas are divided by a blank space, 
•ad the cantos simply by their progressive number. Capital 
letten are used only at the beginning of stanzas or cantos, not 


of Unet. After leaf 244 a new register begins; and on the 
recto of sig. a there is 

Tavola copiosissima de le materie che si con- 
tengoDo ininvtamente sparse in tvtta V opera per 
ordine di alphabeto. 

This concludes on the recto of the sixth leaf of sig. b. On the 
reverse ; 

Dichiaratione de Ivochi .... Con la difien- 
sione de le Calumnie de V Autore a i luochi soi. 
This ends on the first column of the recto of the fif^h leaf 
of sig. d. The second column contains a 

Breve modo di trovar tutti i luogbi dall' Au- 
tore aggiunti, &c. 

The two next pages are occupied with a 

Tavola della continvatione delle historie e No- 
uelle contenute in tutta V Opera per ordine di 

alphabeto, &c. ; 
and to this succeeds the 

Apologia di M. Lodovico Dolce, &c. 
which terminates on the reverse of the third leaf of aig. e. 
The Register follows on the same page, from -|- A to 2, 
AA to HH, and a to e : 

4-, HH, e, Sono duerni, Tutti gli altri quaderni ; 
then the colophon : 

In Venetia appresso Francesco Bindoni, et Ma- 

pheo Pasini. Del mese di Ottobrio. M D XLII. 

Con gratia et privilegio dello Illvstris. Senato 

Venetiano per anni qvindeci. 

The fourth and last leaf of e is wanting in tins copy. Although 

the Register be in Roman capitals, the signatures are in 


Baruffaldi, in his Catalogs of the editions of the Furioto^ 
mentions one by Bindoni, 1542, 4to., on the authoiity of 
Barotti; but the latter does not say either 4to. or 8vo. 


He only says, that in the edition of the poem by Bindomi, 
1542, there is the motto pro bono fna/um, at the end ; which is 
true of the edition just descnbed, no doubt an 8vo. Mblsi« 
in his Griunte e correzioni to liis BibUografia^ vegisters an 
edition by Bindoni and Pasini, 1542, in 4to., as existing in 
the public library of Ferrara, and in that of Lyons. If the 
volnme really exists (snd it was very common for the same 
printer to publish two editions of the Furioso in the same year, 
4to. and 8vo., as we shall hereafter have occasion to observe), 
the 8vo. belonging to Mr. Ghenyille is quite unknown, and 
I am the first who has described it. I shoidd be disposed to 
suspect there is some mistake, if the 4to. edition had been 
registered in one catalogue only { but when I find that it is set 
down as 4ta in the Catalogiw of the public library of Lyons, I 
cannot doabt but that a 4to. edition of the Furioso of 1542, 
by BiMDONi and Fabini, does exist. 

The present edition is, however, remarkable, not only for its 

rarity, but for being one of the earliest with the annotations of 

Favbto da Lonoiano. They were probably pnnted before 

1542, the dedication of Favbto being dated so early as the 

12th of March, 1540 ; but this is the first edition I have seen of 

them. The second known to me is that of 1544, which I shall 

describe in its proper place, by the Giunti of Florence, who 

puUished the Furioto under the care of Ulivi da Scarferia. 

In the Epihgo de le Materie de lo Inameramemto d' Orlando, 

it ia sud : Tutti i componimenti poetid costano di tre parti, 

d' iaaentione, di ctispodtione, e d' elocutione. Chiaro d che 

la inuentione non fu di M. Ludouioo Ariosto. Ma del Conte 

Matteo Maria Boiardo, a cui tutto V honore si deue, e tutta la 

gloria in questa parte. Anchora che esso si sia seruito de gV 

altrm ritrouati come daremo anche a diuedere quando fia 

tempo. I beg to protest against the strange assertion, that 

Arhmto has neither honour nor glory for invenHouf but with* 

out stopping to discuss the pmnt, I shall proceed to examine a 

still stranger assertion. In the DichiaratUme de luocki, &c. 

(tig. b ti, retro), we read : Nui vogliamo ammonire il Lettore, 

cbe aoenga che habblamo detto il Conte Matteo Maria essere 



il padre de la inuentione, deuesi intendere quanto a le Muse 
Italiane. Perche egli, e V Ariosto poi hanno tolto Don sola- 
mente le materie principal!, e particolari, le cortesie, gl' amori, 
le giostrei gV incantii gli abbatimenti, e simili, ma i nomi an- 
chora da un libro Spagnuolo il quale si chiama Sfecchio di 
Cavalleria de li fatti di Don Roldano, e di Don Kinaldo. 
lui si leg^eno tutti i nomi cbe ne le Muse Italiane sono stad 
tanto commendati. Nel secondo libro del medesimo sfec- 
chio si tratta de 1' amor di Don Roldano e d* Angelica, e 
di Don Roserino (sic and not BoscHno, as I find in tiie 
GiUNTA edition of 1544) figliolo del Re Ruggiero e di Brada- i 
mante. La quale bistoria accennd solamente M esser Ludouico 
Ariosto. If this unfounded assertion had not been renewed 
in our own times, it might not have been deemed worth in- 
quiring into its truth ; but Baruffaldi, after having ridiculed j 
those who (like myself) are inclined to lose their time in l 
searching the sources from which Ariosto drew some of his i 
stories, proceeds saying : Anche 1' Orlando Innamorato fu ca- 
vato in gran parte dal romanzo Spagnuolo Specchio di Caval- 
leria i e r Amadis di Gaula tradotto in varie lingue pud dird 
la fonte primaria di tutti i Poemi romanzeschi. (^Vit, d^Ariosto^ 
p. 130). The last part of this sentence evidently proves, that 
the Reverend biographer has never read the Amadis^ else he 
would not have asserted, that that can be the original even of 
the Furiosoi and I firmly believe that he never saw a copy of 
the Specchio di Cavalleria, as he calls it, but that he derived 
his information from the notes of Fausto, which, I am con- 
fident, are in the edition of the Furioso, 1542, 4to. in the Li- 
brary at Ferrara. 

Whatever Baruffaldi may think of it, I for one should 
certainly be disposed to diminish much of my admiration for 
a poet who should want the trifling merit of having invented 
his tale. Baruffaldi seems to have belonged to that in- 
nocent school of Arcadian shepherds — a race unfortunately 
more numerous in Italy than in any other country — ^more nice 
about pretty words than about splendid images ; who do not 
perceive that verses without invention are even worse than 


poetM in prase. Having determined to examine thb famous 
SpeccJao di Cavalleria, as they caUed it, and recollecting it 
was one of the volumes which formed part of Don Quixote's 
library, I consulted the best editions of the splendid work of 
Cervantes to see whether I could find any due respecting 
this book. All (even Pellicer's) agree in saying, that this 
is a " huge collection of romantic stories" by different writers, 
and that the first part, alluded to by Cervantes, appeared in 
1562, and was dedicated by its author, Diego Ordonez de 
Calahorra, to Martin, son of the great Hern an Cortez. 
I looked at diis " huge collection," in three large folios, with 
the meritorious design of reading it through, when the title- 
page at once convinced me that the book had nothing to do 
with either Bojardo or Ariosto. This work, divided into 
four parts, is entitled, Espejo de Principes y Cavaileros, written 
by Ortunez (not Ordonez), Pedro Lasierra and Marcos 
Martinez, and relates to the Amadis family. 

It was a long time before I could procure the book I wanted ; 
and to the kindness of R. Heber, Esq. I am indebted for the 
loan of a copy now before me. It is a folio, two columns each 
page. The first part, or book, has this title : 

Primera, segunda, y tercera parte de Orlando 

Under this a wood-cut representing a knight on horseback, 
undoubtedly meant for the dauntless Orlando himself, and 
beneath it the continuation of the title, as follows : 

Espejo de Cauallerias, en el qual se tratan los 
bechos del Conde Don Roldan, y del muy esfor- 
9ado Cauallero don Reynaldos de Montaluan, y 
de otros muchos preciados Caualleros. For Pedro 
de Reynosa, vezino de la muy noble Ciudad de 
Toledo. Dirigido al muy magnifico senor don 
Bernardino de Ayala. Impresso con licencia en 
Medina del Campo, por Francisco del Canto. 


A no de M. D. Lxxxvj. A costa de loan Boyer, 

inercadier de libros. 

On the reverse of this dtle-pege there is the opinion given by 
the Doctor Santander Descalante, dated September 8th, 
1586, in favour of the publication of the book, in which he 
says that it is traduzido de Ytaliano eu prosa CasteUana : 
and, in the royal privilege, dated the 10th of October of the 
same year, we read that it was a work traduzido de Yta- 
liano en prosa Castellana .... que era libro que se hauia im- 
presso otraa vezes en estos nuestros Reynot. At the conclusion 
of the second book (in which, among other things, «e U-ata 
B ,. , las estrantu auenturas que acabo el Infante don Roterin) 
Pero Lopez de Santa Catalina says, that it was traduzide 
y compuestoy by him. In the dedication of the third book we 
are told that it was traduzido de hngua Toscana en nuestro 
vulgar CastellanOf por Pedro de Reynoso, So much for the 
assertion, that Bojardo and Ariosto were indebted to Spain 
for their stories. I have not found a correct account of these 
three books of the Espejo de CavalleriaSf in any bibliographer 
or literary historian. The first book or part is a wretched 
prose translation of Bojardo, with slight alterations ; and 
none of the books has any thing to do with Ariosto. 


THE earl spencer. 

Orlando Fvrioso di M. Lvdovico Ariosto no- 
uissimamente aUa sua integrita ridotto, & oraato 
di varie figure. Con alcune stanze del. S. Aluigi 
Gonzaga in lode del medesimo. Aggiuntovi per 
ciascun Canto alcune allegorie, & neliine unabreue 
espositione. Et* tavola di tvtto quello, che nelF 
opera si contiene. Con gratia et privilegio. In Ve- 
netia per Gabriel lolito di Ferrarii. M. D. XLIII; 


The revene of the title is blank. The next leaf, tig. A ii, 
contains the dedication to the Dauphin. The poem begins on 
A ill, and in the heading there is the misprint Lvdovigo, in- 
stead of Ludovico, The leaves are numbered from 4 to 264 ; 
the signatures are from A to Z, and from AA to KK, each of 
eight lesres. The poem ends on the recto of 263, and on the 
reverse begin the stanzas of Gonzaoa, which, mixed, as 
observed, with those to his lady, occupy the whole of 264. 
Then follows the other title : 

Bspositione di tvtti i vocaboli e Ivochi difficili 
che nel Libro si trouano ; con una brieve dimo« 
stratione di molte comparationi et sentenze dell* 
Ariosto in diversi autori imitate. Con Gratia & 
Priuilegio per anni, XV. In Venetia app resso 
Gabriel lolito di Ferrari!. M. D. XXXXIII. 

On the reverse the letter of Dolce to the readers ; then the 
dhnostratione, beginning on * ii, and occupying ten leaves ; 
and after the Espositume, beginning on the recto of ** iiii, and 
ending on the recto of its sixth leaf; on the reverse the Tavola, 
which ends on the third leaf of * * *, verso, with the words : 
In Venetia appresso Gabriel lolito di Ferrarii. 

The fourth leaf of this half sheet is wanting. It probably 
contained only the Register and the device of GiOLiTO. 
There are therefore nineteen unnumbered leaves in this vo- 
lume, and there should be twenty in a complete copy. 

This edition, which I have never seen mentioned by any 
bibliographer, is very neatly printed in small Roman cha- 
racter, of which the d and z are Gothic. The observations of 
Dolce are printed in a still smaller and neat Roman, whilst the 
type used in the text is used also for the quotations. 



Orlando Fvrioso di M. Lvdovico Ariosto nouis- 
simamente alia sua integrita ridotto & omato di 
uarie figure: Con alcune stanze del S. Alaigi 
Gonzaga in lode del medesimo. Aggiuntovi per 
ciascun Canto alcune allegoric & nel fine una 
breue epositione et tavola di tvtto quello» che nell' 
opera si contiene. Con gratia et privilegio. Iq 
Venetia appresso Gabriel Gioli di Ferrarii. 
M. D. XLITI. 4to. 

This edition is like the one of 1542, by the same printer, 
with the few following exceptions : The type is italic, but 
larger than that of the edition of 1542. The name Giolito 
is mutilated and reduced to Gioli, not only in the first title- 
page, but also in the second of the Espositione, and at the 
end of the volume as follows : 

In Venetia appresso Gabriel Gioli di Ferrarii. 

Giolito, therefore, printed the Furioso twice in 1543; 
and if it be true, as Pier Caterino Zeno said in the Orlan- 
DiNi Catalogue, that to the Espositione of an edition of 1543, 
is prefixed a letter of Dolce to Giolito, dated March, 1544, 
(according to the then Venetian custom of beginning the year 
in March,) we must say that he printed the poem thrice in 
that year, as there is no such letter in either of the two editions 
before me. 

In the title-page of the Espositione, dated 1544, and added 
to an edition of the Furioso by Giolito, that is called the 
tkird edition of the poem by that printer. Having on my table 
three different editions previous to 1544, the assertion is proved 
to be incorrect; as well as the other, that an edition of 
1549 is the sixth by Giolito, although it is so stated in 


the title-page of the Espositione, dated that year. I have 
Rever seen the editions of 1546 and 1547, 8vo. Supposing, 
however, that they exist, (and of this there cannot be any 
doubt,) the edition of 1549 would be the eleventh, not the 
sixth. Moreover, on looking to the title-page of the Esposi- 
tione, annexed to the Giolito edition of 155 1, 8vo. (a volume 
which forms part of the Grenyille eollection,) I find that 
thai is the sixth edition, if we are to believe that title, al- 
though I have six different copies of six different editions pre- 
vious to that year ; and reckoning those editions which I 
never saw, but certainly exist, the edition of 1551 is the six- 
teenth instead of being the sixth. In the title-page of the 
Espositume, dated 1548, 4to., I find it is likewise called the 
sixth; yet it is the tenth, at least. Which was,- therefore, the 
true sixth edition of Ariosto by Giolito ? It seems that 
Giolito gave a copy of one of his previous editions to his 
workmen to print from, and that they fiuthfully copied it, 
calling the new impression either third or sixth, just as the one 
from which they took their text might happen to be called. 
This explains the blunder in printing Gonzaga's stanzas ; and 
a farther proof of the fact, too strong to be passed over, occurs 
in another edition of the Furioso by Giolito, dated 1556. 
In this edition there is the letter of Giolito, alluded to by 
RuscELLi, in which he pledges himself to the public, that he 
will soon print the Metamorphoses translated by Dolce ; and 
this commentator, in his notes to the 25th canto, speaking 
of Bradamante and Fiordispina, observes, that it was an imi- 
tation of the ninth book of the Metamorphoses : Le quali da noi 
in uolgare tradotte, tosto piacendb a Iddio, se ne uerranno 
fttore. These very words occur in ail editions, from 1542 to 
1556, which I have ever seen. Now, the translation, which in 
the latter edition is so solemnly promised, both by Giolito 
and Dolce, had been abused by Ruscelli in 1553, and had, 
in &ct, issued from the Giolito press that very year. I have 
a copy of the book before me. Can any thing be more careless, 
or more impudent, than the whole system pursued by Giolito ? 
I have mentioned these facts, not only for the sake of 

BIB. NOT. * D 


proving how little we know about tbu bibliographical pointi 
but to show hew difficult it is to discover the truth, and what 
little reliance can be placed even on what would appear the 
most conclusive evidence. I wanted £sirther to show, both by 
the hurried manner in which Giolito sent forth his editions 
of ArigstO) by their incredible number, and by the rapidity 
vrith which they succeeded each other, what popularity the 
Furioso had attained. The Giolito editions hitherto known, 
from 1542 to 1551, are these: 4to. 1542 ; 4to. and 8vo. 1543 ; 
4to. 1544; 8vo. 1545; 4to. and 8vo. 1546. 4to. and 8to. 
1547 ; 4to. 1548 ; 4to. and 8yo. 1549 ; 4to. and 8vo. 1550; 
4to and 8vo. 1551 ; in all, sixteen editions at least. I say, at 
least, for there is no doubt that there is an edition of 1543, 
with the letter of Dolce, dated March, 1544, as asserted by 
P. C. Zeno, which is different from any of those which I here 
reckon. Nor is the date and the form conclusive that the copies 
seen by different bibliographers are all of the same edition; 
for we learn from Melzi, that in 1554, Giolito published 
two octavo editions of the Furioso ; one in italics, and one in 
roman type. Supposing that in ten years Giolito pub- 
lished only seventeen editions of the Furioso, and supposing 
that only three thousand copies of each edition was struck off, 
(a number which we may consider very limited, when we re- 
eollect the certainty of a rapid sale, which could not escape a 
publisher,*) we have the amazing number of more than fifty 

* My supposition, with respect to the probable number of 
copies which formed one of these editions, rests on the words 
of Aldus, in the dedication of his Catullus of 1502 to San- 
NUTO. I have here to observe, that instead of Leonardi 
filio, which occurs in the address of that letter, a vellum copy 
of the book, forming part of the Cracherode Collection, now 
in the Bridsh Museum, has Benedicti filio; and so it is in 
the Aldine of 1515. That is the only difference occurring in 
the letter between the vellum and paper copies. Now, to 
return to my subject. Aldus says : Idem (that is, adding 
the various readings) et in Tibullo et Propertio fecimus, quos 
ad tria mUlia voluminum, et plus eo liac minima forma ex- 


thousand copies of the Furiogo issued from one press only, 
whilst it was yearly reprinted in other places, both of Italy and 
out of it, as well as in Venice itself, by several other printers. 
It is not, therefore, too much to assert, that during those ten 
years, there were not less than a HUNDRED THOUSAND 
copies of tlie Furioso published in or out of Italy. 

I am, however, eonvinced that more editions of the Fu- 
rioso ,by GiOLiTO, published from 1542 to 1551, remain to 
be discovered. Melzi has proved the existence of ten edi- 
tions of the Furioso previous to 1532, unknown to Baruf- 

cusos in manus tuas et cseterorum commodd assidu^que una 
cum Catullo ire et redire speramus. Now, if Aldus, forty 
years before GiOLiTO (that is, when reading was not so com- 
mon to all classes), printed three thousand copies of Latin 
poets, whose works could not be so generally read and relished 
as if they had been written in Italian, it is reasonable to sup- 
pose that GioLiTO printed an equal number of copies of so po- 
pular a poet as Ariosto, for each edition. Mr. Renouard 
thinks it possible that Aldus meant one thousand of each poet, 
taking each of them as making a volume, and, consequently, 
that he printed in &ct but one thousand copies of them ; which 
was the usual number of which his editions consisted, as Al- 
dus himself says in a letter to Demetrius Chalcondtlas, 
prefixed to Euripides' tragedies, published in 150i3. I have 
no doubt ^hat this cannot be the fact : 1st. Because Ca- 
tullus, TiBULLUS, and Propertius, of 1502, do not form 
three disdnct volumes, having but one title-page, and one 
colophon. In the edition of 1515, a close copy of that of 
1502, the leaves are numbered progressively throughout 
the works of the three poets : 2diy. Because the expression of 
Aldus; Qxtoa (Tibullum et Propertium) ad tria millia vo- 
Inimnum .... in manus tuas .... unit cum CatuUo ire ... . 
speramus ; are utterly incompatible with such an hypothesis : 
3dly. Because, as Mr. Renouard observes, although the three 
Latin Poets be more popular than the Greek, the copies of the 
latter are more scarce than those of the former. . Now it is 
evident, that Catullus being more read, the copies of its 


FALDi, who pubUshed his work in 1807, seven of which were 
unknown even to Morali, who printed his edition of Ariosto 
in 1818 ; and I have had the satis&ction of adding to the ge- 
neral list, at least, two editions, (1542, Pasini ; and 1543, Gio- 
LiTO, both 8vo.) hitherto unnoticed by bibliographers. This 
shows that there was no exaggeration in the well-known letter 
of B. Tasso to Varchi, written in 1559, when no. motive could 
exist for flattering Ariosto. Non d dotto, nd artegiano, (said 
Tasso,) non d fandullo, fandulla, nd vecchio che d' averlo 
letto (il Furioso) piii d' una volta si contenti. Non son elleno 

editions must have been destroyed in proportion ; and if an 
equal number of Catullus and Euripides had been printed, 
copies of the latter should now be less uncommon. This 
very reasoning was used by Mr. Renouard in attempting 
to explain why Cicero's Letters and De Officiis, printed by 
Aldus, even later than Catullus, are much rarer than copies 
of the works of this poet. The popularity of Catullcs 
(compared with Euripides) was a reason for striking off an 
uncommonly large edition: and, d fortiori, vfe may argue, 
that the editions of Ariosto must have been as large. 
About the middle of the sixteenth century, an edition gene- 
rally consisted of a thousand copies, even out of Italy. I 
argue it from a passage of Erasmus, in a letter to Curzio, 
dated January 9th, 1535, which I shall transcribe, as it is in 
Latin, and gives the most ludicrous instance of a typographical 
error that ever fell under my notice. Nuper enim cum inter 
imprimendum excusores aliquot conquest! fuissent me sibi 
xenia nondum persolvisse, exortus est inter eos quidam cseteris 
vinolentior, qui profiteretur se pcenas a me exacturum, ni da- 
rem : atque id profecto veterator tarn egregid effecit, ut aureis 
nummis trecentis redimere earn ignominiam voluissem. Cum 
enim in Vidua mea quam Serenis. Hungarise Reginae dedi- 
caveram, ad laudem cujusdam sanctissimae fceminae inter alia 
liberaiitatem illius in pauperes referrem, hsec verba subiunxi : 
Atque mente ilia earn usam semper fuisse, qua talem foeminam 
deceret. Unde scelestus ille animadvertens sibi vindictse oc- 
casionem oblatam esse, ex mente ilia, mentula fecit. Itaque 


le sue stanze il ristoro che ha lo stanco peregrino nella lunga 
via, il qual il fastidio del caldo e del lungo camminare can tan- 
dole rende minore ? Non sentite voi tiitto di per le strade, per 
11 campi andarle can tan do ? lo non credo che in tanto spazio 
di tempo quanto d corso dopo che quel dottissimo gentiluomo 
mandd in man degli uomini il suo poema si sian stampati nd 
venduti tanti Omeri, nd Virgilj, quanti Furiosi : e, se cosi d 
come veramente non si pud negare, non d questo manifestissimo 
segno della bellezza e bont^ dell' opra ? 

▼olumina xxiille fuere impressa. 0pp. torn. 3, p. 1497, Amst. 
fol. I have looked over the tract, de Vidua Christiana, 
printed at Basle, by Froben, in 1529, 8vo., and I could not 
find the place where such a trick could be played on poor 
Erasmus. Yet that was the first edition of the book. Era- 
smus sent to the Bishop of Trent, the first sheets of the work, in a 
letter dated from Basle, February 24, 1529; and from a letter 
of the 10th of March of the same year, to the Bishop of Gurck, 
(G. Balbo,) I find that the edition was finished. Erasmus 
lived then in Froben's house, which he left after the 13th of 
April of that year, to go to Friburg, where he was on the 21st 
of the same month. See Opp, torn. 3, p. 1187. Guadus 
Marcomannus, that is, G. Tilgner, in a note to Menc- 
XENius de Charlateneria Eruditorum, alludes to this misprint 
— a propos of dedications and presents — saying, that Erasmus 
graviter in Epistolis de petulantis Typographi sphalmate con- 
queritur, propter quod indignationem Serenis. Foeminse in- 
currens, dolendam magni proemii, quod pro dedicatione ex- 
pectaverat, jacturam fecit. There is not a word about it in 
this letter of Erasmus. Far from being ofiended, the queen 
was remarkably pleased with the work; and she returned 
thanks to the author with a letter in her own hand, as may 
be seen from one of Erasmus to her, dated July 9th, 1530. 
And from another letter of his to Sadoleto, dated May 3, 
1532, we learn, that she pressed him to go to live near her, in 
Brabant So much for the correctness of the annotator's ob- 




Orlando Fvrioso di M. Lydovico Ariosto 

nouissimamente alia sua integrita ridotto et omato 

di Varie Figure. Con alcvne stanze del S. Aluigi 

Goncaga in lode del medesimo. Aggivnto per 

ciascvn Canto alcune Allegoric nouamente ri- 


Then follows Blado*s device, with the initials A. B. (i. e. 

Antonio Blado,) on one side, and under is the date, 

Romae. M.D. XXXXIII. 4to. 

The whole is surrounded by a border, copied from that of 
GiOLiTo's first edition. f 

The reverse is blank; on sig. A ii is the dedication of 
OioLiTO to the Dauphin of France, and on the recto of A iii 
begins the poem, which is printed in two columns each page, of 
five stanzas each column. The wood-cuts at the beginning 
of the cantos are copied from those of Giolito's editions, but 
are not the same, as some have supposed. The poem ends on 
the reverse of leaf 258, with the words 

Then follow the stanzas of Gonzaga, printed altogether, 
as in GiOLiTo's first edition, ending on the recto of leaf 260 ; 
and on the back is a portrait of Ariosto in wood, with the 
sonnet of Dolce, 

Spirto Divin, &c. 

The volume concludes thus : and so does a copy in the posses- 
sion of Messrs. Patne and Foas. If we could rely on Baruf- 
FALDi, we might suppose that Dolce's annotations should 
form part of a complete copy. The same writer would also 
lead us to believe that this edition is very much like that 
of GiOLiTO of this same year, only that it is larger. There 
is, however, a more remarkable difference between them ; viz. 
that by Blado is printed in roman, and that of Giolito in 

OF E1MT105S OF jUUKKIOl ^i'^ 


THE r.%n. irCSiCZB. 

Orlando Fvrioso di M. Lodoiricx» Jkiiosto Cfloi 

molte espositkni fflutiato: 

Tauola si dimostra. 
This is smToanded by a 
i.iTo'8 first rdifinw, 
GiuKTA and tbte dale: 

In Firenze. M.D. XLIIIL Ua. 
On the zererse of tlib letf : 

Repertorio deDe didiiaiatiani die b 
nel Libro ; 

^ R4ni]aii. On the recta flfaeit led^ i^ «^ 
PiETRO Vliti to M . Bexkdetto Tabcmi, 
man, and dated Jannaiy 3, 1S44. Ontfce 

£pflogo delle 

d' Orlando, &c 

and an the recto of j%. ^ iiff, 

Citatione de iToglii, onde teiaao le Malerie fl 
Conte Matteo l^Iaiia, e M. Lodoidoo Ariosto, 

(here oocim the a btiudUj abont the J^peedU* dSi CanaBeria 
befi»re nodoed ;) on die recto of the iotkmia^ letf ; 

Tavola di trtte le oose nel' opera oootenTte per 

ordine di alfsibeto. 

(This b printed m two mhi iii Bi each ftgt;) aAcr which 

on A iif recto^ onothnr 

TaYola brevissiina delle oootinYatioiii deD* hi- 

storie, &C. 

AU this, from the Epilego, oeenpies 16 pages m itafia, and 
rnnrhidcs on the recto of A n. On the reren^ an otai por- 
trait of A&iosTO in wood, Mlowed hy Dolcb's sonnet, 

Spirto DiTin ne le cni dotte carte. 

On die recto of the fiiflowing leaf, sig. A m begins the poem. 


It U printed in italic ; each page containing two columns, witb 
fi?e stanzas in each column. The leaves are numbered, and 
the poem concludes on the reverse of 258 ; on 259, are the 
stanzas of Gonzaga in praiseof ARiosToand of his own lady, 
printed altogether as was done before ; and on the reverse of 
260, the same portrait of Ariosto, with a sonnet, not by 
Dolce, but Ulivi, underneath, beginning, 

O Nimfe, o uoi ch' al Vate il cor nudriui, &:c. 
This is a dose copy of the Giolito and Roman editions ; 
and the wood-cuts at the beginning of the cantos are so much 
Uke those of the edition of Rome, that I suspect them to be 
from the same blocks. 

To this succeeds a new title-page, as follows : 

Dimostratione delle comparationi, et altre anno-, 
tationi nvovamente aggivnte con le citation! de 
Ivoghi da V avtore imitati. Dichiaratione d* aUe- 
gorie, d' historic di fauole di parole con la difen- 
sione delle calunnie delFAutore. Nel fine gli 
epiteti e alcvne elocutioni : le quali danno la co- 
gnitione delle materie. 
Under this Giunta's device, and then : 

In Fiorenza appresso Benedetto Givnta. 

On the reverse, a letter of Ulivi to the readers, in which that 
editor acknowledges his obligations (and they are many,) to 
Fausto and Dolce. After this letter, in roman characters, 
on ^he recto of J^ ij, begins, in italics : 

Dimostratione delle comparationi, et altre anno- 

tationi, nvoYamente aggiunte da Pietro Vlivi, &c. 

followed by : 

Disrittioni de i tempi e luochi con altre belle 

annotationi ; 

the whole occupying fourteen pages, not numbered, of sig. ^ . 


Dichiaratione d' all^orie, d' historie, &c. 

extending to ten pages of ag. >^ » not BODbocd ; pnMcd m 
italics, and two columns each page. Then tolknn : 

Epiteti et alcvne elocrtioiii d' Oriando Ft- 

rioso, &c. 

printed in a neat small semi-godik, omipyia g soIkb pafcsy 
two columns each page, and ronrinding an the fifth leaf of a^ 
Q:, On the recto of the next leaf : 

Breve inodo di trovare le nTOTe aggimte del 

Fvrioso ; 

and then the register, firom «J^ A to Z ; froM A A I0 K K, 
and ^^ ^. 

Tutti sono qaademi, eccetto KK che duenio 

& :V. temo. 

Lastly, the colophon : 

In Firenze appresso Boiedetto Gimta. 
M. D. XLIin. 

On the reverse, Giuhta's device. 
To tins ¥<dmne is added : 

Cinqve canti di vn iitoto libro di M. Lodorico 

Ariosto, i qvali s^vono la materia del FTrioao : 

di nvovo mandati in Ivce. 

Then Giukta's derice, and midemeath : 

In Fiorenza. M D XXXXVI. 

The reverse is bhmk. The fiist of the five cantos, which eooii- 
mences with the stanza 

Ma prima cfae di questo altro ni dica, 

begins on the recto of A 9, and the last fragment of the 
fifth canto amdndes on the recto of leaf 28, with the words : 

Manca fl fine* 
Then the r^^ster A B C D. 
Tutti sono quademi, eccetto D cbe e Daemo. 


AAertru-di ihe colophcn : 

Slampato in Fioreoia appresso Bernardo di 
Giunti neir Anno D M XXXXVI. [15*6.] 

On the teyCMe Giunta'i device. Thew five canloa »re 
printed to match tbe Furioio, and are like it in everj lesped, 
excepting that they have oD wood-cuti. Thejaie cloeely copied 
IVom the fint edition of 154^, by Aldo. This edition i> •rell 
executed, the paper excellent, and the copy hefore me it un- 
nmunonljr fine, large, and clean. 


Orlando Fvrioso, &c. 4to. Giolito. 

The title-page of thia edition la verbalim from that of liti, 
with the exception o(the year, which in tbia is M. D. XLIIIl- 
The tide of the Espasitirme ia the same as those of the two 
4tD. editions of 1542 and IS43, to the words LoirOTicO 
Dolce ; after which, in thia edition we read ; 

e da lui stesso ampliate in quests terza editione- 
Con Gratia Et Privilegio. In Venetia Appresso 
Gabriel Giolito di Ferrarij. M. D. XLIIII. 

The reverse it blank, instead of baring the Letter of DoLCE 
to the reader. Then follows the Briece dimoitradene, whicb 
occupies eleven pages, and concludes on (be redo of the 
fourth leaf of sig.»". Dolce having added a note, to point 
out an imitation from Vibqil, in C. 40, at. 43, of the Furius, 
the aii last pages of these notes are not alike in the two edi- 
tions. On the reverse of tbe fourth leaf of sig. ■ ■, there is 
the letter of Dolce to Giolito, dated March I, 1544, from 
Fadova, which letter, as tiefore observed, ia also to be Ibuod in 
an edition of 1543, according to PiEIt Catebtno Zend. I( 
occapies only (vra pages. Sig. * is of eight leaves, but lliosc 
which follow are only of four leaies each, therefore, this letter 
concludes on the recto of ug. * * *. On the reverie begins 
Espositione di tvtti i vocaboli, &c. 


wbich occupies fbnrteeii pages instead of five, as is the case in 
the two editions of 1542 and 1543, 4to. Then ; 

Varie e bellissime descrittioni dell* Ariosto si 

del giomo, come della notte & delle stagioni dell' 

anno, prouerbi, sentenze, & altre cose degne di 

memoria: delle quali ciascun destro ingegno si 

puo commodamente seruire, 

commencing on the reverse of the fourth leaf of sig. a • * *, 
and occupying six pages. On the back of the third leaf of 
gjg, • • • • • begins the Tavola, of ten pages, ending on 
the recto of the fourth leaf of sig. •••••♦, as follows : 

In Venetia appresso Gabriel Giolito de Ferrari. 

On the reverse, the phoenix. The last twenty-eight leaves 
are not numbered. 

Although so different in the second part, the two editions 
of 1543 and 1544 are so much Uke each other in the first, 
that it would be almost impossible to distinguish them, were 
it not for the following difference. The cuts arc from the 
same blocks, but are used without borders on each side 
in the edition of 1543, but with them in that of 1544. 
Giolito had the cuts made rather small for a quarto, for the 
purpose of using them also for the octavo editions, in which 
they appear to advantage. Borders of some kind are intro- 
duced in all quarto editions subsequent to this, which have 
come under my notice. 



Orlando Fvrioso, &c. 8vo. Giolito. 
The title-page of this edition is exactly like that of 1543, 8vo. 
by the same printer, excepting the name of the publisher, 
which is Giolito, not Iolito, and the date M D XLV. 
instead of M D XLIII. The two editions of the poem are 


likeirisc alike in tmy olbei respect, ■lihough tliie of 1545 
be somewhat larger, and without any gothic leltet whiitc»er. 
The itaniat of Gonzaqa to Abiobto are diadnct from thoK 
ID bb ladf ; and >o they are in the edition of 1S44, 4to. u I 
olutrved, pag. [37]. The title-pages of the fifHuiViaiie agree 
in baih ediliom u far as tbe word imifaff ,- then, io 1545, ii 
added : 

Raccolle da M. Lodovico Dolce e da Ivi stesso 
ampliate in questa terza editione. Con Gratia & 
Priuilegio. In Vinetia A ppreaao Gabriel Giolito 
de Ferrari. M D XLV. 

The reverse is Wank. The letter of Dolce to Giolito oc- 
cupiea sig, * ii. and the brieve dimaitraliime, beginning on 
* ill, ia contained in 21 pages. Then followa the Eapon^hne, 
&c., nhieh, carelcsal; as uaual, has been entitled, Tavola di 

cupiea 14 pages. The iiarie et ielliaiime descrittirmi, Se., are 
contained in six pages more, of l»o columns each, as ue alio 
ten pagea of the Tacola, which concludes on the recto of the 
foarth leaf of lig. •• • •. On the reverae the oval portrul of 
AmoSTO, often introduced with the sonnet of Dolce. 

Spirto Diuin, ne le cui dotte carte, &c. 

Thin ends the lolume ; having 28 leaves not numbered, be- 
sides (he fhrst 264 numbered. The register is from A to Z, 
from AA to KK, and from • to "• • • ; each Mgnature of eight 
leaves, with the exception of the last, which has ont; fbur. 


Orlando Fvrioso di Messer Lodovica Arioato, 
et di piv aggivntovi in fine piv di cinqvecenio 
staiize del mcdcsimo avitore non piv vedvte. 

Here the Aidine nnchor, and (hen ; 

Riveduto et corretto nuouamente con aoinina 
diligenza. In Venegia, del M. D. XLV. 4to. 


The reverse of the title-page is blank ; ou the recto of the 
following leaf 2, A ijt is a letter, 

Al nobile, et valoroso, il Capitano Giovan Bat- 
tista Olivo da Goito, Antonio Manvtio. 
The reverse is blank. On the recto of the third leaf, A iij, be- 
gins the poem, which ends on the verso of the 247 th leaf, 
with the words 

II fine. 
Then the register, from A to Z, and from A A to H H : 

tutti sono quademi. In Vinegia, nelV anno 
M. D. XLV. In casa de' figlivoli d* Aldo. 

The next leaf (fourth of H H,) is blank on the recto, and has 
the Aldine anchor & dolphin on the reverse. The poem is 
printed in very elegant italic : each page contains two columns, 
with five stanzas in each column. The five cantos, which 
were now printed for the first time, have a separate title, as 
follows : 

Cinqve Canti di vn nvovo libro di M. Lvdovico 
Ariosto, i qyali segvono la materia del Fvrioso. 
Di nvovo mandati in Ivce. 
The anchor and dolphin ; then 

Con priuilegio del sommo Pontefice, et della II- 

lustrissima Signoria di Vinegia, M. D. XXXXV. 
The reverse is blank. The first canto begins on the recto of 
leaf 2, A A A ij, with the following stanza : 

Ma, prima che di questo altro ui dica, 
Siate, Signor, contento ch' io ui mene, 
Che ben ui menero senza fatica, 
La dove il Gange ha le dorate arene ; 
Et veder faccia una montagna aprica, 
Che quasi il ciel sopra le spalle tiene, 
Col gran tcmpio, nel quale ogni quint' anno 
L' immortal Fate a far consiglio uanno. 


This stanza is omitted in the modern editions of the Cmque 
Canti, Its ttuthenticity being as indisputed as that of the re- 
mainder of this fragment, is an irresistible proof that the poet 
did not write with the intention of beginning a new poem ; 
although I think it likely that he altered his mind afterwards. 
See Life ofAr, p. czzviii. note n. In this edition, the five 
cantos are printed uniformly with the Furuuo, and condnde 
on the recto of the 28th page, as follows : 

Manca il fine. A A A to D D D. Tutti sono 

quaderni, eccetto D D D, ch' e duerno. In Vi- 

negia, nell' Anno M. D. XLV. In casa de' Fi- 

gliuoli di Aldo. 

On the reverse, the Aldine anchor and dolphin. 



Orlando Fvrioso di M. Lvdovico Ariosto or- 
nato di varie figure, con alcune stanze del medesi- 
mo nuouamente aggiunte, et alcvne altre del S. 
Aluigi Gonzaga in lode dell' istesso. Aggivntovi 
per ciascvn Canto alcune allegoric, & nel fine vna 
breue espositione et tavola di tvtto quello, che 
neir opera si contiene. Con gratia et privilegio. 
Underneath the phoenix, and then : 
In Vinegia appresso Gabriel Giolito de Ferrari. 
MDXLVII.; 4to. 

The whole of the title-page is surrounded by the usual 
wood-cut border ; the reverse is blank. On the next leaf is 
the dedication to the Dauphin ; and the poem begins on the 
recto of leaf 3, sig. A iii. It is printed in italic, and follows 
closely the editions of 1542 and 1543, 4to. It ends, like them, 
on the reverse of 25 S, with only the words : 

II fine. 
On the recto of leaf 259 there is : 


Stanze di M. Lodovico Ariosto : nelle quali se- 
guitando al Canto trentesimo secondo la materia 
del Fvrioso, si descrive la roina di Roma et d* 
Italia dal tempo di Costantino per insino alia no- 
stra eta. 
Then, after the wood-cut of C. 32, the stanzas beginning, 

La gentil Donna che da questa figlia, 
which conclude on the recto of 263. The stanzas of Gonzaoa 
to Ariosto and to his own lady, are on the three following 
pages, and conclude on the reverse of 264, last leaf of KK. 
There are therefore 264 leaves numbered in this edition. 
Then follows : 

Espositione di tutti i luoghi, &c. 
On the reverse of which is the sonnet of Dolce under 
Ariosto's portrait. The preface of Giolito is on the follow- 
ing page. Then 

Dimostratione di molte comparationi, &c. 
as in 1543 ; and after, on the seventh leaf of* *, 

Espositione di tutti i vocaboli et luoghi difiBcili, 

which occupies fifteen pages instead of five, as is the case in 
the edition of 1542. To this is added : 

Varie et bellissirae descrittioni dell' Ariosto, &c. 
This occupies six pages, to the recto of * • • ♦, on the verso 
of which the Tavola, concluding on the recto of the sixth 
leaf. On the reverse : 

II Registro delP opera ; 
which is firom A to Z, firom AA to KK, and from * to * * * *. 

Tutti sono quademi, eccetto ♦ ♦ ♦ * ch' e terno. 
Under this the phcenix ; and below it : 

In Venetia appresso Gabriel Giolito de Ferrari. 

These last thirty leaves are not numbered. 
To this volume is added an edition of the Cinque Canti by 


the same printer, with the lame types, and in the same form, 
but dated 1559. I traDscrib| the tide-page as a proof of 
the tomma diUgenza that Giolito took in reprinting the 

Cinque Canti di un nvovo libro di M. Lodo- 
vico Ariosto, i quali seguonono la materia dell* 
Orlando Fvrioso. Di nvovo con somma diligenza 
ristampati, e corretti dall' origionale di mano 
deir Autore, con le Allegoric, e Tauole delle cose 
che in essi si contongono; & con alcune altre 
Stanze del medesimo, che mancauano, aggiunte 
e poste a i lor luoghi nuouamente. Con privilegii. 
The device of Giolito, and then 

In Vinegia appresso Gabriel Giolito de* Ferrari, 



Orlando Fvrioso di M. Lvdovico Ariosto or- 

nato di varie figvre, con alcvne stanze et cinque 

canti d' vn nvovo Libro del medesimo nuova- 

mente aggiunti & ricorretti. Con alcvne allegorie, 

et nel fine vna breue espositione et tavola di tvtto 

quello, che nell* opera si contiene. Con privi- 


Then the device of Giolito, and beneath it : 

In Vinegia appresso Gabriel Giolito de Ferrari. 


The whole surrounded by the usual border. 4to.- 

The title-page, as well as the rest of the volume to the 
end of folio 264, is an exact copy of the preceding edition; it 
is so like in every respect that it might be easy to mistake 


the one for the other. The foUowing differences will enable 
the collector to distiaguish them. 

At the end of Canto XI, XV, XXXVII and XLIV, the 
edition of 1547 has the words 

ii. fine del vndecimo (or qvintodeciho, &c.) 


That of 1548 has nothing whatever. Instead of II Vine at 
the end of Canto XLIV., the edition of 1547 has 1l fikf. 
The cut of Canto XXYI. is turned upside down in the edition 
of 1547, but IB right in 1548. Instead of 158, that leaf is 
marked only 58 in 1547. The seventh line of the second 
stanza, second column of 262 retro is 

Cacci gli Saraceni, a iquai Lucera, 
in 1547. In 1548 it is 

Cacci gli Saractni, a iquai Lucera. 
On the reverse of 263 there are eight stanzas of Gonzaoa in 
pnuse of Ariosto, in the edition of 1547 ; in that of 1548 
there are nine ; and the remaining four stanzas are printed all 
in the first column of 264, in the edition of 1547, preceding 
those to Gonzaga's lady, which have no head or title what- 
ever. But in the edition of 1548, the three last stanzas to 
Ariosto occupy the top of the two columns on the recto of 
264 ; and then, in the space of half a stanza each column, 
there is, in capitals, across tiie page, stanze amorose del 


The Cinque Canti come next, with the following title : 
Cinque Canti di vn nvovo libro di M. Lvdo- 
Tico Ariosto, i quali segvoiio la materia del Fv- 
rioso. Di nvovo con somma diligenza ristampati, 
& corretti dall' originale di mano dell' Auttore, 
con le AUegorie, & Tauola delle cose, che in essi 
si contengono ; & con alcune altre Stanze del me- 
desimo, che mancauano, aggiunte & poste a i suoi 
luogki nouamente. Con priuilegio del sommo 
Fontifice, & della lUustrissimaSignoriadi Vinegia. 

BIB. NOT. * E 


BcDMlli h dH davka of OtOLlTO, with te dale at die bstton : 
In Vinegia appmso Gabriel Gioiito de Ferrari 

Tbe reverie ii blank. The Cinque CatiU be^n on the redo 
of tbe fallowing leaf^ marked S ^. AAA iL The; end on 
the recto of leaf 31, nilb the wordi hanca ii, fihe, succeeded 
by b, ReeiiTKO dell' oteba; wUdi li from A to Z; &om 
AA lo K¥( ftom AAA to DDDi and ftom • to****. 
Tutti sono Quademi, eccetto • • • " ch' 6 Tenio. 

Then the phtenli, and after: 

In Venetiaappresso Gabriel Gioiito de f'erraii. 

The releiM b blank, and lo U the Ian leaf of DDD. Thii ii 
the firtt edllioQ of the Ciagiit Canti by Qioi:,iTO, who added 
levetal itauiu that are not to be found in the Aldine editkia 
of 1545, and ondtled the first stanza : 

Ma prima che di questo altro vi dies, &c. 

As to it] merits, gee the Liie of Ariosto, [p. dliv. Thai 
fallows the EtfKniHone, Sic,, by Dolce, with its own title- 
page, on the Tcno of which is the portrait of Ariobto 
and the usual sonnet. The letter of Gioliio ia wanting be- 
eaoie iig> * ■■ la wanting in this copy, and die DiMoaT&a- 
TiOHE is contained in 24 pages, not numbered,, exactly like 
the edidon of 1547 i so ate the 15 following ones, containing 
the Etfaiilimt ; and also the six next pages of FarU tt btl- 
Uttime deicTittiimi. The Tavota is of elcren pages, as die 
contents of the Cinqtte Canti hare been incorporated with 
those of the Furioia. 


Orlando Fvrioso di M. Lodovico Artosto di 

nvovo ristampato con nvova givnta di cinqve 

del medesimo avtore non piv veduti, £t cpn le 

altre cose che nelle altre nostre impressioni si con- 


tengcmo* Con gratia et privilegio. In Vinegia ap- 

presso Gabriel Giolito de Ferrari.^MDXLIX. 4to. 

This tide la surrounded by a yery bancUome wood-cut 
border, in which are engraved the words con gratia et 
PRIVILEGIO. The spread phcenix of Giolito is on a ground 
formed by a trapestry gracefully hanging. The reverse is 
blank. On the recto of the next sig. A tt, marked 12 instead 
of 2, is the letter of Giolito to the Dauphin. The poem 
begins on the recto of leaf 3 sig. A n't ; and at the beginning 
of the second canto, which commences on the reverse of 
leaf 7, instead of Canto seconoOj it is Canot secondo. 
The type of this edition is italic^ and there are two columns on 
each page, and five stanzas in each column^ the poem con- 
cluding on the reverse of leaf 258, simply with the words il 
fine. On the recto of 259 the stanzas in continuation of 
Canto 32, which terminate on the recto of 263. On the re- 
verse, Gonzaga's stanzas to A&iosto and to his own lady» 
concluding on the verso of 564, followed by a new title: 

Cinque canti di vn nvoyo libro di M. Lvdovico 
Ariosto, iqvali segvono la materia del Fvrioso. Di 
nvovo con somma diligenza ristampati, & corretti 
dall* originale di mano dell* Auttore, con le Al- 
legoric, & Tauola delle cose, che in essi si con- 
tengono ; & con alcune altre Stanze del medesiinoy 
ehe nugicauano, aggiunte & poste a i suoi luoghi 
nooamente. on Priuilegio del Sommo Tontefice, 
e della Illustrissima Signoria di Vinegia. In 
Vinegia appresso Gabriel Giolito de Ferrari 

The reverse of this title is blank, and the edition is precisely 
like that of 1548, described above. At the end of the five 
Cantos, on the recto of leaf 31, comes the register, of as many 
letters as hi 1548, then Ctiolito^b phoenix, and lastly the 
colophon : 


In Venetia aj^resso Gabriel Giolitode Ferrari. 
M. D. XLIX. 

The reverse is blank, and ia fioQowed by a leaf whoDy blank. 
From the last signature of asterisks it woold seem, that 
what fellows here is misplaced, and that it should precede the 
Cinque Canti instead of following them. Yet as it is so in the 
edition of 1548, it may be that it was intended to be placed 
where it is. In this copy, therefore, after the title-page, fol- 
lows the Etporitione ; and the title itself, as well as the rest 
of this piece, is. copied from the edition of 1548, and, like it, 
it is called sesta editions. The two editions are so very 
Uke each other that it is only after yery dose inspection that I 
have been able to find out slight means of distinguishing them. 
For instance, on the recto of * iii, in the sixth line from the 
bottom, in the edition of 1548, the whole of the word ' celebra' 
is contained in that line, whilst in 1549 there is only ' cde' in 
that line, and ' bra' in the next In the 16th line from the 
bottom of * iiii, recto, I find, in 1548, 

ordinaua le fortezze & le fabriche ; 

whilst in 1549 it is, 

ordinaua le fortezze & le fabrice. 

In the seventh line, from the bottom of the recto of * *, 
* sprezzando' is correctly spelt in 1549, but it is ' sprczzaodo' 
in 1548. In the thirteenth line from the top, on the recto of 
** iiiif the word 'apparenza* is <apparen-za' in 1548, .and 
' appa-renza' in 1549. In the eighteenth line from the bottom, 
on the recto of * * tt, we read ' monti & popoli' in. 1548, 
but * monti et popoli' in 1549 ; finally, on the last line but one 
of the second column of the last leaf, recto, the word * con- 
for-ta' is so divided between that line and that which fol- 
lows in 1548, whilst the whole word * conforta' is contained 
in the former line in 1549. 

The resemblance of these two editions is likewise very dose 
with respect to the text of the Furioso, I have already stated, 
that the edition of 1548 is much like that of 1547 ; it is there- 


fore dear that also the 1549 is like 1547. In all the points 
of difference observed between 1547 and 1548, that of 1549 
agrees with the latter. There is, however, some other ^Ufferenoe 
between these three editions. In the allegory of the fourth 
canto, the editions of 1547 and 1548 read ' Oineura,' and 
* adolterii ;' that of 1549 haa ' Geneura* and < a4ulterij.' 
The first line of the allegory of c zix. ends with the syllable 
ha of the word *hanendo,' in the editions of 1547 and 1548, 
bat it is carried to the following line in 1549. The allegory of 
c zzvL in the third and fourth line, is as follows in 1547 : 

Mandricardo, & tra Mar- 

In 1548, it is 

Mandricardo, & tra 

Marphisa ; 
In 1549, 

Mandricardo, & 

tra Marphisa. 

These discrepandes are suffident to distinguish these editions, 
and to show that they are distinct impresaons. 


kihq's libbas'i and chracherode collection in the 

british museum. 

Orlando Furioso, &c. 8vo. Giolito. 

The title of this e^tion is exactly like that of 1548. The re- 
verse is blank ; then the dedication on the second leaf, and 
after, the poem, beginning on the third leaf, sig. A Hi. Each 
page contains two columns, and there are five stanzas each 
column, in a very neat italic. This is a most elegant vo- 
lume. The poem condudes on the recto of 263, and is fol- 
lowed by the stanzas written in continuation of c. 32, then by 
those of Gonzaoa, and lastly, by the title of the Cinque Canti, 
verbatim firom the edition of 1548, with the verso blank. 
The leaves are numbered as fiir as 300 only, on the verso of 



wUck tbcjiM santot cMKluds, Mid tbolr title-fug* ii mu-kcd 
170. Tha (itk-p«ge of (he EtpoiUiimt, &c, hu the poctnii 
of Abimto Kod waMt <i Dolcs on the merae, then the 
letter of QtoLiro to tha naden on the two fbUawing pages. 
The DimattTation* occDpfe* SI peget; Ibe Eipontiime 15 ; and 
therBtw<all; *I1 williout pagiiuUion, bnt with the ligDatiurea 
Oathe recto of the sghlh JeeT oT SS ii the reguteFfimn A M 
Z, and fraa A A to S S : Tutti wno qiudemi : 
Tbeo the detlce of GioIiIto, and uDdemeaih : 

In Vinegia appreuo Oabri^ GioliMdl Fermi. 

The lerene li blank. Tbii last leaf ia wautfaig in tlie King'i 
copy, but that ia the Chbacheeode Collection ii perfect. 

To theae noticea of the editjoos of the Fttriote which ap- 
peared to the yeai 1550, an account of (wo hitherto unnoticed 
publicationa connected with ttiia poem is appended. The 6nt 
Is the Btory of Giocotida, separately printed. It conaists af 
one aheet oulj', in 4to., having the following title on the top of 
the fint page, in Kmi^tbic type : 

Hystoria del Re de Pauia il quale haueodo 
ritroiiata la Regina in adulterio, se dispose in- 
sieme con vn compagno cercar pii) paesi : & far 
con le femine daltrui quelche le loro avean fatto 
ad ambediii. 

Thena rude wood-cot, representing the unTortunate king peep- 
ing through a crence in the wall, with Giocondo behind him ; 
and in the other compartment, her m^jetly with the dwarC On 
the left of the engraving, the words : 

Chi vuol vedere ; 

Uedera coaa tnolto marau^liosa. 

OF ra>ITI0N8 OF AmOBTO. [71] 

Then fiaUowa the ttoiy, piinted iaromiB, I j n g imiii i g ; 

A 61i mei carmi non inuoco ideo 

cbe nel (alj sexo feminO sia fido amko 
ne del sacrato fonte p^;a8eo 
alcun &uor de muse aquel chio dico 
ma solamente el mio fiunoso orpheo . 
clie fti gia dele donne alfin nimico 
& perche contra lor dir maj^arecchio 
lui mia guida sera mia luce especchio, 

Astolfo Re de longobardi quelle, &c. 

The text is nearly that of the two fint editioni of the Ariofe. 
After the stanza 

Conchiuso ch' ebbon questo, cbiamar fero 

follows one, of which the fiist four lines only are in the first 
edition, the renuunder hdng from the e£tor of the tract, who 
also added two more stanzas, which condnde the story. I 
shall transcribe only six lines of the first of these three stanzas : 

n Re il primo figliol cbe poi gli nacque 
nono a battesmo Strano desiderio 
ma poi crescendo Strano se gli tacqne 
cbe pel nano ala madre era improperio 
stampar si bella istoria mi piacque 
per &r palese un tanto vituperio, &c« 

At the end <^the last line there is 

and then ; 

^ In Venetia per Agustino Bindoni. 

Eadi page consists of two colunms. On the first page, are only 
fonr stanzas ; then ten on each of the others, excepting the 
seventh, on which are eleven. This rare tract forms part of 
the GasNViLLE collection. 




In tlie King*! UbcHT, at ihe BiilUi Hnnum, thoe U in- 
othlr tnct coniiMing of onl j four IcKTca, ■mall 8to. frith the 
fbOowing title-page : 

Stanze transtnutate del Ariosto cod una Can- 
zone bcllisBitna pastorale. Et uno Sonetto in 
laude de la Bella de la Donoet & aecondo i costinni 
dj paesi. Ad Instaa^a de Leonardo ditto il For- 
lano. M. D. XLV. 

Thia title U luniiunded bf ■ nDOd-cut border, leproenting 
mudcal ioatrumenti and arabeique flgurea ; the ground a 
coTered irllh white ipou, formed by holes puached in the 
block, in the maiuiet wid to be m pecoliarl; Da Namto'i. On 

Sonetto della belta delle donne secondo il co- 
stume di paesi . 

Thii il a wielcbed eompDndon, unirortby of baag again 
printed. Then foUov the Ainuf fratmntoft, be^ponit^g tbiu : 
Donne leggiadre nel cui rago seno 
e ne gliocehi sereni alberga Amore 
poi che vostra merze mi trouo pieno 
d' in&oita dolcezza il pett' e core 
s' el vostr' alrao valor non mi vien meno 
faro cbiaio aparir nel tnondo fuore 
quant' errasse lontan dal ver sentiero 
chi mai di biasmar voi ebbe pensiero. 
E quanto al tempo nostro ancbor piu degni 
d' etemo biasmo sian que! c' hanno ardire 
per qualche auoi malign! ingiusti sdegni 
muouer contra di voi lor ardent' ire 
ma piu d' ogn' altro quei che con piu segni 
d' una estrema pazzia mouoosi a dire 
col fier pagano, i versi cbe perfiero 
adegno, gi& scrisse 1' Arioslo altiero 


Nod s' accoTgiendo che si come hauea 
d' ingiuBto sdegno il saracin dolente 
r anima carcha : cosi anchor douea 
di se Btesso dolersi e : giustamente^ 
e dir : Ingegno, e non come dicea, 
di Domia come stai pur fermamente 
verace e, proprio ogetto della fede 
o felice o beato chi ti crede. 

The abuses which Ariosto supposes to have been uttered 
by Rodomonte against the fiur sex, (see Orl. Fur, c zxvii. 
from St 117 to St. 121,) have been thus parodied into praises. 
Then is added the following stanza : 

Se cosi hauesse detto *1 fier pagano 
o clii per sue parole contra voi 
mosse la lingua, col ceruel insano 
haueriaf^aoria^ adimpito in parte i doner suoi, 
perd che non h in questo stato humano 
cosa alcuna perfetta senza voi 
Yoi sete il tutto, ma piu '1 uer diria 
chi mirasse tal* hor la Donna mia • 

Then immediately after a Canzone Pastorale. Moliiii» 
m his notes to the Poesie varie tT Ariotto, states, that it was 
pubfished by Poggiali as inedited ; that it had, however, 
been printed centuries before by DoNi in his Marmi, who 
attributes it to F. Jacopo de' Serti, but that Baldelli 
bas proved it to be Ariosto's. How, where, and when this 
was proved, does not appear. It is evident that Baldelli 
did not know of the existence of the impression now under de- 
scription, and which is a strong argument against his assertion. 
The tract was printed near the place where the son and 
other relatives of Ariosto lived, in a city where his writings 
were most popular, and the very year that Aldo published 


the first edition of tho Cinqu§ Cmti: yet tbe Cmvmte was 
not published as his, nor in a volume containing any of his 
works. The Canzone has notiiing of Ariosto's style. That 
it is of F. Jacopo is equally improbable, and the more so, 
because ],it only rests on the assertion of Doni, who rarely 
spoke the truth. The very words with which he introduces 
this Canzone render him stiQ more suspidoas, and are 
here given ; words printed between brackets occur in the 
first edition of the Marmi, 1552, but are omitted in that 
of 1609, 4to. Venice, Bertoni. NiccoLd Martelli, one 
of the interlocutors, being asked by Straba, his fiiend, 
whether he wants ' una bella Canzona nuova di trinca V 
answers, ' Non vo' cantii che io non son musico* Strada. 
lo dico parole, e son di quel raro uomo, e mirabile ingf^no 
che disse g^A all' improwiso [a Papa Lione] che sonava tanto 
suavemente la viola. NiccoLd. Quale ? Stra. Maestro 
Jacopo [de' Servi]. Nic. Come avete voi fatta ad averla, che 
non vuole che le sue cose vadino a tomo [a procesdone]. 
Str. In modo d'archetti.' — BiaL 7. Here we see the words 
oe' Servi, and Papa Lione, omitted in some editicms ; nor 
can it now be ascertained who was the impromnsatore alluded 
to by Doni. This, however, appears ; that Doni wished to 
publish this Canzone, not only as inedited, but as written by 
a man from whom no one could boast of having obtained a copy 
of his vefses. It is not the first time that Doni has men- 
tioned authors and books which never existed ; and if the F. 
Jacopo de' Servi here spoken of was a poet who never wrote 
verses, it was not likely that many persons could assert of 
having read them. From the tract before me, it is proved that 
this Canzone was published seven years before the first edition 
of DoNi's Marmif 4to. Venice, Marcolini, 1552. The Can- 
zone is so beautiful, that no apology is necessary for republish- 
ing it more correct than it has hitherto appeared, collating the 
editions of 1545 ; of 1552 and 1607 in the Marmi; and that of 
MoLiNi, 1824. Baruffaldi, who also supposed it inedited, 
gave only a few stanzas, which have been likewise collated. 



Quando 1 sol parte ^ 1* ombni il mondo copre, ^ 
£ gli Qomini e le fere^ 
Ne r^ alte^ selve e tra^ le chiase mura 
Le loro'^ asprezxe piu crndeli e fere' 
Scordan, vind dal sonno, e le lor ^ opre ; 
Quando la notte e piu queta^ e sicnra ; 
AHor r accorta e bella 
Mia cara^ pastorella 
A la^ gelosa sua madre si fura, 
E dietro"" a gF" orti di Mopso"* soletta 
A pi^ d'un lauro corcasi e m'a8petta.P 

Ed io, che tanto a me stesso son^ caro, 
Quanto a lei son vicino 
E'^ la rimiro e' in grembo^ le soggiomo, 
Non prima da 1' ovil torce^ il cammino 
U iniqua mia matrigna' e^ 1 padre avaro 
Che annoveran due volte' il gregge al* giomo, 
Questa i capretti e quelli 
I^ mansiieti agnelli, 

Quando io^ di mandra il levo, e quando il torno, ^ 
Che giunto^ sono a lei veloce e lieve 
Ov' ella in grembo lieta' mi riceve. 

* il d! parte 45. cuopre, B. M. ^ gl' homeni e le fiere, 45. 

* Per V, 45. « atre, B. • per, 45. ' lor, 45. ' flere, 45. 
k loro, M. i cheta, B. ^ vaga, 52. 9. B. and M. 

* alia, M. a n drieto, 45. « aglt, M. gli, B. « Mofpo. 
45. Mosso 52. 9. Mosco, M. ' ed aspetta, B. M. « sd, 
45. r O, M. 52 and 9. ■ o, M. 52 and 9. * bracdo, 45. 
» tore', 45. torde, 52. tordo, 9. « matregna, 45. f o, 52 
and 9. ■ fiate, 52 and 9. * il, M. 52 and 9. ^ Oil, 45. 
^ deest io, 52. and 9. * Quando di mandra io i' levo e quando 
10 i* tomo. M. • gionto, 45. ' lieta in grembo, M. 



Qnivi al coll' io,i d' ogn' altra cura sdolto, 
L' un^ bracdo allor' te cmgo, 
Si' che la man 1e achersa id sena ascosa, 
Co 1' altra il auo bel* fianco palpo e stringo ; 
E lei, ch' alzando dolcemente il volto 
Su la mia destia apalla il capo posa 
E 'u le™ braccia mi chiude 
Sovia il gomito" igntide, 
Bacio" ne gli' occhi e 'n la bocca' amoroia, 
E con paiole poi, ch' Amor m' inspirs, 
Cosl le dlco : Ella m' ascolta e mira. 

Ginerra miat dolce mio ben, che sola 
Ov' io >ia, in' poggio o 'n riva' 
Mi Btai Del core ; * oggi ha la quarta estate" 
PoichS, ballando al' crotalo e a la piva,' 
Vinceati U apeglio a le' nozze d' lola, 
Di che 1' Alba ne pianae piu* fiate; 
Tu fandulleCta allora 
Eri ; ed io tal, che aDcora 
Quaai noa aapea gir a la cittate.'' 
Fobs' io moiir'' or qui se a me^ non aei 
Piu cara che la luce a gli occhi miei. * 

■ il'oTio,45. ^D'uii,9. 1b1cii1,45. ■ Tal, H. > be) mo, 
4S. SS. and 9. <° B le, M. ■> Sovra '1 cubiio, *i uid U. 
• Budo, 4S. ' DC gl', i5. 1 fronte, SS. 9. and U. 

' 'd, B. • o riiB, 45. ' cot, 49. S3, uid 9. » i U 
quBitB Male, 53 and 9. * it, 9. ' cnilalo, aUs, 52 and 9. 
■ alle, B. H. ■ pante gU piil, 45. * Nod >ape> qoan 
gire alia cittate, B. M. I prefei tbe lioe Ed Ac text io a 
■Imple compodtion sncb at thli. Tbe one in the note ia much 
mora bBtmoiiioua. ° PoaN. morir, 52 and 9. Poauio,ItL 
' le tn, B. H. • B. and M. read : Can Tieppiil che I' alma 
agn occhi mid; which ia erldenllf an error. I find) in 45, 


Cosi dico io : Ella poi' tutta Heta 
Risponde, sospirando : 
Deh non t' incresca amar, Selvaggio xnio ! 
Cbe, poi che 'n^ cetra e ^n sampogna^ sonando' 
Vincesti il capro al natal di Dameta ; 
Onde Montan di duol quasi morio, 
Tosto n' andra '1^ quart' ^ anno, 
S' al contar non ni' inganno ; 
Pensa qual eri allot '^ tal° era anch* io : 
Tanto caro mi sei,° che men gradita 
M' ^p di te r alma e la mia propria vita. 

Amor, poiche si tace la mia Donna» 

Quivi senz* arco^ e strali 

Sceso per confermar' il dolce afietto 

Le vola intorno, e salta ; e, aprendo Y ali,* 

Vago or riluce in la Candida gonna, 

Or tra'* bei crini^ or sovra il bianco* petto, 

£ d' un piacer^ gentile, 

Cui presso ogni' altro e vile, 

N' empie, scherzando ignudo e pargoletto ;^ 

Indi tacito meco insiemeb ascolta 

Lei, c' ha la lingua in tai note gi^ sciolta : 

Can vie piu che Y alma et gli occhi mlei which is infinitely 
better, but not so simple, and at the same time so el^antly 
and happily expressed, as the line adopted. ' allor, M. 

* in, 52 and 9. ^ zampogna, 52 and 9. > cantando, 45. 
^ il, 45. 52. and 9. ^ quarto, M. ™ tu, M. ^ qual, 
45 and M. ® siei, M. p Mi d, 45. ^ senza arco, 45 
and M. "* confirmar, 45. confermare, M. . * Le corre et 
salta intomo, e aprendo 1* ali, 45. — Le vola intomo et salta 
aprendo 1' ali. 52. 9. and M. * tra i, 52 and 9. « crin, 
45. 52. and 9. * '1 bianco, 45. '1 casto, M. il casto, 52. 
and 9. ^ D' un diletto. 52. 9. and M. " ogn', 45. * ignudo 
paigoletto, 45. ^ Indi tacitamente meco, 52. 9. and M. 


Tirai ed Elpin paatori audaci e foiti | 

E d' el& giovenetti' 
Ambi le^iadri e belli senzs menda, 
Tini d' armenti, Elpin d' agni e capretti 
Pastor, co"' capei biondi, ambi, e ritoiti, 
Ed ambi prpnti a* canUr a ricenda, 
Sprezzan' ogni fatica. 
Per fimni a loro' amioa ; 
Mb nuIlo fia cbe del auo amor'' m' incenda ; 
Ch' io, SelvaggiOf per te cnieria' poco 
Non Tirsi, o Elpina, ma Narciio e Croco. 

E me (rispond' io) Nisa anoor ritrova 
Mi chiedei e prega che di se mi caglia ; 
Giovanette ambe, ognuna bella e scaltra, 
E non niai stanche di ballar"' a prova ; 
Nisa, sanguigaa di colore," aggaaglia 
Le rose e i fior rermigli ; 
Alba, i ligustri e i gigli ;" 

Ma ahre aimiP uon fia mail con che m' aaaaglia 
Amor, n' altro' legame, ond' ei mi stringa,* 
Bencfa^ tomasae ancoi Dafne e Siringa.' 

'EdieUpoTsnetti, SSandg.gtoranetti.M. ' go i, 53. 9 
and H. < in, 4S. Spreziano, 9 and M. SpreizandOi 

62. B fitnni loro, H. a lor, 45. ' Ma nullo aa, M' 

Mb nulla fia che del mia, 45. < cumrei, 4S ' £t I' ASm 
62 an d 9. See above, at. 3, ila. 6. I adopt Jlba to aivi' 
confusion. ^ Btringe, M. ™ ttanca di ballaA, V' 

* color, 45. 53 and 9. ° e ^1i, M. p anne, 52. 9 ip^ 
M. * rian mu, H. ' ne alUo, 52 and 9. ■ itriopi 
45. < Siringe, 45. 


Di nuovo^ Amor, scherzando come pria, 
D' alto diletto immenso 

N' empie, e conferma il dolce ttSetto ardente :' 
Cos! le notti mie lieto^ dispense ; 
£, prla ch' io parta' da la* Donna mia. 
Partita veggio al balcon d' Onente 
Da r^ antico suo amante 
L' Aurora vigilante, 
£ gli augelletti odo suaveinente^ 
Lei salutar, ch' al mondo ricondaoe 
Nel suo bel grembo la novella looe. 

Canzon, crescendo con qaesto Ginebro^^ 
Mostrerai cbe non ebbe® unqua Pastoie 
Di me piu lieto o piii' felice amore. 

« novo, 45. ^ deest ardente, 45. r fiele. If. * £waa, 
52. 9. and M. * daOa, M. ^ DaU', M. I do not like the 
porta and partita which foUowa it; but tfati doit eumeit be 
very well made to squaze mthfaedOf which I fhould odierwiae 
prefer. ° soavemente, M. ' Ginepto, IL ' non V cbbe, 
45. ' e piilt, B. and M. 

The varions readings are here noted with more than naiial 
care, as it seemed dearable to give everjr means tor dwiding 
whether A&iosTO has the merit of having written this Com- 
zone or not; for a merit it would be even fiv him. No la»- 
prwvitatore, let DoNi say what he wiH, nor poet, ezeqpt of 
the highest order, can have written it. 



LoDOYico or LuDOYico Ariosto was born on the 
8th of September, 1474, at Reggio in Lombardy, 
where his father, Niccolo, when governor of the 
fortress of that city, had married Daria Mala^ 
6UZZI, whose family still exists. He was the eldest 
of ten children, five brothers and five sisters, for 
whom, it is said, while yet a boy, he wrote a scenical 
piece, entitled Tisbe, which was performed by 
them in the paternal house at Ferrara, where the 
family resided. His inclination for poetry, as 
well as his talents, soon became evident ; but his 
&ther obliged him to stifle the former, and to 
turn the latter to the study of the law. It has 
been observed that most poets have been forced 
to apply themselves to that profession, which is 
one, perhaps, of all others the fittest for nourishing 
a poetical genius, as it requires readiness and 
versatility of talent, as well as a particular art in 
giving the colour of truth to fictions and a body 
to shadows. 

The Poet consumed five years in a pursuit to 
which he felt a strong aversion, and was finally 
allowed to give himself up entirely to his poetical 

ORL. FUR, I. b 


Studies.* He was then more than twenty years of 
age, and, as he confesses, could with difficulty un- 
derstand Phjsdrus. He resolved therefore to put 
himself under the direction of Gbeoorio da Spo- 
LSTi, to study Latin, intending, when master of it, 
to apply himself to the Greek literature. But 
Gbeoorio was soon obliged to leave Italy to follow 
into France Galeazzo Sforza, Prince of Milan, 
' of whom he had been appointed tutor, in conse- 
quence of which Ariosto did not enter upon his 
Greek studies ; and, to add to his difficulties, he 
was soon after, by the death of his father, left at the 
head of a numerous family, in narrow circumstan- 
ces, and with the heavy responsibility of having to 
superintend their education, and to provide them 
with situations in life. This, coupled with the loss 
of his most intimate friend and relation Panx>olfo 
Ariosto, so preyed upon his mind that he says he 
then wished to be released from a life, which had 
become a burthen to him.** 

* In his Elegy, de diversis Amoribus, the poet says that he 
was led first by his own inconstant disposition to study the 
law, and then to give himself to poetry. 

b See Satir. 6. The Satires of Ariosto^ .which I shall 
often have occasion to quote, being published io a different 
order in almost every edition, I shall here observe that I 
quote from the only correct edition of them ever published ; 
that of MoLiNi, Florence, 1824, in the Poesie Fane di 
L. Ariosto : 1 vol. 12mo. The Satires are there printed ui 
the following order. 

1. Da tutti gli altri amici, Ahnibal, odo, &c. 

2. lo desidero intendere da voi, &c. 

3. Perc' ho molto bisogno, piii che voglia, &c. 

4. Poi che, Anhibale, intendere vuoi come, &c. 
5* II vigesimo giomo di Febbraio, &c. 


The high respectability of his family which was 
related to that of the sovereign of Ferrara,^ the 
services of his &ther,^ and Abiosto's own talents^ 
opened the way to his being received into the em- 
ploy of Ippolito Cardinal d' Este, brother of the 
Duke of Ferrara. This happened about the end of 

the year 1503. In what character the poet entered 


6. Bembo, io Torrei, com' 6 il comun desio, &c. 

7. Fistofilo, tu scrivi che se appresso, &c. 

<> Ariosto*s family was originally from Bologna,irom which 
dty it was transplanted to Ferrara in the fourteenth century 
when Obiszo III. of Este, Marquess of Ferrara, married a beau- 
tiful lady of the fiunily of AaiosTO, by name Lifpa, who died 
in 1347. PiGNA vit. di L. Ariosto, extracted from his work 
/ Romanzi. The fact is alluded to in the Orlando Furioso, 
■xm. 73. PiGNA has peremptorily declared that those who 
say that the Ariosti are derived from the Aristi do not 
know what they are about. It is, however, to be observed 
that Ariosto thought so himself, as we learn from one of 
his Latin poems. Ad Futcum. 

Antiqua Fusd, daraque Aristi, 
Puer propago, forsitan et meum 
Ductum unde nomen, et meorum, 
Nunc Ariostum, at Aristium olim. 

' His father was at different times MaggiordomOf (master 
of the household) of Borso and Ercole, both Dukes of Ferrara^ 
Ambassador to the Pope, to the Emperor, and to the King 
of France, Governor of Modena and Reggio, at the head of 
the civil Mag^tracy of Ferrara, and intrusted with the com- 
mand of troops. He seems to have been a clever man, but 
rather obstinate, violent, and of a severe and despotic character. 
He was created a count by the Emperor Frederic; a title 
which was not lamhed upon unworthy individuals in those 
days, and which, it seems, was not to descend to his pos- 


the service of Hib Eiainence is not precisely ascer- 
tained. He seems to have been something in the 
situation of gentleman attached to the household: 
that he was not employed on account of his poe- 
tical talents will presently be shewn. Akiosio 
himself says that the prelate converted him from 
a poet into a postillion,* and expressly adds that 
If he granted him a scanty pension it was because 
he often travelled at His Eminence's command, 
not always without the peril of his life. 

It would be uninterestii^ to the reader to at< 
tempt to enumerate the journeys which he per- 
formed in the service of his master. Two of 
them, however, deserve to be noticed on account 
of their importance. The Poet was sent twice to 
Rome as ambassador to Pope Giulio II., no- 
minally by the Duke of Ferrara, but with ifistruc- 
tioDs undoubtedly received from the Cardinal, as 
it was he who managed the aflairs of state of his 
brother. The olgect of the first of these em- 
bassies, which took place io 1S09, was to ask for 
assistance against the Venetians who had attacked 
the Duke ; and that of the latter was to appease that 
furious Pope, who, after having been the original 
cause of the enmity between the republic, against 
which he had excited all the world, and Alfonso, 
Duke of Ferrara, then his ally, had become the 
firiend of the former and the mortal foe of the latter. 
His Holiness, of vrhose Christian meekness the 
history of the times affords more than one sample, 
threatened to have the poet-ambassador thrown 

* E, di poeiB, csTslUc mi feo. 

Sat. e. Set»iMS(tt. 2. 



into the sea/ He escaped, however, and arrived 
once more at Ferrara. It was on one of these 
occasions that he contracted a kind of cough, 
which, there is reason to suppose, shortened his 

But before undertaking either of these two 
journeys be had carried arms and had fought in the 
ducal army, commanded by the Cardinal himself, 
a circumstance which he mentions in his Latin 
poems.^ ' We are certain tliat he was at the battle 

' These fiicts are mentioned by all the biographers of 
Ariosto, by his brother Gabriel in his EpiceeUum on the 
death of the Poet, and by his son Virginio in a memorandum 
respecting bis fiither's life ; and are likewise alluded to by 
the Poet himself, who, in the second of his Satires, having 
occanon to speak oi the Cardinal's ingratitude, says : 

, Andar piil a Roma in posta non accade 
A placar la grand'ira di Secondo. 

We may also aigne fiom this that the Poet was chosen as an 
ambassador, when no body else dared to go to the Pope, 
whose violence and ungovernable temper were well known. 

S The Poet alludes to his having contracted this complaint 
on the second of his journeys to Rome. After the two lines 
quoted in the note above (<) he continues : 

E, quando accadesse anco, in questa etade, 
Col mal, ch' ebbe principio allora porse, 
Non si convien piii correr per le strade. 

This Satire was vnritten about eight years after the second 

b Juratusque pio celebri sub principe miles 
Expecto horrisonse martia signa tubs. 

Baruffaldi supposed that pio was a proper name* It is 
used in reference to the Cardinal who was commander of the 


of the Pulicella, which took place on the 30th of 
November, 1509, under the command of the Car- 
dinal.^ He was not, however^ present at the 
decisive victory which that prelate obtained on 
the 22nd of December in that year ; for he had - 
six days before gone to Rome on his first mission 
to 'the Pope.^ Most biographers seem to have 
forgotten that two battles took place at the Puli- 
oella, and that it was the first of them at which 

troops, and who was, therefore,'CaUed jmim by the Poet. The 
following lines which occur in his twelfth capitolo, have led 
some to believe that Ariosto fought at the battle of Ravenna, 
which took place on faster day, 1512. 

lo venni dove le campagne rosse 
Eran del sangne baibaro e latino, 
Che flora steUa dianzi a luror mosse ; 

E vidi un morto all' altro si vicino 
Che, senza premer lor, quasi il terreno 
A molte miglia noh dava il cammino ; 

E da chi alberga tra Garonna e'l Reno 
"^Idi uscir crudelti, che ne dovria 
Tutto il mondo d^orror rimaner pieno. 

It is clear from these lines that the Poet speaks merely of 
having seen a field of battle after the fight was over. It is not 
certain that he alluded to the field of Ravenna. Sansovino, 
who was born in 1527, was, I believe, the first who asserted 
this in the notes to this capitolo. It is observable that although 
the Poet mentions the battle of Ravenna twice in the Furioso, 
he never hints either at his having taken part in it, or at 
having seen the field of battle at a subsequent period. See 
Orl, Fur. xiv. 2 et seq. & xxxiii. 40. 

« GuicciARDiNi, Istor, xi. Orl Furies, xxxvi. 6. 

^ The Cardinal himself wrote a narrative of this victory 
which was translated into Latin by Calcaonini, among whose 
works it is inserted. The reader is referred to it, and to the 
Orh Fur, xl. 3. 


the Poet was present. It is stated by Pigna^ that 
Ariosto distinguished himself on the taking of a 
ship of the Venetians, but the assertion seems 
unfounded. Ariosto soon grew tired of a mili- 
tary, and disposed to an epicurean life ; a humour, 
however, as to which he candidly avows he did 
not know how long it would last.*^ 

Soon after his entrance into the service of the 

Cardinal, we find Ariosto engaged in writing the 

Orlando Furioso, It is generally asserted by 

his biographers, that he had not before this time 

commenced this work ; an opinion, however, which 

seems unfounded. That he was occupied about it 

in 1506, appears from a letter dated the Srd of 

February, 1507, from the Marchioness of Mantua 

to her brother Cardinal Ipfolito. Ariosto had 

been dispatched by his master to congratulate the 

Marchioness in his name on her confinement, and 

in her letter in reply, the lady says that Messer - 

LuDOvico*s visit had given her great satisfaction, 

having caused her to pass two very pleasant days, 

in hearing an account of the work which he was 

writing." It is difficult to ascertain how much of 

the Poet*s time was bestowed upon it. Besides 

the interruptions to which he was subjected by his 

military, courtly, and diplomatic duties, it seems 

that he at one time grew tired of his poem, and 

' Fit. di L. A. 

™ Eleg. de div. Amorib, 

** La ringrazio .... particolarmente di havermi mandato 
il dicto M. Ludovico .... havendomi cum la narratione de 
I'opera che compone facto passar quest! due g^omi non solum 
senza fiistidio, ma cum piacer grandissimo. This letter was 
first published by Tiraboschi, and was inserted by Ba- 
, RUFPALDi in his life of the Poet: 


his inconstancy made him think it better to give 
up a work for which no reward was to be ex- 
pected. The supposition that the poem was 
begun before he entered the service of the Car- 
dinaly although not generally received, is strongly 
supported by some passages in the Poet's Latm 
works cited in the note.^ 

* The Mowing lines wiU throw some light on these trans* 
actions, and make us better acquainted with the volatile temper 
of the Poet 

Hoc olim ingenio vitales hausimus auras, 

Multa cito ut placeant displidtura brevi. 
Non in amore modo mens haec, sed in omnibus impar 

Ipsa sibi longa non retinenda mora. 
Ssepe eadem, Aurorse rosea suigente quadriga, 

Non est, quae iuerat, sole cadente, mihi. 
Oh quot tentatas ilia est Tersata per artes, 

FestiYum impatiens retulit unde pedem ! 
Cum primum longos posui de more capillos, 

Estque mihi primum tradita pura toga ; 
Hsec me verbosas suasit perdiscere leges, 

Amplaque clamosi querere lucra fori. 
Atque eadem, optatam sperantem attingere metam, 

Non ultra passa est improba ferre pedem. 
Meque ad Permessum vocat, Aoniamque Aga nippem, 

Aptaque viigineis mollia prata choris. 
Meque iubet docto vitam producere cantu, 

Per nemora ilia avidis non adeunda viris. 
Jamque acies, jam &cta dHcum, jam fortia Martis 

Concipit sterna bella canenda tuba. 
Ecce iterum male sana inquit, quid inutile tento 

Hoc studium vati prsemia nulla monent. 
Meque aulae cogit dominam tentare potentem 

Fortunam, obsequio servitioque gravi. 
Mox ubi pertesum est male grati prindpis, illam 

Non tuUt hie resides longius ire moras. 
Laudat et seratis ut earn spectabilis armis, 

Et meream forti conspidendus equo, &c. 

Eleg. de Div, Amot. 


The words mox uln pertesum est male grati 
principis clearly show that Ariosto did not 
feel satisfied with his master's conduct daring 
the period he continued in his service. For- 
tunately for the Poet, the Cardinal did not always 
reside at Ferrara. After the peace with the 
Venetians he visited several parts of Italy, and 
then departed for Hungary, whence he re- 
turned about 1513. He again left Ferrara in 
1515, and although the Poet accompanied him 
part of the way, yet, on being taken ill, he was per- 
mitted to return to Ferrara, whilst His Eminence 
went to Rome. It is probable that Ariosto made 
the most of his time in working at the poem du- 
ring his master's absence. Notwithstanding his 
reasons for dissatis&ction, he dedicated it to Car- 
dinal Ippolito. The first edition of the Orlando 
Furioso, in forty cantos, appeared at Ferrara in 

From the first the work was received with 

great applause through Italy. One of the earliest 

praises bestowed upon it by a most competent 

judge, is recorded in a letter of Machiavelli, 

dated December 17th, 1517, to Lonovico Ala* 

MANNi. ' I lately read,' says the 'Florentine 

Secretary, * the Orlando Furioso of Ahiosto : it 

is a fine poem throughout, and some parts of it 

are wonderfiil. If he be at Rome remember me 

to him, and tell him, that I only regret that, having 

mentioned so many poets, he forgot me as if I 

were a blockhead. He has behaved to me in 

bis Orlando as I shall not behave to him in 

my Asino,* The piece here alluded to is the 


fntio d^Oro, a short poem by Machiavelli, 
I which, however, no mention is made of 


But whilst one of the greatest men that Italy 
ver produced spoke in such high terms of the 
oem, the prelate to whom it was dedicated, &r 
rom showing any mark of gratitude to the poet 
rho immortalized him, received him with an aria* 
>cratic sneer and a coarse question. It is gene- 
illy said, that on his return from Rome, soon after 
be publication of the poem, His Eminence ad- 
ressed Abiosto in words to the following effect : 
' Where did you find so many trumpery starieSf 
iaster Ludovic?" The Italian word, which I 
ender by the English trumpery storiest is fiir 
tronger, and as low and indecent as any in the 
inguage. Although there be but traditional 
vidence in support of this anecdote, it is proved 
>eyond doubt that the Cardinal of Este behaved 
ingratefuUy to the author of the Furioso, We 
earn from one of the Satires, that the Prelate 
poke publicly of his verses with the utmost con- 
empt, and in coarse language ; he declared, that 
o praise him as Ariosto had done deserved no 
eward ; that the Poet had done it for his amuse- 
aeiit and because he was idle ; and that he would 
lave been better employed in attending upon His 

P Egli r ha detto : io dirlo a questo e quello 
Voglio anco 

Non vuol che laude sua da me composta 
Per opra degna di nierc4 si pona 

S' io V ho con laude ne' miei versi niesso 


In the face of this conclusive evidence we must 
suppose either hlind, or else most unwarrantahly 
partial, those historians who affipct to douht the 
truth of the anecdote before mentioned, or who 
think that, perhaps, Ariosto complained too 
harshly, and without just cause, of a prelate who, 
say these writers, was a very high-minded patron 
of the arts fmd literature. In these praises there 
is not one word of truth. Ifpolito was a haughty, 
cruel, and grasping prelate, who, with an immense 
fortune, never did any thing for the good of man- 
kind. When only seven years of age he was 
elected Archbishop of Strigonia, in Hungary, by 
Matthias Corvino, his uncle. He exchanged this 
for the bishopric of Agria, in the same country, 
was elected a Cardinal by that pattern of a good 
Pope, Alexander VL when thirteen years of age ; 
and at his death. he was at once Archbishop and 
Bishop of Capua, Ferrara, Agria, and Modena 
(having besides been Archbishop of Strigonia and 
Milan); at the same time holding incommendam 
the abbeys of Fellonica, Pomposa, Brescello, 
Nonantola, and Gavello, besides sundry livings, 
producing altogether an annual rent of about 
fifty thousand crowns, which, in those days, was 
at least equal to as many thousand pounds sterling 
in ours. On one occasion, a messenger of the 
Pope having brought to him some unpleasant 
dispatches, he caused him to be severely beaten ; 
which excited so much the indignation of the old 

Dice ch* io V ho fatto in piacere e in ozio; 
Piti grato fora essergli stato appresso. 

Satir. 2. 


Duke Hbrculeb, his father, then living, that the 
Cardinal was obliged to withdraw to Mantoa; md 
he was only received into fkror again on the in- 
tercession of his brother-in-law, the Marquess of 
Mantua, who went on purpose to Ferrara as peace- 
maker. His morals were profligate, and of thiB 
he left living proofs; but an atrocity which he 
caused to be committed on the person of his half- 
brother, will show at once that he was a monster. 
One of the maids of honour of the Duchess of 
Ferrara once told him in joke (on his having ad- 
dressed her in such worldly terms as would have 
been highly indecent in any Cardinal or Bishop 
even of one diocese only), that the beautiful eyes of 
his brother Oidlio were worth all His Eminence's 
person. The prelate, offended or jealous, had 
the infernal malice to cause an attempt to be 
made on his brother, by some hired assassins, to 
put out his eyes. The unhappy man was most 
cruelly treated, and the abominable plot so iar suc- 
ceeded as to deprive the victim of one eye for 
life.i Even Barusfaldi admits that be was 

1 It U to be DlnerTed (hst some hiilortMu (unong othen 
OuicciASDiNi) mj, lliBt GlULio recoTered the use of hii 
eyn, nhich lud been pulled out, thiough the akill of pby- 
Biduu, wMUC athen contend that it was he himielf who put 
the eyes lata Iheir places, and that he was perfectly cored bj 
a miracle. ThU atrodoiu deed had well nig^t proved Ibe 
death of both ALfuOHSo and Ipfolito. A ccmpincy was 
finmed against them, headed by their other Cno bntbers, Pea- 
KANIE and OiULiO,which was discovered, and the conspinUon 
put to death, except theae two, who were imprisoned for lile. 
Ferrantb died in coolinemeiit, aAer thiity-lbur yean im- 
priaoomenl; aad GiULio, after baving been deprived ofhia 


haughty, passionate, and revenged, to such a 
degree, that he was hated by the people whom 
he was called on to govern in the absence of their 
sovereigns, both at Milan and Ferrara ; and that 
when he died, nobody regretted him except his 
brother Alfhonso : par nohile fratrum. For, in 
spite of all flatterers and court historians, this duke 
was not unlike his brother. When Ferrante, 
one of the brothers who had conspired against 
him, instead of escaping, as he might have done, 
threw himself at his feet, imploring his pardon, the 
Duke struck him so brutally with a stick on the 
face as to put out one of his eyes ; and there is no 
historian, not even Tiraboschi, who doubts that 
the Poet, Ercole Strozzi, was murdered by 
order of the Duke of Ferrara. Barotti, who 
examined the point most minutely, asserted it as 
a fact, and Frizzi assented to his conclusion.*^ 

liberty for the space of fifty-three years, was pardoned. He 
came out of prison on horseback, dressed in the old Italian 
costume, according to the &shion of the times when he was 
arrested, and which had become obsolete, and grealy excited 
the curiosity of the people. It is as well to add that Giovio, 
with his usual honesty, most disingenuously palliates the con- 
duct of Ippolito towards Giulio. Giraldi, embarrassed 
between his conscience as an historian, and his reverential awe 
of the House of Este, thinks it prudent to pass over €ub tilentio 
both the atrocity of the Cardinal and the conspiracy. Guic- 
ciARDiNi, IttoTs vi., asserts positively that Ippolito not only 
ordered the unnatural outrage against his brother, but him- 
self vntnessed its execution. It is to be hoped, for the honor 
of humanity, that this is not true. 

r Uomn. lU, di Ferrarot Art. Ercole Strozzi, and Ti- 
BALDEO. Memor, per la Storia di Ferrara, iv. 2 1 5. 


Of his immense revenue the Cardinal never 
spent one farthing, as far as we can learn, in pa- 
tronizing literature or science, and those histo- 
rians who assert the contrary, either are flatterers, 
or have written without well sifting the truth. 
Baruffaldi tells us, as a proof of His Eminence's 
liberality, that Francesco Bello dedicated to him 
the Mambriano,^ This biographer can never have 
opened the MambrianOj or he would have seen that 
the poem was dedicated to the Cardinal by Cono- 
sciUTi, and not by Bello, and the circumstances 
which we know of this poet's life warrant the 
inference, that Ippolito was' the very reverse of a 
patron of literature/ Postumo was in his ser- 
vice as physician only, or, perhaps, in a very 
different and meaner capacity.^ Moreover, this 
writer dedicated his poetry to Leo X. with whom 
he was in great favour at Rome, as early as 1514 ; 
and in his last illness he was received in a villa of 
Cardinal Rangoni, where he died in 1521, at the 
age of forty-one/ 

" Baruffaldi Vita di L. Ariosto, pag. 1 25. 

*■ See vol. i. pag. 303 et seq. 

" In certain lines <id Laedam Amicanif whom he invited to 
go to a chase in the country to amuse herself, among the 
reasons urged on her, to overcome her scruples, if she had any, 
he says there was, 

Ipse Urbis Pater Hyppolitus satus Uercule Magno. 

After which he adds the two significant lines, which follow ; 

lUi cams ego ; et per me carissima fies 

Tu quoque amans ; nostras sensit et ille fiices. 

▼ TiRABOSCHi, Stor^ della Lit. Itah vol. vii. part iii. cap. 


To refer to the praises of hungry literati as af- 
fording an argument, that Ipfolito assisted them 
with his bounty, is to appeal to the importunity of 
a beggar in proof of the liberaUty of the person 
from whom he seeks relief. Why, even Ariosto 
(and I am ashamed to have to record the fact, as it 
is the only stain on the memory of that great and 
good man) was lavishing his praises of the Car- 
dinal ; and did we not know from other passages of 
Ariosto's own works what was the result of this 
flattery, we might erroneously conclude, that His 
Eminence was a perfect model of a Mecenas. 
It seems that Celio Calcagnini was Uving in his 
house, and that he was under considerable obli- 
gations to him ; but the question is not, whether 
the Cardinal bestowed gifts upon Calcaonini, 
but whether he braved towards him with libera- 
lity as a patron. Ariosto states the question in 
these very terms himself. He says, * I grant that 
he has given me something, but I deny that he 
has given me any thing on account of my poetry. 
What he gave was as a reward for my journeys and 
dangerous missions on his account. He makes 
presents to those who follow him in his pleasant 
excursions in the country, to his valets and me- 
nials, and to diose who keep company with him 
all night, till they drop down asleep.*'' Now it 

4. § 8. This drcumstance makes me doubt the date of a 
power of attorney of Postumo to Ariosto, published by Ba- 
RUFFALDi, Append, n. iv. It has no date ; and I do not 
know on what grounds the biographer supposes it to belong 
to the year 1514 or 1515. 

^ See Sat, 2. The lines here more particularly alluded to 
are as follow : 


seems that Calcaomini was a very 4iumble fol- 
lower of His Eminence, and £u: from cherishiog 
those noble feelings of independence and self-re- 
spect, which give so much dignity to the charac* 

ApoUo, toa mercd ; tua mercd, santo 
CoUegio delle muse; io non possiedo 
Tanto per Yci, ch' io posaa fiurmi an manto. 

' Oh ! il dgnor t' ha dato :* Io vd conoedo, 
Tanto che frtto m* ho piii d' on manteHo ; 
Bfa, che m' abtna per voi dato, non credo . . . • 

A chi nel barco o in villa 11 seg^e, dona ; 
A chi Io veste, o spoglia, o pona i fiaschi 
Nel pozzo per la sera in fresco a nona: 

V^ghi la notte, insin che i Bergamaschi 
Si levino a fiur chiodi, si che spesso 
Col torchio in man, addormentato caschL 

Barutfaldi has been pleased to give a list of literary men 
who were patronized by Cardinal Ippolito. Of those 
whom he mentions, besides Postumo and Calcagnini, there 
is not one who is known as a distinguished writer. Negri 
was a madman ; 'and Erasmus had the greatest contempt for 
him : Fiandscus Nigrus cujus non modo prieceptiones triviales 
sunt . . . sed nulla etiam eztat epistola, non dicam elegans & 
venusta, sed ne Latina quidem. Epist. part i. num. 43* 
He was a Venetian, and there is reason to believe that he 
was liked by Ipfolito, because he spoke and wrote (and 
probably gave useful information) against his country to the 
Cardinal, who was a mortal enemy to the republic. Marone 
was fiimous for making Latin verses impromptu : and I shall 
have occasion to speak of him in the notes to the poem. It is 
curious to observe, that he seems to have quarelled with the 
Cardinal, because he would not take him into Hungary, whi- 
ther Ariosto refused to go. It is, however, proved, that on 
some occasion Marone went to that country. He was not 
long at the court of Ferrara, and went thence to Rome, where 
he was much liked by Leo X, Had Ippolito been a good 
patron of Marone^ why should he have left him ? 


ter of Ariosto, as we shall presently see. He 
submitted to do what Ariosto would not conde- 
scend to, and our Poet seems to me not to give a 
very high character to this learned man. He 
selects him individually as an illustration of his 
meaning in a very disagreeable manner, and con- 
nected with observations far from creditable to 
Calcagnini's honor.^ Of the literary and sci- 

' We shall presently have occasion to speak of a journey 
of the Cardinal into Hungary, whither Ariosto refused to 
accompany him. Calcagnini went thither. Ariosto men- 
dons, among other things he had urged to excuse himself 
from undertaking the journey, that it would take him from 
his studies, which, says he, if they do not feed the body, at 
least feed the mind ; and he then continues : 

Fa che la povertli meno m' incresca 
E & che la ricche^za si non ami, 
Che di mia liberty per suo amor esca. 

Quel ch' io non spero aver fit che non brami, 
Ch6 nd sdegno, nd invidia mi consumi, 
Perchd Marone o Celio il Signor chiami ; 

Ch' io non aspetto a mezza estate i lumi. 
Per esser col Signor veduto a cena, 
Ch' io non lasdo accecarmi a questi fumi : 

Ch* io vado solo, a piedi, ove mi mena 
II mio bisogno ; e, quando io vo a cavallo, 
Le bisacce gli attacco sulla schiena. 

£ credo che sia questo minor fallo, 
Che di frtrmi pagar, s' io raccomando 
Al Principe la causa d' un vassallo ; 

O mover liti in beneficii, quando 
Ragion non v' abbia; e facciami i pievani 
Ad offiir pension venir pregando. 

It is at least very suspicious for Calcagnini's character to 
see his name mentioned on this occasion. 



entific merits of the Cardinal very little can be 
said. Calcagnini, who wrote his eulogium after 
his death, details wonders. But, besides the usual 
bias which sways the mind even of the most scru- 
pulous writer on such occasions, when writing a 
piece of declamation avowedly designed to praise^ 
CALCAGKim, who was under obligations to the de- 
ceased, would have been liable to the charge of in- 
gratitude, to say nothing of his inconsistency, 
had he fiuled to praise, when dead, the patron 
whom he had flattered when living. And, sup- 
posing Calcaonini disposed not to flatter the 
memory of the Cardinal, was he at liberty to fol- 
low his own inclinations ? Could he, at Ferrara, 
where a prince was governing, who had ordered 
the murder of Strozzi, could he, I ask, venture 
to say any thing which might sound unpleasant 
to the Ducal ears ? Moreover, Calcaokini passed 
into the service of Duke Alfonso, and after- 
wards that of the Duke Ercole, and he would 
certainly not have acquired favour with either 
of these princes, had he given them reason to be 
dissatisfied with his panegyric on the life of their 

In proof of the Cardinal's love of science it is 
said, that he invited into Italy the mathematician 
ZiEGLER, whom he had met with in his last 
journey to Hungary. Zieoler was in fact invited 
by Calcagnini (who had become acquainted with 
him on the same occasion, and' who, being a very 
learned man, and a thorough supporter of the 
doctrine of Copernicus, was a very good judge of 
Zeigler's merits) in the name of the Cardinal, to 


come to Ferrara as Professor of Mathematics, 
the chair of which was then vacant. Now the 
Pro&ssor of Mathematics was not paid hy His 
Eminence, and as to the choice of Zeioler in 
preference to an inferior man, such merit, as it 
has, belongs rather to Calcagnini than to Ippo- 
LiTO. Zbigler came to Italy, but it was afler the 
death of the Cardinal, so that his generosity was 
not put to the test.^ 

Such was the patron of Ariosto, of whom I 
thought it proper that at last, and for once, the 
truth should be told. Ariosto met with that re- 
ward from him, which he, knowing his man, ought 
to have expected. That he knew him, such as he 
was, we clearly see from his satires : yet he praised 
him. The praises of Ippolito were left in their pri- 
mitive strain of revolthig adulation, untouched, in 
the last edition of the poem, which was published 
twelve years after his death. We might almost 
admire this, if we could suppose that Ariosto 

^ With regard to the literary merits of His Eminence, it is 
said that he wrote originally in Italian the description of the 
battle of PnliceUa above mentioned. Suppoang he did, was it so 
great an effort ? Was there any clerk in Italy in the sixteenth 
oentory who could not have done as much ? I shall not stop to 
discuss how fiir we are certain that the Cardinal wrote that book 
in Italian; but when I see it translated into Latin by Calca- 
gnini, I am rather inclined to believe, that if that prelate had 
been able he would have written the work in that language 
bimself. I shall not enter upon an examination of his claims to 
the esteem of the world as a general. It might be disputed 
whether he had any talent for that profession, but his san- 
gninary character would have undoubtedly fitted him better 
for a merciless calling than for the meek one which he dis- 
graced by his vices. 



was induced to abstain from altering the poem, 
from any other feeling than a kind of reverential 
awe of Alfhonso, into whose service he had en- 
tered* He could not alter the praises which he 
had bestowed on Ipfolito, any more than Cal- 
CAONiNi could refrain from writing a flattering 
panegyric on his memory. 

We should not, perhaps, have known the 
real sentiments of Ariosto, with respect to the 
Cardinal, had it not happened that before the 
death of Ifpolito a coolness arose between the 
poet and his master, which ended in a total ces- 
sation of friendship, such as it had been up to 
that time. This being one of the principal events 
in Ariosto's life, it may be worth a more parti- 
cular notice. 

Iffolito was, as I have already remarked. 
Bishop or Archbishop of two different dioceses in 
Hungary. Were it only to take possession of 
the temporalities attached to those two sees, and 
to enjoy them, the Cardinal had been compelled to 
visit Hungary repeatedly. To avoid being em- 
broiled in some disagreeable political intrigues 
which were going on in Italy in 1 5 1 7, His Eminence 
thought proper to revisit the banks of the Danube, 
and he requested Ariosto to accompany him 
thither. The Poet alleged many reasons for his 
being excused ; and, as he himself observes, (in 
a satire addressed to his brother Alexander, who 
had accompanied the Cardinal into Hungary,) 
«very one of them such as ought to have been held 
sufficient. He did so frankly and openly : first, his 
health, which was bad, and which could hot stand a 


cold climate in winter; secondly, the inconvenience 
which the Poet suffered from stoves ; thirdly, the 
kind of food and of drink which he should have to 
nse, which were strictly forbidden to him by his 
physicians ; fourthly, his domestic aflairs ; for, 
as he remarks, of the five brothers, Charles was 
at Naples, Galasso at Rome, Alexander had 
gone with the Cardinal to Hungary, and Gabriel 
was a cripple, and knew nothing of business, so 
that he, the Poet, was left to provide a portion for 
the fifth of their sisters, who was going to be 
married* Then he observes feelingly : 

L' eU di nostra madre mi percuote 
Di pietft il cuor, chd da tutti in an tratto 
Senxa in&mia lasdata esser non puote. 

He adds, as a fifth reason, that although he then 

was only forty-four years of age, yet he had been 

bald for some years past, and was obliged to take 

every care of his health ; and he concludes, 

that he was more desirous to attend to his 

studies than to grow rich.' These reasons did 

not satisfy the generous patron of the Poet. He 

was angry, and deprived Ariosto of such marks 

of favour as he had conferred upon him, using 

besides very harsh language towards him. The 

conduct of Ariosto was noble and dignified, 

and it is with feelings of respect and admiration 

that we see the generous mind of the Poet roused 

by this tyrannical treatment. The author of the 

Orlando Furioso flattered too much, alas! the 

3Uui TU£ UFE OF A&I08T0. 

Cardinal of Este ; but he could not brook the 
idea of being treated like a slave, and he fear* 
lessly and openly expressed his sentiments on the 
occasion. 'I do not so much complain,' says Abi- 
osTOi ' that he should retake from me what be- 
longs to him, because I would not goto Agria and 
Buda, although it would be to take from me what- 
ever I have most valuable, as that he should de- 
prive me of his countenance and favour, call me 
ungrateful and faithless, and show by his words and 
actions that he hates my very name. It was for 
this reason that I never presented myself to him 
again after the day I went in vain to apologize for 

not accompanying him If for a stipend 

of twenty-five crowns every four months, and 
those, too, frequently not to be obtained without 
much pressing for them, it is expected that I 
am to be bound like a slave, and obliged to sufier 
heat and cold, without regard to my life or my 
health, let His Eminence be undeceived, and 
tell him, that rather than be a serf, I can pa- 
tiently endure poverty If the holy Car- 
dinal thinks that he has bought me with his pre- 
sents, it is not bitter or hard for me to return 
the gifts and to take back my former liberty.'* 

* A me, per esser stato contumace 
Di non voler Agria veder, nd Buda, 
Che si ritoglia il suo si non mi spiace ; 

(Sebben le miglior penne, che avea in muda 
Rimesse, tutte mi taipasse) come, 
Che dall' amor e grazia sua m' esdiida, 

Che senza fede e senz* amor mi nome, 
E che dimostri con parole e cenni, 
Che in odio e che in dispetto abbia il mio nome. 


I have translated the word tarpasse^ as mean- 
ing, it would be to take^ although it might also mean, 
he took. Some miderstand it so ; and this interpre- 
tation should be preferred, if it were proved that 
the Cardinal did actually take back what he had 
given, on Ariosto's refusing to accompany him to 
Hungary. Barufpaldi is of this opinion, but it 
does not appear to me that the documents quoted 
by him bear him out.^ 

E questo fa cag:ion che mi ritenni 
Di non gli comparir innanzi mai 
Dal dl che indarno ad escusarmi venni 

Se avenni dato onde ogni quattio mesi 
Ho ventidnque scudi ; nd si fenm, 
Clie molte volte non mi nan contest, 

Mi debbe incatenar, schiavo tenenni; 
Obbliganni ch' io sudi e tremi, senza 
Rispetto alcun, ch* io muoia, o ch' io m' inftrmi ; 

Non gli lasciate aver questa credensa ; 
Ditegli, che, piii tosto cfa' esser senro, 
Torrd la povertade in paz'ienza 

Or, conchiudcndo, dico : die se '1 sacro 
Cardinal comperato avermi stima, 
Con li suoi doni, non mi d acerbo ed aero 

Renderliy e tor la liberty mia prima. 

b Part of Ariosto's emolument consisted of the interest 
of one-third of what was paid to the notary of the Episcopal 
Chancery at Milan. I am of opinion with Barotti that 
this was not taken from him. This seems evident from a 
passage of the fifth satire where the author speaks of periods 
not only later than the last journey of the Cardinal to Hungary, 
but after his death ; 

Tanto piii die V uffido di Melano, 
Pol che le l^jgi ivi taoean fra 1' armi, 
Bramar gli affitti suoi mi fiu^a in vano. 

I take this to be the kind of rent from which he recdved the 


During the time that Abiosto remained in liis 
employi it appears that the Cardinal was any 

twenty-ftfe crowns every four months. Here, from the con- 
text, it leemf tiaX the Poet alluded to the events passing in 
Italy about 1581. Baruffaldi quotes documents in support 
of his opinion that the Cardinal took from Ariosto, together 
with his fitvour, whatever substantial proofr he had given him 
of his liberality, patronage, or gratitude. But of the docu- 
ments inserted in the appendix of Baruffaldi's work, under 
the numbers v. vi. vii. viii. & ix., the two first do not bear on 
the point. They are concerning a renunciation of the rectory 
of S. Felice made by Ariosto to the Cardinal, in favour of 
one Luioi da Mantova. These two documents have no date ; 
but we collect from Baruffaldi himself, pag. 142, that this 
renunciation took place in 1516; so that it could not be in 
consequence of the refusal of Ariosto to accompany the Car- 
dinal to Hungary, since the journey took place only on the 
20th of October, 1517. The other three documents bear more 
on the question, being dated the 11th and 16th of September, 
1517. One of them is a power of attorney of Ariosto to 
LuDOVico DA Bagno to renounce the rectory of BendedeUio 
to the Cardinal, that it might be conferred on Postumo ; which 
was done. That Ariosto should give such a power to a 
friend who lived in the same dty, and was one of the gentle- 
men attached to the household of the Cardinal, instead of re- 
noundng the living personally, would give reason to believe 
that it was because the Cardinal and the Poet had already 
quarelled ; and this would tend to increase the suspicion that 
Ariosto was forced to renounce the rectory. Yet from the 
tenor of the passage last quoted from the second satire, it is 
dear that Ariosto still enjoyed something which he was 
ready to return to the Curdinal; particularly the rent from 
Milan. Now if the Cardinal took from him the rectory of 
BendedeUio, why should he not have taken at once all that he 
had given to Ariosto ? It is also remarkable, that though 
the Poet admits that be had received divers things from the 
Cardinal, he only mentions the few crowns which be recdved 
from Milan, as actually enjoyed by him when he was writing. 


thing but generous towards him. Out of his 
large revenue he seems not to have given one 
farthing to the Poet. Instead of rewarding him 
out of his princely fortune for the services which 
he performed for himself and his brother, the 
Prelate gave him in payment trifling livings, of 
which he had the patronage, or pensions, or fees, 
arising out of the Episcopal Chancery at Milan. 
But of his own he gave nothing. No reward 

It is not known when Ariosto received the investiture of the 
two rectories and the gift of one- third of the fees at Milan, and I 
strongly suspect that these were successive . exchanges. I 
suppose that Ariosto gave up S. Felice to have Bendedellio, 
and this last for the Milan fees, which, of course, must have 
yielded a larger income. Hence the Cardinal may have been 
loud in complaining of the Poet's ingratitude, who refused to 
accompany him just when he had received a new mark of &vour; 
and hence we may judge why Ariosto mentions only the 
twenty-five crowns every four months, as the sum which he was 
ready to g^ve up rather than to be a slave. A letter of the Poet 
to Leo X., when Legate at Bologna, for a dispensation, has no- 
thing to do with these livings. The date of that letter is Novem- 
ber 25, 1511, when there is no proof that Ariosto was rector 
of either S. Felice or Bendedellio. The letter only concerns the 
living of Sant* Agata, as we may aigue from the circumstance of 
its having to be delivered by the old rector of that place, who 
was to present himself to the Legate for that purpose. It seems 
from the third satire, in which this same living is mentioned, 
that the old rector of this church, having heard that some 
person at Rome had a reversionary right to the living on the 
event of the death of the actual incumbent, was frightened into 
a bdief that this person, who must wish his death, might take 
means to procure it, and therefore transferred the living to the 
Poet, his cousin. He would not do this in iavour of Ariosto's 
brothers, or of any other person, but insisted upon renouncing 
to LoDovico only ; in this the Cardinal of Este had nothing 
to do. 


whatever was ever given to the Poetfor his poetry, 
either directly or iiidirectly» by the Cardinal. 
On the contrary, Ariosto often oomplainfl, not 
only of this, but of being obliged to give up his 
studies to attend to the biddings of his master. 

It appears by the letter from Ariosto to 
Cardinal de* Medici, afterwards Leo X., when 
Legate at Bologna, that this Prelate had made 
large offers of friendship and patronage to him. 
He also alludes to this fact in the satires, par- 
ticularly the IV. and vn., saying, that that Car- 
dinal had often told him that, when needful, he 
would never make any di£ference between Ariosto 
and his own brother. On his elevation to the 
Potitifical chair, when the Poet was presented to 
Aim, the Pontiff did not seem to have forgotten their 
old acquaintance ; he leaned from his throne, and 
embraced Lodovico as a friend. The hopes of the 
Poet were highly raised, but he soon had the 
mortification of being disappointed ; and, as he 
wittily observes, he left the Court frill of hope, 
but at night he went to sup, wet through, at 
his inn.<^ There were persons who expected that 
the Pope would in time do something for his 
friend, but Ariosto never deluded himself. He 
saw that there were many whose claims upon the 
Pontiff would be preferred to his own, particu- 
larly the political friends of the Medici, besides 
the numerous relations of the family. No sub- 

<* Indi ool seno e colls &lda plena 
Di spene, ma di fimgo moUe e brutto, 
La Dotte andai sin al Montone a oena. 

Satir, IV. 


stantial proof of the Pope's friendship was re« 
ceived by Ariosto, except that he remitted to 
him half the fees on a bull, which was made out 
by BiBiEKA at the Poet's expense,- as he himself 
pointedly observes some time af)«r.d This paltry 
gift was, however, more than repaid by the Poet's 
sending to the Pope the MS. of the comedy II 
Negromante^ which he finished on purpose, having 
beard that His Holiness wished for one of his 

RoLLi, in his notes to the satires, has expressed 
an opinion, which has been adopted by Gin- 
GUENi,' and which seems probable, that the dis- 
like of the Medici for the house of Este, and 
consequently for its dependants, was the cause * 
of Leo's neglect of Ariosto. Ariosto was a da^ 
cided enemy to a priestly government, as may 
be seen more particularly from the beginning of 
the first satire ; and his sentiments cannot have 
been unknown to the Court of Rome. He might 
also have thrown obstacles in the way of Leo's 
favourite scheme of investing with a large part of 
Italy his brother Giuliano to the prejudice of 
the House of Este. Besides, we must not believe 
that Leo conferred benefits, without being soli- 

' Di mezza queUa bolla anco cortese 
Mi fu, della quale ora il mio Bibiena 
Espedito m' ha Q resto alle mie spese. 


I cannot asoertain what waa the bull here alluded to. 

• Ariosto, Let. ef the 16th of Jan. 15S0. ap. Baruf- 
FALDi, Ap. n. zii. 

' Hist, de la Lit. Ital par. ti. ch. 7. 


cited; and Ariosto was not a man who would 
stoop to beg with that kind of flattering impor- 
tunity, which alone, generally, succeeds with 

After the quarrel with the Cardinal of Este, 
Ariosto quitted his service ; and from the 23rd 
of April, 1518, we find him inscribed among the 
gentlemen who received a salary from the Duke 
of Ferrara. Of his new service, he speaks in the 
fourth of his satires.^ He freely confesses that 
he dislikes to be obliged to serve at all ; yet that 
being obliged to depend upon others, he likes 
better to be dependant on the Duke, than to have 
to solicit alms from private individuals. Then 
he adds, that there is this comfort in serving the 
Duke; that he was not forced to interrupt his 
studies.. He was, however, sent by him to Ur- 
bino in 1519; but if he ever reached that city, 
he must have soon returned to Ferrara, as the 
nature of his mission did not require a long de- 
lay.** The fruit of the comparative leisure which 
he thus enjoyed, was an edition of the Furioso^ 

' Poichd, Annibalei intendere vuoi come 
La fi> col Duca Alfonso ; e s' io mi sento 
Piti grave o men delle mutate some, &c. 

Sat, iv. in prin. 

** He had been dispatched to condole with Lorenzo de* 
Medici (the son of Giuliano) Duke of Urbino, on the death 
of his Duchess. Ariosto, on arriving at Florence late on the 
4th of May, heard that the Duke also was dead. He there- 
fore wrote for instructions ; but he must have been ordered 
back soon. It might seem from some words of Ariosto's 
letter that he was not to condole with the Duke of Urbino 
only ; but it is a point of no importance. 


with additions and corrections, but still divided 
into forty cantos only, which issued from the 
press of Fiona, a printer at Ferrara, on the Idth 
of February, 1521. Baruffaldi has published 
a deed of agreement between Ariosto and a 
bookseller of the name of Giacomo Gigli, from appears that the work was printed at the 
author's expense. By that deed Ariosto agrees 
to sell to the bookseller one hundred copies of 
the work for the price of sixty livres (correspond- 
ing to about twenty-eight scudi according to 
Baruffaldi, or 51, 12s. st. in our days), on con- 
dition that Gigli should not sell the book at more 
than sixteen sous (equivalent to about Is. Sd, 
English currency of the present day), each copy; 
which is one-third profit as near as possible. 
Ariosto was not to give, sell, or allow to be sold, 
any copy of the work at Ferrara, except by Gigli ; 
and the bookseller, after disposing of these hundred 
copies, was to be at liberty to buy any number 
more he might want on the same terms. On his 
failing to require more copies, Ariosto was to be 
at liberty to sell his books to whomsoever he 

With such profits it was not likely that the 
Poet would soon become, I will not say rich, but 
so far independent, as to be able to leave the 
Duke's service, which he was desirous of doing. 
An event, indeed, occurred about this time which 
held out the promise of realising all his hopes of 
independence ; but it proved fallacious. This was 
he death of Rinaldo Ariosto, his paternal uncle, 
who died leaving a large landed property, which 


k Still adkd Le Arioite from its former pos- 
sessors. AuosTO claimed it as the next of kin, and 
a convent of friars also put in their claim in right 
of one of the brethren, who was an illegitimate son 
of RiNALno. The Duchy Chamber contended 
that the land belonged to the treasury according to 
the original investitmre of the property; and, the 
better to assert its right, the property was seized by 
this rapacious claimant. A law-suit followed; 
and the first judge of the cause was one Alfonso 
Trotti, the Duke's steward, and an enemy of 
Ajliosto into the bargain. The Poet ridiculed 
the Steward in two sonnets which we still read, 
and the Steward-Judge decided against him. 
Amosto appealed from the sentence, but died be- 
fore any decision was come to. After his death, 
the fiimily and the friars were both advised to 
give up their pretensions, and the property was 
declared to belong to the treasury of the Duchy. 
It was then given as a portion to Bradamante 
DA EsTE, an illegitimate daughter of Francesco,* 
the son of Alfonso, Duke of Ferrara, on her 
manying a nobleman of the family BEViLAcauA. 
From this fiimily the property passed into the 
possession of the Jesuits, and through them it 
fell once more into the hands of government. 

Besides a monthly allowance of about thirty* 
eight shillings, and provisions fi)r three servants 
and two horses, which Ariosto had received from 
the Duke, he is said by some writers to have also 

* This gentleman had two natural daughters, one of whom 
he called Marfisa and the other Bradamantei two names im- 
mortalized by Ariosto. See vol. ii. p. lxxix. 


enjoyed a kind of pension. But the only autho- 
rity for such an assertion seems to be some words 
of Ariosto,!^ which have been misunderstood. 
Babotti supposed that the stipend alluded to was 
an annual rent from some special taxes, which 
being suppressed, the Poet lost the annuity de- 
rived from it, and Ginotjen£ has adopted the 
story. The word stipendio, however, refers 
merely to the scanty monthly allowance above- 
mentioned. The meaning of the word, and the 
terms of the warrant, by which it was granted, 
clearly prove this to be the case.^ Even this 
salary he did not long enjoy. The expenses of 
the war caused its regidar payment to be sus- 
pended, and shortly afterwards the Duke with- 
drew it altogether. The Poet, alluding to the 
circumstance, does not make any serious com- 
plaint ; and as it is evident that he had not lost 
the fevour of his sovereign, we must conclude 
that this salary was an equivalent for services ac- 
tually rendered, and not a gratuity ; and that the 
Duke, being obliged to economize and to diminish 
the number of his attendants, Ariosto lost his 
salary in consequence. This seems to be the 
simple statement of the case.*^ 

^ . . . . lo solea star contento 
Dello iiipendio che traea a Ferrara. 

Satir, V. 

* Describere fSudatis in bulletta sHpendiatorum . . . doctiss. 
vinun Ludovicum Ariostum. 

"^ The Poet, i^waldng of the stipendio mentioned in the line, 
quoted note k, says : 


The twenty-five crowns every four months, 
which Ariosto was to receive from the Arch- 
bishop's Chancery at Milan, now his only resource, 
were not regularly paid, and the Poet found him- 
self in difficult circumstances. He appHed there- 
fore to the Duke and requested either that he 
might be employed, or be allowed to go else- 
where in search of employment.^ It happened 
that after the death of Leo X. the inhabitants of 
that part of the Apennines called Garfagnana, 
which had been seized on by the Papal troops, 
revolted against the Pontifical Government. They 
then applied to the Duke, to whom the province 
belonged, to send them a governor. The Duke 
in the hurry of the moment, as Ariosto himself 
says, considering more the necessities of the Poet 
than those of his subjects, sent him as com- 
missioner or governor of the province. He was 
both an executive officer and a judge ; for neither 
of which duties had he the least inclination. 
The country was according to Ariosto's account 
in a complete state of anarchy. The banditti 

Ma non sai forse come usci poi lento 
Succedendo la guerra ; e come volse 
II Duca che restasse in tutto spento. 

Fin che quella durd, non me ne dolse ; 
Mi dolse di veder che poi la mana 
Chiusa restd, che ogni timor si sdolse. 

ScUir, V. 

^ Ricorsi al Duea : o voi, Signor, levarmi 
Dovete di biaogno, o non v' incresca 
Ch' io vada altra pastura a procaodarmi. 




which infested it were so numerous that the sbirri 
or policemen (whom Ariosto calls another party 
of them) who were sent to put them down, dared 
not show themselves. Whether he remained 
within the castle or went to breathe the fresh air, 
die Poet says he was constantly obliged to hear 
complaints of robberies, murders, and the like ; so 
that he had always to be punishing and reprov- 
ing and threatening and fining. There was no 
safety out of the fortress. Often did the Grover- 
nor write to the Duke for assistance or for instruc- 
tions in vain. He was far from being pleased 
with his situation, and candidly says that, pro- 
bably, the people of Garfagnana were dissatisfied 
with him, and that, perhaps, severity rather than 
clemency should have been resorted to in go- 
vermng them ; from which we may argue that Ari- 
osto, like BojARDO, administered the laws mildly 
and mercifully.<> The biographers of Ariosto 
praise him for his behaviour in his new office ; 
but it does not seem that there is any weU estab- 
lished ground for extraordinary praises. He 
seems, however, to have done his duty honestly. 
To his great annoyance the Poet continued in 
Garfiignana the whole of the usual period for 
such commissions, which was more than three 

Towards the end of 152S, as we find from the 
seventh satire, Bonaventura Pistofilo, secre- 
tary to the Duke of Ferrara wrote to Ariosto 
to enquire whether he were willing to go as 
ambassador from Alfonso to Clement VII, 

^ See vol ii. pag. iii. 
ORL. FUR. I. d 


who had been elected Pope in the November 
of that yeu. Abjobto declined the honor in 
one of his beat compositions. It is possible that 
PiSTorii>o in making his application was moved 
by fiieodahip towards the Poet; bat from the 
relative position of the Pope and die Dnke, 
Akiobto was, of all otfaerst the man to be se- 
lected as the representative of the Duke at the 
Papal Court. We know that as soon as Clehent 
was elected, Alfonso was afraid that he would be 
his enemy as much as Gituo II. and Leo X. had 
been, and he-was not wrong in his apprehension. p 
PiSToriLO urged to Ariosto, as a motive for his 
accepting the proposed mission, that he was on 
intimate terms with the Medici, which was 
perfectly true ; and this was the very circum- 
stance that pointed out the Poet as the most ac- 
ceptable minister to the Pope, and the most 
useful to his sovereign. If (as I suppose, and as, 
it seems to nxe, Aaiosio also suspected) the con- 
fidential letter was written with the Duke's secret 
approbationi or, perhaps, at his suggestion, we 
may conclude that Ariobio's talents as a nego- 
tiator were considered as of no inferior order, and 
that hia honesty was deemed incorruptible, since a 
sovereign who had not behaved with particular 
kindness to him, did not hesitate to trust him 
with an embassy, which by its nature and in the 

' Per la crouiiKie di Clemente entrA (Alfbmo) In pandis- 
■iiao timore che per lui nan fosaeio liloniBti gli aniiclu tempi ; 
e meritamentei perchi ia lui, ee gli fossero succedute le com 
prospers, aarcbbe lUtala medeBims dispoBiiioae cbe era slatt in 
Ofnlio e in I.«iiie. Ocicciabdini Ittar. iP Itak Lib. it. 



circiinistances of the times might eventually have 
been of ^e highest oomtequence to the political 
existence of the House of Este. 

Refetenc^ having been made more than once 
to the Satire of AaiosTOy it will be proper to 
give here a short aceonnt of these compositions. 
They are sev^i in number, and might be more 
properly called epistles as they are addressed to 
his friends and relations. They were not printed 
until after dteir author's deaths and there was no 
good edition of thob before that lately published 
by MoLiNi mentioned* above.^ In these satires 
we see AaiosTo such ' as he was ; he speaks of 
himselfy of his situation, of his follies, and of his 
most secret feelings and motives with the candour 
of an honest man, and with the openness and un- 
reserved confidence of one sincere friend writing 
to another. With fhe same honest plainess with 
which he speaks of himself, he speaks of every 
body else. Ready to avow his own finilts, and to 
laugh at his follies, he does the same with those of 
other perk>n8. Although he be far from being 
a harsh judge of human frailties, his thoroughly 
honest and upright heart, kindles into indignation 
athypocnsy, craftiness, baseness, avarice, corrup- 
tion, ambition, or treachery, wherever it is found, 
whether among the high or the low. Possessing 
great knowledge of human nature, and endued 

* ThSf genUeman took the trouble not only of oomparing 
•erenl of the best editions of the Satire ; but also of collating 
them with an autograph copy which exists in the public 
library at Ferrara ; so that his edition is to be preferred to 
all others. 


with a quick unerring sense of right and wroi^, 
he does not require from men more than can he 
expected from human weakness, nor aim at a higher 
standard of morality than that useful and practical 
one which, consisting in actions and not in words, 
renders men happy and content with each other 
and with theinselves. The plain good sense which 
predominates through these compositions, tlie 
rational view which is taken of the husiness of 
life, and the sincere love of virtue which animates 
the Poet, give an unusual degree of interest to 
them* One is surprised to see Ariosto, as poe- 
tical a genius as ever conferred glory on a nation, 
arguing with the sohriety* of an honest gen- 
tleman, endowed with a talent for writing verses. 
The style of these little poems is such as suited 
them; fluent, simple and with a tinge of that 
agreeahle carelessness for which Ariosto stands 
imequalled. Yet he never ceases to be a poet ; al- 
ways elegant and new, he may, perhaps, sometimes 
he reproached with a degree of freedom of ex- 
pression which shocks our more refined ears ; but 
the fault belongs rather to the age than to the 
Poet. He does hot rave like Juvenal, nor does 
he stoop to borrow the language of the dregs of 
the people to affect indignation at vices, which are 
better concealed, than exposed to the execration of 
the public ; nor does he think it necessary to ex- 
cite disgust at the risk of defiling the mind and 
rendering it blimt to every delicate sensation. A 
thorough gentleman like Horace, he uses words 
and phrases which are becoming his rank, and he 
does not pollute his writings with the enumeration 


of revolting atrocities which may serve as an ex- 
cuse for less guilty offenders^ but which.will never 
either recall those who perpetrate them, or give a 
relish for virtue to the guiltless. He addresses 
himself to the reason and to the nobler feelings of 
men, and tries to convince their judgement and 
to win their confidence, not to render them misan- 
thropes or inclined to look upon virtue as a thing 
which never can exist but in the imagination of 

To the reader who is acquainted with the 
FuriosOf but who never read the Satire of 
Ariosto, it will seem strange that some Italian 
critics should have not hesitated to pronounce 
these minor poems equal in their kind to that im- 
mortal work. Great interest undoubtedly at- 
taches to the satires from the circumstance of their 
putting the author before our eyes in so charm- 
ing a light. In reading them we are as it 
were conversing in the most friendly and intimate 
manner with Ariosto, a poet equalled by few, 
and an honest man surpassed by none. Our ad- 
miration for his genius is raised 'to enthusiasm for 
his character by these compositions. Indepen- 
dently, however, of all this, the satires of Ariosto 
are possessed of extraordinary merit. To form 
an idea of them let us take a cursory view of the 
satire on Marriage, which is one in which our 
judgment is not in danger of being swayed by the 
affection that we feel for its author, as he is not 
personally concerned in it. 

The Poet had heard firom different quarters 
that his intimate friend and relative Annibalb 

xxxviii THE UFB OF ARKHTa 

MAuaozii was going to be tnairied. He tfaer 
fore wrote to him a satire, which b^ina with a 
friendly complaint of Akiosto tfatt hia relatiTe 
ahotild have concealed from him hia intention to 
marrf, of which he approved, although be had 
never married himself, which, be says, was owing 
to other circumstancea than a diaindination to 
that state. The very rererse, aays the Poet, is 
the truth: 

Ua M di puer aempre, e col dcUo 
L'ho ^Cl TOlte ; che, Kma mogUe A lato. 
Nod puDte uonio in bonUde «Mer perietto. j 

N£ KDia ^ pu6 Btar Miu> peccato ; 
Cht chi Don h> del mo, fbori ■ccattune, | 

Hendicuido, o inbaiMlala, t ftmato. . 

E cU ■' on ■ becfw deU' altnii came, 
Di*entagliloUo; ed oggi Urdo a qinglia, 
Dinitui bpaoi, un *ltn> dl vuol alarne : 

Noa ia quel che da unor ; Don a che ragUa | 

L> caritade ; e qidnf aTvien che i pred | 

8<HK> il Ingorda e at enidei canigUa. 

Che lupt dena e che uini indiscnd. 
He 1 ianeUe npei dii vid da B^gio, 
8e ^ '1 timer nan vi Uoxuk cheti ; 

Mb, ien» che 1 didate, io me ne >Tvegg;ia ; 
Ddla oiUnatB Hodeoa non pulo, 
Cht, tntto che ada mal, merta atar ftggfo. 

He then points out the folly of raarrying too late 
in li& ; and turning to Aknisale, he continues : 

Cu^n, &i bene ■ tor mogUeti ma SKolla: 
Pentad pnma; non Tina p<H diie 
Di no, M avnd di d detto una Tolta. 

In qoeito il ndo coiuiglio proferire 
Ti mo', e moatnr, le ben non lo lichiedi, 
Quel che to dei ccrcar, quel che Cagpn. 



Tu U ridi di me, forse ; e non vedi 
Com' io ti possa ccmsigliar, che avuto 
Non ho in tal nodo mai collo, n^ piedi. 

Non, hal quando dui giuocano, veduto 
Che quel, che sta a vedere, ha meglio spesao 
Cid che s' ha a £ar, che *1 giocator saputo ? 

Se tu vedi che txxxhi, o yada appresso 
II segno xi mio parer, dAgli il oonsenso ; 
Se no, rdputal sciocco, e me con esso. 

Ma, prima ch' io ti mostri altro compenso, 
T* avrei da dir ; che se amorosa &ce 
Ti & pigliar moglier, die segm il senso. 

Ogni virtude 6 in lei, s'ella d piace: 
So hen che n6 orator Latin, nd Greco 
Saria a dissuadertilo efficace. 

Taking for granted, however, that his cousin 
would listen to reason, he begins by recom- 
mending a careful examination into the characters 
of the persons by whom the young lady has been 
educated before going farther. Then, this being 
supposed satisfactory, he enters into a considera- 
tion of the rules to be followed by Annibale in 
choosing a wife, with respect to birth and riches. 

Non cercar chi piiH dote, o chi ti porte 
Titoti e fumi e piti nobil parenti 
Che al tuo aver si convenga e alia tua sorte. 

He shows the bad consequences attending upon 
a want of discretion on these two very important 
points. As for her personal appearance, he 
suggests a middle path; but he is more strict 
with respect to the accomplishments of her mind, 
and the qualities of her character. 


tcnipre lodd ; umpre dunai Ic enranc 

Sia dl boon' uia ; rii gentU ; nan donna 
Cod gU occhi spert) ; eht, jilt I'ener khmov 
D' ogoi (Itn ria dclbnniUi, ddbnn* 

Sia j^acerol, cortete ; da d'ofini acto 
IH (uperbla nemica ; oa glocoDda ; 
Non mcMa mai, noa aui col d^ attratu. 

Sia tetgognoMi aicold, e non ibponda 
Per te, on tu ria ; nt ecni mat, 
N£ Dtal itia in oiio ; na poUta e inond*. 

Di died anni, o di dodid, K U 
Per mio eonnglio, da di te nunorei 
IH pare o di fill ett, non la tor mv. 

Percht, panando, come ta, il ndgfiore 
Tempo, t i begli anni in lor prima cfae io nta, 
Ti panla ncchia, euendo anco tu in flore- 

Perit vorrei cbe 'I iposo avene i Buoi 
Treat' anni ; qnella etl cbe '1 fiiTor cow 
Freato al voler, pretto al penliru poi. 

Tema Dio ; ma cbe udlr pit d' una meua 
Voglia U dt, non nii piace j e tuo' che baate 
S'una, due volte I' anno li confeaia. 

Noa Yogho, che coa gli aaini, cbe baiti 
Non portano. abbia pratica ; at bccia 
Ogni dl liirte al confenocc e paati. 

After having thus suggested what a prudent 
man ought not to lose sight of in selecting a wife, 
he proceeds to point out some of the things which 
he thinks necessary to constitute matrimonial 


Cbe In fiuN;i anowr lenia par li»d. 



Meglio con la man dolce si raffbena, 
Che con forza il cavallo; e meglio i cani 
Le lusinghe fan tuoi, che la catena. 

Questi animal, che son molto plCi umani, 
Corregger non si den sempre con sdegno, 
Nd, al mio parer, mai con menar di mani. 

Ch* ella ti sia compagna abbi disegno ; 
Non, come comperata per tua serva, 
Reputa aver in lei dominio e r^:no. 

Cerca di soddisfiirle, ove proterva 
Non sia la sua domanda; e, oompiacendo, 
Qnanto piii arnica puoi te la conserva. 

Che tu la lasd far, non ti commendo, 
Senza saputa tua, dd ch' ella vuole ; 
Che mostri non fidarti, anco riprendo. 

Ire a conviti e pubbliche carole 
Non le vietar; nd, alii suoi tempi, a chiese 
Dove ridur la nobiltA si suole 

Abbile sempre, ai cluari tempi e agli atri 
Dietro il pensier ; nd la lasdar di vista, 
Chd '1 bel rubar suol far gli uomini latri. 

Studia che compagnia non abbia trista ; 
A chi ti vien per casa abbi awertenza, 
Che fuor non temi, e dentro il mal consista ; 

Ma studia fiurlo cautamente; senza 
Saputa sua ; chd si dorria a ragione, 
Se in te sentisse questa diffidenza. 

These extracts may be sufficient to give an idea 
of our author's style. It is not only the poetical 
merit of the composition which is to be admired; 
but the sound practical suggestions which are 
pleasantly and honestly offered by the Poet to 
a friend, who was about to take a step, on which 
depended mainly his future happiness for life. 

This satire, and that passage in which Abiosto 
alludes to his being unmarried, mentioning slightly 
and in general terms what prevented him from 


eatering into a statei whidi be so stioi^y com- 
menda, bring ub naturally to speak of the a&irs 
of love in which he became engaged. That natu- 
ral volatility of disposition, which fbnned a pro- 
nuouit part of his character, waa remarkable in 
his attachments to the &ir sex.' Hence we find 
several ladiea celebrated under fictitious names 
as the oli^ecta of his devotion. Amongst otbers, 
one stiled Lydia, who resided at Reggio,* and 

' Th« fbUowing Uiies inir pie in idea of hii TOladle dii- 
poBlkin. The;aretak«D EramhiiEl^y ifei>tDErniiBuniu. 
Ell mn nimc Oljrceie, mcs none e*t tan Ljcoiu 

Lyda modo meu at, at modo FhTlUi maun. 
Fiimai GlMln taixl icnOTat; moret HybU tectatn 

Moz coiui* igni Glaon, vd Hybia, doto. 
Nee mllii diveno, nee eodem tempore sage 

Cenlum Tesuio lonl in tuDoie sitia 

He mea moUlitu seuia deducaC ineiti, 

Dqm atadla baud dainC qiue variala junnt. , 
He mlKrom quod in lioc non lum mutabilii udo, 

Qnando me aiodiia compede nndt amor. 
Et nmic Hybla licet, nunc sit mea. cura Lfcoris, 

Et te Phylli modo, te modo Ljda vdim. 
Aut Gkuram, aut Glycetem, aut unam, am gffipe ducenlu 

Depeieam Igne tsmen, peipet£ semper amo. 

thia Lj/dia deserve aomc 

Hoc eerie Lepidi sunt Regia mnoia, quee an 

Grata ndlli paueos ante Aiere dies, 
Ljdia dum patiias coleret fbrmoss penatei, 

Redderet et fbtma cuoda lerena aua. 
Nunc ut ab mil inunulata, quid iUIua elieu, 

niius, amota luce, decoris lialKot } 
lUiiu a cara qua me genitrice, domoque 

Tot valmt meuea dednuiue procnU 


anodier ander the name cifGMcvro, are often men- 

Tb sine me tadts fifiliic Ljfia pQftii» 

Tn one me pocis cs nam Yidete turn f 

CoRoptiim nee iter hycme et piavidibiB avftris 

SuMJmet jniifif te praperante mom. 
Sum one te ladnmn ! an me nbim petieris abetse f 

Hca iiiMfimn I wemg qosso venire Jiibe* 
Eoqind hafaent gdaM qfiootes et inhospita tescna, 

Ecqnid hafaent tine me devia mra bonit 
Qiuno veniiejnfae; pteceant tmn hntra fieianmi, 

Atqne fens aices montilms impodtei 
Tom plaeeant lyhB^ tmic eint gntisrima aaza : 

Dmn latoi ipae tegsm dnzqiie comc8<|iie tuum. 
Tunc jufci andact lepores agitaie laooney 

Cscaque noctanus ponere vinda li^is i 
Inqne plagas tnrdiim sticpitu detnidcre edacwn, 

Et qnayumque hyemis gandia rare fenint 
QnaMO venire jube ; quod tA, mala murmura vulgi 

Ne cierem venieu, est tinxMr; ipfca veni. 

Great discDSOons have taken place between Ariosto's bio* 
ffsfhen to attempt to aacertam how long he lived at Beg- 
po. That he lived there for some time cannot be denied, 
once he mentions the drcnmstance in the fifth satire la a 
passage winch, to a native of the province, who has passed 
some happy years on the very spot, is full of interest. The 
fiumly of Maleouzzi still possess the villa where Ariosto 
lived at S. Maurizio, about two miles fimn Reggio. The Poet 
says, writing to his rdadve Sigismondo Maleouzzi : 

II tuo Maurinan sempre vagheggio, 
La beDa stanza, il Rodano vidno» 
Dalle Naiade amato ombroso seggio, 

II luddo vivaio, onde il giarcUno 
Si dnge intomo, il fresco rio, che corre 
Rigando I'erbe, ove poi fii il molino. 

Non mi si pon della memoria tdrre 
Le vigne e i solchi del fecondo laco 
La yalle e il coUe e la ben posta torre. 


tioned in his lyrical poems, both Latin and 

But the lady who deserves to be especially 

Cercando or questo ed or quel luogo.opaco, 
QxM in piii d' una lingua e 'n piii d' un stile 
Ri?i traea dal Goi^oneo laco. 

Erano allora gli anni miei fra Aprjle 
E Maggio belli, che or V Ottobre dietro 
Si lasdano, e non pur Luglio e Sestile. 

BaruffaIiDI has, with great probability, concluded that the 
time of Ariosto's dwelling at Reggio is to be fixed between 
the yean 1500 and 1503, and that from the Latin lines to 
Lydia it may be argued that he was there more than two 
years, which appears to me undeniable. The words tot 
messes afford conclusive evidence that Ariosto was kept 
from his home for more than two yean. I say years, and not 
seasons ; for Ariosto speaks of living with Lydia in winter, 
not in summer. Taking all circumstances into consideration, 
I think that the place whither Lffdia had gone may be sup- 
posed to be Albinea near Reggio, where Azzari says that 
Ariosto wrote some of his poetry. The Poet suspected, it 
seems, this Lydia of not being particularly fiiithful to him, 
upon which Bembo, as we have reason to conclude^ advised 
Ariosto to shut his eyes to such trifles, at which he was 

Me tadtum perferre meae peccata puells? 

Me mihi rivalem prsenituisse pati ? 
Cur non ut patiarque fodi mea viscera ferro, 

Dissimulato etiam, Behbe, dolore, jubes? 

Me potius fugiat, nullis mollita querelis, 

Dum simul et reliquos Lydia dura procos. 
Parte carere omni malo, quam admittere quemquam 

In partem; cupiat Juppiter, ipse negem. 

*■ See, amongst others, the sonnet ; 

Quell' arboscel, che in le solinghe rive ; 

and the Canscone ; 

Quando '1 Sol parte e'l ombra il mondo cuopre. 


mentioned on this occasion was Alessandra Be- 
Nucci, widow of Tito son of Leonardo Strozzi 
of Ferrara. Ariosto had known her sometime ; 
but it seems he first fell in love with her in 1513, 
on the day of St. John the Baptist, at Florence, 
whither the Poet had gone to see the festivals 
annually held in that city in honor of their patron 
Saint." Frizzi, and, following him, Baruffaldi 
have clearly proved that Ariosto married this 
lady, as had been formally asserted by Fornari, 
who tells us that the marriage was kept secret 
because otherwise Ariosto would have lost some 
livings which he possessed ; and this was most 
probably the case. It was at a comparatively 
late period of his life that the marriage took 
place; certainly not before 1522 ; probably so late 
as 1527. In the third of his satires, written ac- 
cording to Baruffaldi in November, 1517, the 
Poet distinctly asserts, that he never will either 
marry or take orders; because, says he, if I 
marry I am no longer at liberty to become priest ; 
and if I enter the church I cannot marry ; and 
knowing how apt I am to change my mind I will 
never so tie myself as to put it out of my power 
to retrace my steps, if I have a mind to do so.t 

■ See the Canxone which begins, 

Non 80 8* io potrd ben cbiudere m rima. 

^ Io nd pianeta mai, nd tonicella, 
Nd chierca tuo' che in capo mi si pona : 

Come nd stole, io non vuo' ch' anco anella 
Mi legliin mai, che in mio poter non tenga 
Dl elegger sempre o questa cosa o quella. 

Jndarno 6, s' io son prete, che mi venga 


Arkwto employed jmrticular care in keeping 
his intrigues secret, so that it is impossible to 
know any thing more precise concerning them, 
than what we have just mentioned.^ On the lid 
of his ink-standf still preserved in the library 
of Ferrara, there is a little Cupid with the finger 
upon his lips, indicating silence,* an emblem 
which seems peculiarly appropriate to our Poet 
He observed the most determined silence as to 
the meaning of a black pen adorned with gold, 
which he at one time was in the habit of using, 
and also of a similar device which he wore em- 
broidered in his dress J Baruffaldi has conjec- 
tured with great appearance of probability, that 

Disir di moglie; e quando moglie io tolga, 
Convien che d' eaaer prete U desir spenga. 

Or perchd so com* io mi muti e voIga 
Di voler tof to, ichivo di legaimi, 
Donde, te poi mi pento, non mi sdolga. 

^ Oarofalo in his life of AaiosTO says : Era egU molto 
incUnato per natura ad inamorarsi d' ogni soggetto dove scor- 
gesse bellezsa e modestia ; e, perchd amava con gran veemensa, 
era soprammodo gekMo e non potea sostener nessuno per riTale. 
Usd sempre nd suoi amori segretezza e selledtadine, aooompa- 
gnata da molta modestia. 

^ Serano, a Spanish clergjrman, wrote the following epi- 
gram on the subject: 

De Amore Ariosteo, 
Non ego nudus Amor, sed sum Prseceptor Amoris : 

Qui eupies &liz esse in amore, sile. 
Hoc quoque, quo melius discas, quam tradimus aitem 

Noluimus lingu& dioere, sed digito. 

^ See the Capitdo, which begins; 

Delia mia negra penna in fregio d' oro. 


this emblem was in allusion to the black silk dress 
worn by Alessandra, when the Poet fell in love 
with her, and to her fair locks the subject of the 
Poet's repeated raptures. This lady died in 1552. 
Ariosto left no issue by her, although by other 
women he had two illegitimate sons, Virginio 
and GiovAN Battista. 

It has been asserted that Ariosto resided some- 
time at Florence for the purpose of acquiring a 
knowledge of pure Italian, and Fornari, who was, 
I believe, the first to make the assertion, adds 
that it was on the occast<Hi of a six months re- 
sidence there with this view, that he fell in love 
with Alessandra. Ruscelli' was satisfied with 
vaguely sa3ring that Ariosto lived long in Tus- 
cany, and particularly at Florence; and in the 
answer of Salviati to Pellegrini, it is boldly 
affirmed that Ariosto lived several years in Flo- 
rence solely to learn the language.* Barotti 
has shown beyond doubt that the Poet could not 
possibly be absent from Ferrara for any length of 
time, except when he lived at Reggio in his 
younger days ; and, as to the particular occasion 
that has been referred to, those who assert that 
the Poet went to Florence to learn the language 
must have known better than the Poet himself, 
who tells us that he went to see the spectacles, 

and not to study .^ 

* Kotes to the Orl Fur. c. xliL st. 16. 

^ Tasso 0pp. vol. ii. p. 209, V. E. 

b He says speaking of the 24th of June, 1513; 

Nella Tosca dtti, che questo giomo 
Viti riverente onora, 


Wbibt the secretary of the academy of La 
Gbdka made this unfounded assertion, which was 
coupled with the admission that Ariosto was well 
veraed in the beauty of the Italian, or rather 
Florentine language, (for Salviati contended that 
there was no Italian language but only Floren- 
tine), Pelleokini asserted over and over again 
that he had committed great faults in lan- 
guage. When driven hard by his adversaries, 
who displayed as much talent as unfairness and 
bitterness, Pellkorihi was compelled to admit 
that he meant errors against the rules of gram- 
mar. He did not point out any particular in- 
stances of such errors, but he quoted a passage 
from Mczio who had had the assurance to say 
the same thing ; adding that Abiosto gave his 

La &ms ■>£■ A spettacoli uilemu 
Folio raccOT, non che i vidni intomo 
Mb U loDtani tmcoiB. 
Aqcot m, vago di ream, vl lenoi. 

Babotti has dUcuswd at length the point, whether it be 
probable, or evea possible that AnioSTO lived tat yean at 
Florence ; and he concludes that il is incredible Chat he can 
have lieenlhere either in 1513, or at any other time eien for sii 
moalha. Baruff aldi finding that Ariobto was at Florence 
about Che end of Apnl,1519,and in Ferraia in February, ISiO, 
concludes that the Poet was at Fioience, (or, perhaps, at 
Urbino, if he ever went id lar) fi'oin May to Decemher, 1520. 
The inference is not eorrect. These dates prore only that he 
could not be in Florence a longer period, bnC ds noC luthoriH 
OS in concluding that be was out of Ferrara the whole of that 
time. His well known aversion to leave the latter dty, and 
the attachment which he had for tbe lady whom he loved, 
who lived at Feriani, aSbrd condtture evidence that BASur- 
faldi ii nustsken. 


book to be corrected by a soldier from Siena 
living at Ferrara, who had had no education, and 
whom Muz 10 himself had known.^ These asser- 
tions are here recorded as a proof of the imbeci- 
lity of men who usurp the name of critics. 

Although Ariosto alludes to his attachments 
to the fair sex even in his great poem, it is more 
particularly in his Latin and in his lyrical Italian 
pieces that he mentions them. His Latin poeins 
are not possessed of great merit ; and from a man 

'Tasso 0pp. yol. ii. p. 218. Chiara cosa d che V Ariosto 
non ebbe cognizion della lingua ; ed esso il coDobbe, chd diede 
il suo libro a correggere ad un soldato Senese chiamato An- 
nibal Bicchi ; il qnal conobbi !o pur in Ferrara: e colui ne sa- 
peva quanta egli ne aveva appresa dalla mamma. This Bicchi 
was a friend of Aretino and Franco, two of the greatest va- 
gabonds that ever lived in any age or country. If Bicchi 
boasted of having revised ARiosTO'spoem, his assertion, judg- 
ing of his character from that of his friends, is the best reason 
for disbelieving the story. Muzio was a man of very limited 
learning, with a large share of boldness and un&imess; 
an enthusiast and an intolerant adversary who never scrupled 
to assert what he thought would help his argument, and with 
whom truth was but a matter of secondary importance. He 
was any thing but a correct writer himself, and I always thought 
him possessed of a poor understanding. Muzio wrote an Arte 
Poetica in blank verse, in which he says that up to his days 
Epic Poetry had not yet been successful in Italy; and that 
those who attempted it wished to please the populace. This, 
as was observed by Zeno, was aimed at Ariosto ; or, perhaps, 
at the Romanesque poets in general. The lines are these : 

Nd in fino ad ora a la tromba di Marte 
Post' ha la bocca alcun con pieno spirto ; 
E chiunque de' nostri al suon de Tarme 
Volta ha la mente, parmi esser intento 
Al dilettar le femine e la plebe. 

ORL. FUR. I. e 


like Abiosto, in the age of Flahminio, Sanna- 
ZABO, ViDA and Fracastoro, we might have 
expected much better compositions. There is, it 
seems to me, something harsh and forced in the 
phraseology, which is the more remarkable, as it 
is not the fault of other Latin writers of Italy in 
the sixteenth century, and it is &r from being the 
characteristic of the style of the author himself, 
when he wrote in Italian. We cannot expect to find 
in Ariosto's lyrics much of that Platonic refine- 
ment for which Petrarca is distinguished, and 
in which he has been followed to satiety by his 
numberless, and, for the most part, affected imita- 
tors ; but there is nature and feeling in thetn at 
times mixed, it must he admitted, with too much of 
OviDiAN efieminacy.d I am inclined to believe that 
among his minor pieces some spurious composi- 
tions have been introduced. Molini in his edi- 
tion of 1824, 12mo. omitted four poems which he 
had published as Ariosto's in that of 1822, 8vo., 
having been convinced that they were apocryphal. 
There is a sonnet which begins ; 

Ecco Ferrara il tiio ver paladino ; 

and an eclogtfe between Ttrsi and Melibeo attri- 
buted to Ariosto that cannot be his. The sonnet 

^ Ariosto considered these poems possessed of very little 
merit, and as juvenile attempts of which he was ashamed. 
He never would g^ve copies* of them, nor were they printed 
with his consent. See, in Barupfaldi, the letter of Marco 
Pio to the Prince of Urbino, dated October 10th, 1532. The 
Latin poems were edited by Pigna, and published after the 
death of their author. 


is wretched throughout. The eclogue, if it were 
A&iosTo's, would be a stain on his character. 
The subject of it is the conspiracy of Febrantb 
and GiuLio against the Duke and the Cardinal, 
their brothers. The writer of this eclogue not 
only flatters the Duke with a disgusting syco- 
phancy, but abuses the two former persons in the 
most vulgar language. Why should AaiosTO 
have written this eclogue to excite the rage of 
blood-thirsty tyrants against two unhappy beings 
whose lives hung as it were by a thread ? The 
lines are bad, and Ippolito is not flattered in 
them, as he certainly would have been had they 
been written by Aaiosxo. The author of the ec- 
logue charges the two brothers with conspiring 
not only against the lives of Alfonso and Ippo- 
lito, but of SiGisMONDO also, a younger brother ; 
which no historian has ever hinted at, nor is there 
any reason for believing it to be true. If this 
poem were AaioSTo's we must suppose him 
capable of mistating facts to render odious the 
two unfortunate victims. But a decisive proof 
that Ariosto is not the author of this eclogue is 
that in it Giulio is denied to be the son of £r- 
€(».£, a fact distinctly asserted by Ariosto himself 
in the Furioso, c. iii. st. 62, where be alludes to 
this conspiracy with great feeling. Far from abus- 
ing Ferrante and Giulio, he tries to excu^ their 
guilt by saying that they had been led into it by 
designing persons, and instead of exciting the 
Duke and the Cardinal to take revenge on their 
brothers, he entreats their forgiveness, and that 
justice may give way to mercy, the guilty persons 


being of their own blood. How then can Ariosto 
be the author of that eclogue, when such were his 
sentiments, avowed in the poem dedicated to the 
Cardinal ? 

Soon after his return to Ferrara from Gar- 
fagnana, Ariosto bought a piece of land in that 
city, and upon it he built the house which still 
exists. GiOYio asserts that the Duke Alfokbo 
generously contributed towards his expenses on 
this occasion, and Tiraboschi greedily seized 
upon this opportunity of flattering the house of 
Este by repeating the story. But Ariosto, as if 
foreseeing what was to happen, took care to record 
the truth, by having the following distich en- 
graved on the door of the house itself: 

ParvB, sed apta mihi, sed nulli obooxia, sed non 
Sordida, porta mbo sed tamen mbb domo. 

For this inscription, another was substituted by 
his son Viroinio, which is still to be read on the 
house : 

Sic dohus h^c areostea 
Propitios habeat deos olim ut findarica. 

Biographers have amused themselves in en- 
deavouring to fmd out what were Ariosto's occu- 
pations afler his return from Garfagnana. With- 
out entering into uninteresting details, it may be 
enough to mention, that the most important of 
his engagements was the superintending of the 
structure of a theatre, where comedies (some of 
them written by Ariosto himself) were performed 
by order of the Duke, who, like his father, was 


very fond of theatrical amusements. « It seems 
that Ariosto evinced an early inclination for writ- 
ing comedies, and this is probably to be attributed 
to the circumstance of his being continually ex- 
cited by the great popularity of these diversions.' 

In the memorandum before quoted of Via- 
oiNio Ariosti, one of the Poet's sons, concerning 
the life of his father, the following words occur : 
Come fu condotto dal Duca Ercole a Pavia sotto 
specie di far commedie. It is well known that, 
in August, 1493, Eroo^e I. went to Milan with 
a large retinue ; and there is little doubt that it 
was upon that occasion that Ariosto accompa- 
nied him, either as a writer or performer of co- 
medies, or most probably in both capacities. He 
was then not quite nineteen years of age. 

There are four comedies of Ariosto, which 
he completed ; they are. La Cassaria, I Snppositi, 
II Negromantef and La Lena^ all in sdrucciolo 
verse. He began a fifth. La Scolastka, but he did 

* See Life ofBqjardo, pag. xlu. 

' Baruffaloi, pag. 58, speaking of Tisbe, the theatrical 
composition mentioned at the beginning of this life, says : 
Un testo a penna di quella &voluzza e azione teatrale afferma 
il Zeno che conservavasi in Ferrara presso gli eredi Ariosti. 
Oggid) tal codice d smanrito. It were _to be wished that the 
place in which Zeno affirms this had been specified. Sup- 
posing that he does actually make the assertion here stated, 
I must be allowed to doubt that Ariosto could have written 
a dramatic piece, how short soever, and caused it to be per- 
formed by his brothers and sisters, he being only twelve years 
old. He was the eldest of them all, as we observed. What 
seems undoubted is, . that he was very young when he began 
to write pieces of this kind. -' 



not finish it. It was concluded, after his death, 
by his brother Gabeiellb, and subsequently print- 
ed. It seems that Viroinio was not satisfied with 
his uncle's additions, as he himself attempted to 
complete his father's work, as did also one Valen- 
TiNi of Modena ; but both these works are lost. * 
The CMsaria and / Suppasiti were at first written 
in prose, and in that form were pirated and pub- 
lished against the authw's will, h It is said that 
the CoMorta was written as early as 1498, and 
acted soon after ;^ and it is also asserted, that 
both this comedy and the Suppositiy were per- 
formed in 1514 or 1515,^ and were a long time 
afterwards rewritten in verse. In die letter to 
the Prince of Urbino, Ariosto says that the 
Cassaria and the Supponti were pirated in 151 £ 
by the performers. He, moreover says, that three 
years previous to the date of that letter, that is 
about 1529, he rewrote La Cassaria. Now in the 
prologue to that comedy so rewritten, he says that 
it was performed for the first time twenty years 
before, that is about 1509. 
. II Negromante was partly written by the Poet 

V Barotti, ffiU di L. A. Ariosto wrote only up to the 4th 
scene of the 4th act. It has been asked why he did not finish 
^ the comedy. From a letter of the author to the Prince of 

Urbino, dated December 27, 1532, we learn that he b^an 
to compose this comedy several years before that time, and 
did not complete it on account of his many occupations ; and 
we are also informed that he meant to call it / Studenti. The 
whole letter was published by Bardpfaldi, append, n. zx. 

■* I>etter to the Prince of Urbino quoted in the foregoing note. 

* Bariiffaldi, vit. di L. A. pag. 91. 

^ Baruffaldi, pag. 161. 


long before 1520, as we find from a letter of his to 
Pope Leo X. to whom he sent the comedy.' We 
are informed in that letter, that Ariosto com- 
pleted this composition in two or three days, and 
hastened to send it to Rome to the Pope, who had 
requested the author, through his brother Ga- 
LAsso, to send him a new comedy. From the 
letter to the Prince of Urbino it appears, however, 
that this comedy had been performed only at Fer- 
rara, so that, whatever was the cause, it was not 
acted at Rome. Probably it was too late for that 
Carnival, and then the death of the Pope prevented 
its being performed there at all. It was acted at 
Ferrara several years afterwards, and we learn from 
the prologue that it was performed after La Lena, 
According to Gaeofalo, in his Life of Ariosto, 
the youngest son of the Duke of Ferrara, Fran- 
cssco, (then twelve years old,) spoke the prologue 
of La Lena when it was represented for the first 
time in 1528. From all this it would seem, that 
we must infer that it was after the marriage of 
Eecole IL son of Alfokso with Ren£e of France 
that Ariosto applied himself particularly to writ- 
ing comedies. This Prince was as fond as his an- 
cestors had been of these amusements, and we know 
that Latin comedies were translated on purpose 

1 The letter was published by Baeuffaldi, append, n. 
zii. Nafoli-Sionorelli's assertion that this comedy was 
represented at Rome is incorrect; nor do I know on what 
authority the same writer asserts that La Lena was performed 
befinre the death of Leo X. which happened in December, 


even into French, to be acted before the Court." 
Ariosto, in the letter to the Prince of Urbino, re- 
peatedly quoted, says, that he cannot send to that 
Prince any new comedy as he has none ready, 
and adds, that if he were ever to complete / 
Studentiy neither the Duke, his master, nor 
Prince Ercole, would ever allow the first repre- 
sentation to take place any where but at Ferrara. 
Ariosto not only wrote comedies, but, like 
most great dramatic authors, he himself took part 
in them as a performer. The words of Virginioj 
quoted above, imply that this was the case. In 
a letter, dated January 30, 1532, from Bevilac- 
auA to his brother, ambassador firom the Duke of 
Ferrara to Charles V. we read, that during 
the then carnival, * Ariosto was to perform 
in La Lena, and Ruzzante in one of his co- 
medies, in the Paduan dialect.' ° But the most 

™ It is said, that as the person who was to translate the 
Menaechmi into French, in order that Renee might better 
understand the representation, was not a very good scholar, 
Ariosto translated that comedy into Italian, that the French- 
man might more easily perform his task. 

° The words are : T Ariosto riciterjl la Lena et Ruzzante una 
de quelle sue in lingua pavana. Frizzi, Mem, Storic. Fer, vol. 
iv. pag. 301. It is curious to see this writer, after quoting 
the passage, which is as clear as noon-day, at a loss to under- 
stand it. Ruzzante was a &mous performer of commedie 
a soggettOf the ancient Italian comedy, peculiar to that country 
for at least two thousand years, from which all Latin as well 
as modern comedies in Europe have descended. The cmr 
medie a soggetto are obselete, as almost every thing else that 
was national in that country. 


coDclusive evidence of this fact, unobserved by 
all Ariosto's biographers, is afforded by the pro- 
logue to the Scolastica^ written by Gab&iells, 
who pictures Ariosto as appearing to him in a 
dream attired as an actor, and dictating the com- 
pletion of that comedy. 

Apparve in sonnio 
n fntello al fratello, in forma e in abito 
Che s' era dimostrato sul proscenio 
Nostro piii volte a redtar prindpii, 
E qualche volta a sostenere il carico 
Delia commedia. 

It has been disputed whether one of Ariosto's 
comedies, or the Calandra by Cardinal Bibie- 
NA, is to be reckoned as the first regular Ita- 
lian comedy. The Timane of Bojardo may un- 
doubtedly lay claim to priority of date ; but it 
does not, perhaps, come within the limits of the 
regular drama. The question of precedency does 
not seem of much importance, but I am inclined 
to think it must be determined in favour of 
Ariosto. La^ Calandra was written in prose, 
as were at first JLa Cassaria^ and / StqgfMsiti ; 
and BiBiENA thought proper to explain ^ in the 
prologue why he had not written his comedy in 
verse, and why he had written it in Italian : he 
even goes so far as to apologize for venturing a 
modem comedy at all upon the stage. He 
argues in a very whimsical manner against those 
who should accuse him of having stolen from 
Plautus, evidently wishing to anticipate the ob- 
jections which might be made to his having done 
so ; a thing which he implicitly admits, and, most 


probably, thought highly meritorious. Ariosto, in 
like manner, in his prologue in terza rima to his 
Cassaria in prose, thinks it proper to claim in- 
dulgence for introducing a new comedy to the 
public ; and whilst he fully admits that neither the 
language nor the poetry of modem Italy can be 
compared with that of the ancient Romans, still he 
thinks that al:^medy in Italian may be hazarded. 
In the prologue to / Suppositi in prose, the poet 
candidly confesses that he has imitated Terence 
and Plautus, but not servilely copied them, 
leaving it to the public to say whether he was 
right or wrong in so doing. 

This imitation of the ancients, so natural in an 
age, when the writers of Greece and Rome w^re 
read with a degree of enthusiasm almost border- 
ing on veneration, was certainly carried too far in 
the dramatic pieces of Ariosto. His characters 
in general, as well as the plots of his comedies, 
of three of them at least. La Cassaria, I Suppositi 
^nd La Lena (La Scolastica not having been 
finished by him I dp not mentiom), are neillier 
original, nor do they present a picture of the man- 
ners of the age. They are almost wholly ideal. 
It has also been observed, that the principal cha- 
racters too much resemble one another in dxese 
comedies ; and La Lena has been censured for it^ 
episodes, which divert the attention from the 
main subject. The Italians admire in Ariosto's 
comedies their elegance and attic diction, although 
no one can deny that the sdruccioli verse in which 
they are written are tiresome beyond measure, even 
from the pen of the author of the Orlando Furioso, 


Critics do not agree as to which of Ariosto's 
comedies is the best. I am disposed to decide in 
favour of the Negromante, which is certainly the 
most original of them. An analysis of this co- 
medy will not, perhaps, be unacceptable.^ 

Massimo, a rich old man, without family, has 
adopted Cintio, who is secretly married to Lavinia, 
an orphan, who had been educated by Fazio as 
his own child. Massimo, however, had designed 
that Cintio should marry Emilia, daughter of Ab- 
bondio ; and she was solemnly betrothed to him 
against his will. To get out of the false position 
into which he had been forced, Cintio feigned a 
chronical malady, and Massimo, with a view to 
his cure, had recourse to a great knave, called 
Giachelino, who boasted of being a most skilful 
necromancer, and lived upon the folly of those 
who had confidence in his science. Giachelino, of 
course, promised to restore Cintio to health, and 
began to lay plans for robbing Massimo, not 
only of money, but also of some plate, which he 
asserted was necessary for the practice of his 
mysterious art. 

Camillo Poconsale, who was desperately in 
love with Emilia, has also recourse to Giachelino, 
that he may induce her to listen to his proposals, 
which she had hitherto declined ; and very pro- 
perly, seeing that he was th& greatest blockhead 
on earth. The necromancer not only promises 

oA few unimportant alterations in some parts of the story, 
whidi do not in the least change its essence, have been intro- 
duced to render it fit for the eyes of the public. 


him assistance, bat presently gives him to under- 
stand that the lady is already madly in love with 
him, and that she wishes for nothing so much as a 
secret interview. Cintio, on the other hand, afraid 
lest the necromancer should find out the truth, 
determines upon bribing him, to say that he 
could not perform the cure ; and at the same time 
avows that his marriage with Lavinia is the cause 
of his pretended illness. 

Things being in this state, Giachelino deter- 
mines upon taking advantage at once of the folly 
of all parties. To Massimo, he says, that to 
work a decisive charm, it was necessary to intro- 
duce into Emilia's sleeping apartment an enchanted 
trunk, containing a corpse, which, if touched by 
any profane hand, would prove fatal. He per- 
suades Cintio, that the shortest way of putting an 
end to the treaty of marriage, would be to take 
away the good name of Emilia, which might be 
done by causing a young man to be found con- 
cealed in her bed-room ; and he tells Poconsale, 
that it was the desire of Emilia that he should be 
secretly introduced into her chamber. This 
blockhead, accordingly, allows himself to be 
fastened up in a box, which was to be carried 
into Emilia's apartment. 

Temolo, a confidential servant of Cintio, 
had from the beginning suspected the necro- 
mancer of being a swindler, and he had strongly 
impressed this idea upon Fazio's mind, who knew 
that an enchanted box was to be sent into Emilia's 
room, and was at a loss what to think of the matter, 
Cintio not having communicated to him the dia- 


bolical arrangement he had made with Giachelino. 
Fazio suspected the honesty of the necromancer, 
but still was not quite sure that he might not have 
some means of obtaining the devil's assistance 
on an emergency. Temolo, convinced that the 
sending of the box was a mere trick, and that it 
would be harmless to meddle with it, determines 
at once on out-witting the necromancer. A porter 
was carrying the trunk, containing Poconsale, 
to the house of Emilia, accompanied by Nib- 
bio, a servant of the necromancer, and a partner 
in bis villanies, but not so confident and daring 
as his master. Temolo, rushing on the stage out 
of breath, tells Fazio in a loud voice that a man, 
answering Giachelino's description, had just been 
murdered ; upon which Nibbio, suspecting that it 
might be in consequence of their rogueries having 
been found out, runs towards the place which Te- 
molo indicated to him as the scene of the tragical 
event. The porter, left alone, takes, by Temolo's di- 
rection, the trunk into Fazio's house, and leaves it in 
Lavinia's bed-room ; and then he is sent by Fazio 
a few miles off with a message, in order that 
Nibbio might not see him again. Nibbio, discover- 
ing tbat his master was well, supposes that Te- 
molo wanted to make a fool of him, and returns 
to the place where he had left the porter ; but 
finds only Fazio there, who, on being asked, 
quietly informs him that the porter, not knowing 
what to do with the box, had taken it to the 
custom-house, and thither Nibbio hastens as fast 
as he can. 

Lavinia, the wife of Cintio, having heard of 


the great expectations which had been held out 
by the necromancer of curing her husband, and the 
confidence which Massimo placed in the effects 
of the enchanted box, which she knew was to be 
introduced into Emilia's room, but which, without 
her knowledge, had been taken to her own, was 
distracted with grief, and was impatient to see 
Cintio. On his being found, he hastens to console 
her, without being informed of the box being taken 
to her apartment. A few moments after, Po- 
consale is seen running out of Fazio's house, 
half-undressed, and in the greatest terror. On 
meeting Abbondio, Emilia's father, he informs 
him of what he had learnt, when in the box, from 
a conversation which passed between Lavinia and 
Cintio, who, of course, supposed themselves to be 
in the chamber alone. Abbondio acquaints Mas* 
simo with this ; and he is highly indignant at Cintio's 
conduct, but becomes reconciled on discovering 
that Lavinia is his own daughter, whom he had 
lost about sixteen years before. Abbondio, at 
the request of Massimo, and yielding to Pooon- 
sale's entreaties, promises Emilia to him in mar- 
riage. He was the Tery man whom they wanted ; 
very stupid, and very rich. 

In the mean while Temolo meets with the ne- 
cromancer, whom Nibbio had not as yet seen, and 
tells him that he had been ordered by Massimo 
to fetch some plate, which was to be used in the 
enchantments ; and that he had been unable to 
execute the order, as it was necessary that die 
plate should be removed secretly, and just then 
he was without .his cloak, having lent it to a 


friend. The necromancer, fearing to lose the 
plate by the delay, gives his own cloak to Temolo, 
that he might go for it immediately. The cunning 
servant means to keep the cloak as a set off against 
what had been paifl to the necromancer for the 
materials, which he had from time to time alleged 
to be requisite for his preparations, and, instead 
of going to fetch the plate, he thinks it better to 
go to the police. Nibbio arrives as soon as Te- 
molois gone, and informs his master that they are 
discovered, and that they must immediately be off. 
Giachelino follows this advice, and himself de- 
camps immediately, he being in greater danger 
than the servant, who undertakes to go to their 
inn to fetch the luggage, but vnth the honest inten- 
tion of conveying it in an opposite direction, and 
so robbing his master of his equipage. And thus 
the comedy ends. 

It has been remarked, that the old Italian 
writers of comedies appeared as if afraid of in- 
troducing touching situations in their plays ; and 
the Niegromante of Ariosto may be adduced as an 
instance of this. Of the two ladies, Emilia and 
Lavinia, neither ever comes on the stage. The 
former is, in the end, betrothed to a man whom 
she dislikes, as we hear, but she does not even 
speak to him ; and the latter is recognized by 
her father behind the scene, and never speaks to 
her husband before the spectators. Although, 
by this system, some feeling dialogues are lost, 
a great deal of tedious tenderness is also spared to 
the spectators. Our forefathers Were of opinion, 
that a comedy was simply designed to make us 


laugh ; and they seem not to have found much 
amusement in the pleasure of shedding tears. As 
for the notion that the theatre was to he a place 
of instruction, it never entered their heads. Al- 
though it may he douhted, whether their system 
was the hest, it is certain that Ariosto ought not 
to he charged with its &ults, whilst he has the 
merit of having graced his comedy with all those 
heauties which were considered necessary to a 
good composition of this kind, according to the 
taste of his age. 

In reading the Negromante one is struck with 
the intricacy of the plot, which does not, however, 
cause any confusion. Events, growing out of 
each other, succeed with amazing rapidity ; and 
the more we proceed, the more does our interest 
and curiosity increase. The developement is 
rapid, yet clear and natural, as far as regards the 
defeat of the schemes of the necromancer. I'he 
character of Giachelino is drawn in a masterly 
manner, and in this Aaiosto needs fear no com- 
parison. Fazio, Cintio, and still more Temolo, 
Nibbio and Poconsale, are likewise admirable. 
They are not only natural, true, and consistent, 
but well selected, giving relief to each other, and 
having strong and well-marked features presenting 
human nature in very different forms. The jokes 
which are put into their mouths are, some of them, 
very coarse, but no English reader will judge se- 
verely the old Italian writers of comedies for this 
imperfection, when he recollects what was tole- 
rated on the English stage nearly a century after 
Ariosto, and in the presence of a Virgin Queen. 


The Calandra^ written by a Cardinal, and the 
Matidragola by Machiayelli, performed before 
Leo X., are certainly disgraced by grosser jokes 
than those which, it is to be regretted, occur in 
the Negromante, Ariosto's jokes are witty, 
most of them new, and all in character : this is 
not always the case in the Calandra, The Man- 
dragoluy however, in spite of this imperfection, 
as a genuine comedy, is second to none. 

One of the faults, which strike us most in the 
Negromantej is ; that the recognition of Lavinia 
is not only unexpected, but uninteresting, and 
serving to divert the attention from the ne- 
cromancer and his tricks, which give all the 
interest to the piece. Besides this, the recogni- 
tion is very flat, as it does not happen before the 
spectators* eyes ; and the narration of it is cold. 
Another fault, connected in some degree with, and 
dependent upon, this recognition, is one which oc- 
curs in the second scene of the first act. A certain 
Lippo arriving from Florence meets with Fazio, 
who was an old friend of his. By the conversa* 
tion between these two gentlemen, the audience 
are informed, that Fazio is not really Lavinia's 
father, and they learn also that this young lady 
is secretly married to Cintio, but that he is 
in danger of being forced to marry Emilia ; and 
after this, Lippo appears no more on the stage* 
Four of the female characters are perfectly use- 
less personages, introduced only once each to 
hold some indelicate conversation suitable to the 
corrupted taste of the audience. 

ORL. FUR. I. f 


AbxosIo has been accused of having pirated 
from the Calandra of Bibisna, the plan of send- 
ing the box into Emilia's room, with Camillo 
Pooonsale in it. In the Calandra of Bibiena 
there is nothing but the mere fact of putting 
Calandro into a box to be sent to a house, where, 
however, he does not arrive. Now if this be pi- 
racy, it is not from Bibiena, since he himself has 
no claim to originality, Boccaccio having, two 
centuries before him, written the tale ofBemabo da 
Genova, the ninth of the second day of the Decame- 
ran^ in which we read, that Ambrogiuolo da Pia- 
cenza caused himself to be carried into the bed- 
chamber of Bemabo's wife shut up in a box. 
Shakspeabe imitated Boccaccio, when he made, 
in his play of Cymbelinef lachimo enter Imo- 
gen's sleeping apartment, concealed in a trunk. 
The mere circumstance of supposing that a man 
was concealed in a box or trunk, cannot take 
from Abiosto the merit of originality, to which 
II Negromante gives him a just claim. 

Between the period of his return from Garfa- 
gnana and his death, Abiosto seems to have visited 
Venice, Abano, and Mantua, either with the Duke 
or alone. It has been asserted, that on his last 
journey to Mantua, towards the end of 1532, he 
was crowned by the Emperor Chables V. His 
son, ViBGiNio, has alluded to this rumour only 
to ridicule and contradict it. Zeko, however, 
who is seldom inaccurate, speaks of a diploma 
given by the Emperor to Abiosto, proving the 
fact of the coronation. Probably this was but an 


honorary patent of Poet Laureate; and on the 
whole, it seems certain that no coronation actu- 
ally took place. 

In October, 1531, Ariosto was sent by the 
Duke of Ferrara to Alfonso Davalo, Marquess 
DEL Vasto, who was at Correggio, at the head of 
the imperial army in Italy. As far as we may 
judge, the Poet was successfiil in his mission ; 
and at the same time had an annuity of one hun« 
dred golden ducats settled upon him by Davalo. 
The authentic deed of donation, dated October 18, 
1531, exists in the archivesof Correggio, and a copy 
has been published by Baeuffaldi. The annuity 
was granted expressly on the ground that it is 
proper that great princes and generals should 
behave liberally to learned men, and more espe- 
cially to poets, who sing the praises of military 
achievements.^ And this is the only reward 
which we find to have been conferred upon Ario- 
sto, expressly as a Poet, and in acknowledgment 
of his poem, no Prince of the House of Este hav- 
ing ever bestowed any pension on the author of 

p Cum deceat prindpes magnos, ae claros exercituum im- 
peratores, eiga viros excellentes doctrinft, et praesertim poetas 
five liberales, et munificos, ut qui semper militis preconium 
fecere, igitur D. Alphonsus Davallos Marchio Vasti, &c. agno- 
scens mazimam doctrinam ac claram et perezcellentem poesim 
qo« nofltris temporibus et aetate eflblsit in ezcellentem D. Lu- 
dovicnm Ariostum nobilem Ferraiiensem, titulo puraei merae, 
limpficiB, ac inter vivos irrevocabilis donationis prsed. D. Lu- 
dovico, pnesenti et acceptanti et gratis reverenter agenti, de- 
dit, tradidit, et donavit pensionem, fructus, reditus et proven- 
turn centum ducatorum auri singulo anno percipiendorum 
pro se durante ejus vita ad habendum, &c. 


the Furioso, Aeiosto showed his gratitude to 
his patron by the extravagant praises which he 
lavished on del Vasto in the last edition of the 
poem, as the reader will find c. xv. st. 2B, and 
t. xxxiii. St. 24, The name of the Marquess 
does not occur in the first editions of the Orlando 
Furioso, . 

During the latter period of his life, Ariosto 
was particularly busy in correcting and adding to 
his poem. From a letter of his to fiEMBo, dated 
February 23, 1531, which he sent by his son 
ViRGiNio, who was going to the University of 
Padua, we are. informed that he was about con- 
cluding his work.*^ So late, however, as the 8th 
of July of that year, it appears from a letter of 
Marco Pio to the eldest son of the Duke of 
Urbino, that Ariosto had added only four cantos 
to the poem, besides a great many stanzas, and 
making other alterations throughout, and that he 
meant it to go to the press in September of that 
year.' It was probably about this period that the 
printing of the last edition began, as we find it 
was completed on the 10th of October, 1532." 
The cantos were in this edition increased to forty- 

It is remarkable to see with what impatience 
the public expected this new edition of the poem. 
The two letters of Pio, above quoted, afibrd ample 

^ lo sono per finir di rivf dere il mio Furioso ; poi Terrd a 
Padova per conferir con V. Sign., e imparare da lei quello cbe 
per me non son atto a conoscere. 

' Baruffaldi, app. n. xix. 

■ Pio Let. ap. Baruffaldi, app. n. xxii. 


evidence of this fact. In the second of them it is 
mentioned that he, Pio, dispatched express a 
copy which had just that moment heen hound, as 
a present from Abiosto to the Prince of Urhino. 
The Poet insisted upon having diis honour, and 
prevented Pio, who acted as a kind of agent to the 
Prince, from sending the voliune to him as on his 
own account.^ What he received in return from 
the Prince for this mark of attention, or whether 
he received any thing, there is no positive evidence. 
By a letter of Antonio Butio, dated December 
18, 1532, we are informed that from all those to 
whom he sent the hook, or whom he had men- 
tioned in his poem, Abiosto had received no pre- 
sent; and as this letter is addressed, like the 
former ones, to^the Prince of Urhino, we may 
charitably suppose that His Excellency had not 
been so ungrateful: although it might be that 
he had made the inquiry, with a view to learn 
what others had done, intending to act according 
to precedent, and not to be the first to set a 
scandalous example of liberality.^ 

^■Qaesta mattina si sono. finiti di stampare li libri suoi 
{(ffAruuto) ed io ne volevo mandare uno a V. E.,, ma lai ha 
voluto essere quello che lo xnanda, si come ha fatto a molti 
altro Frincipi e Signori, etio non gli ho saputo negare, si come 
V. E. per la sua qui alegata'potrlL vedere, cos! per questo mio 
mandato aposta lo mando a V. E. subito che d stato finito di 
stampare e ligare. 

" Delle altre cuose non ho possuto intender che sinora 
alcuno liabbi presentato lo amico per il dono del libro, o per 
averli nomati cursivamente in quelle puoche stantie, et pur ne 
ho spiato ' di buon modo, et cum persone che *1 sapriano. 
Baruffaldi, app; n. xxL 


Soon after the pubUeatkm of this edition of 
the poem, the stale of Ariosto's health, which 
had hefore been indifferent, grew much worse. 
Hit son, ViROiNio, says that he was naturally 
strong ; and that, although he suffered for some 
time from a cough, he recovered, by drinking good 
old wine.* Pioka affirms that he was very healthy 
and robust ; FoaKARi, on the other hand, asserts 
that he was not strong, and far from enjoying good 
health. We have seen from his satires, that he 
complained of a bad cough ; and that he was strictly 
forbidden to drink strong vnne, or to eat meat ' 
spiced ; adding that he found that his cough was 
worse when he drank wine.^ We have also seen that 
several years after his embassies to Pope GiulioII. 
he asserted that his malady b^an on the second 
of these journeys. That it was a very serious 

* Del catarro stette aasai tempo giavato e poi g^uart per 
causa del vin buono e maturo. 

^ n vin fumoso, a me vie piil interdetto 

Che '1 tdsco 

Tutti U dM son oon pepe e camia 
D' amomo, e d' altri aromati, che tutd, 
Come nodvi, U medico mi damia. 

Non euro al del Tin, non gii il rifuto; 
Ma a temprar 1* acqua me ne basta poco 
Che la tavermi mi dari al minuto. 

Sensa molta acqua i nostii, nati in loco 
Falustre, non aasaggio, peichd puri 
Dal capo tranno in giii, che mi &n roco : 

Cotesti che fiurian, che ion ne' dnri 
ScogU de* Coni ladri, o d' iniedeli 
Gred, o d' instabil Liguri, maturi ? 

<SIb^. II ft III. 



complaint we likewise learn from the Poet him- 
self.' From all these circumstances we may 
safely conclude that, although he may have been 
naturally strong, he did not long enjoy good 
health, and that there is little probability of his 
having improved it by drinking good old wine. 
My opinion ia^ that he never recovered; and 
that the cough, of which he complained in 1518, 
was never entirely subdued. His death was 
caused by a consumption, which Pioka says was 
brought on by the medicines given to him for an- 
other complaint from which he was suffering; but 
Fiona was no doctor. Ariosto was attended 
by the best physicians of Fetrara, as we learn 
from GiRALDi;* and there is no ground for 
charging them with having accelerated the death 
of their patient. 

A letter of Galasso Abiosto to Bembo, dated 
July 8, 1533, informs us that he died after eight 
months illness ;^ and Gibaldi, who, having just 
begun to practice, attended him professionally 
with the other more experienced physicians, says, 
that he was ill for more than a year, and that 
his malady was judged mortal from the begin- 
ning.® The fact is, that although he was ill 
for a long time before, he was not confined to the 
house till after his return from Mantua in De- 

* Ogni alterazione, ancor che leve, 
Che avesse il mal ch' io sento, o ne morrei, 
O il Valentino e fl Postumo errar deve. 

SaHr. II. 
* Barotti vit. di L. A. ^ Letter, al BSMBO, toI. i. 

" Baruffaldi, pag. 230. 


cember, 1532. There is also every probability 
that his health was much impaired by the trouble 
which he took in superintending the last edition 
of the Furioso, We find in Giraldi <> that he 
was the corrector of the press of this edition, and 
that this labour was the immediate cause of his 
death. This melancholy event took place on the 
sixth day of June, 1533, about three p. m. when 
Ariosto was aged fifly-eight years, eight months, 
and twenty-eight days. 

The character of Ariosto has been sketched 
by his brother Gabriel in the following lines : 

Praabat pietas et grata modestiaVatem, 
Sancta fides, dictique memor, mumtaque recto 
Justitia, et nullo patientia victa labore, 
Et constans virtus animi, et dementia mitis 
Ambitione procul pulsa, festusque tumore. 

It cannot be denied that this character is strictly 
conformable to truth, and that in drawing it Ga- 
briel was not influenced by brotherly a£Pection. 
Although from some of Ariosto*s poems we 
might suspect him of somewhat lax principles, 
both in religion and morals, the satire to Behbo, 
when recommending to him Viroinio, shows that 
he was not wanting in either, although he was far 
from being a devotee or an anchorite. In speak- 
ing, of the qualities which he should desire in a 
tutor for his son, he says : 

^ Ibid, pag. 216 and 217. On the 31st of December, 
1532, the theatre, built under the direction of Ariosto, was 
destroyed by fire ; an event, which, it is said, distressed him so 
much, as greatly to afiect his health. 


Dottrina abbia e bonti ; ma prindpale 
Sia la bonti ; ch6 non vi eaaendo questa 
Nd molto quella alia mia estima vale. 

Ride il volgo se sente un ch' abbia vena 
Di poesia. 

Ed oltra questa nota, U peccadigtio 
Di Spagna ^ danno anco, che non creda 
In nniU del Spirto, il Padre eU Figlio. 

Non che contempli come V un proceda 
Dall* altro, o nasca, o come il debol senso, 
Che uno e tre possano essere, conceda : 

Ma gli par che non dando il suo consenso 
A quel che approvan gli altri, mostri ingegno 
Da penetrar piil su che '1 delo immenso. 

Sa Nicoletto e Fra Martin &n segno 
D' infedele o d' eretico, ne accuso 
n saper troppo, e men con lor mi sdegno : 

Perchd salendo lo intelletto in suso 
Per veder Dio, non de' parerci strano, 
Se talor cade giil deco e confoso. 

Ma tu, del qual lo studio 6 tutto nmano, 
B sono tuoi soggetti i boschi e i colli 
II mormorar d' un rio che righi il piano ; 

Cantar antiqui gesti, e render molli 
Con preghi animi duri, e fiur sovente 
Di fidse lode i principi satolli : 

Dimmi, che truovi tu che si la mente 
Ti debbia awiluppar, si tdrre il senno, 
Che tu non creda come V altra gente?* 

Webave seen that Cardinal Ippolito rewarded 
the services of Ariosto by giving him church liv- 
ings, and a renunciation made by an old rector of 
Sant' Agata, in his favour, has also been mentioned. 
Yet Ariosto was always of opinion that, to live 
upon the property of the church, was unjusti- 

• Satir, VI. 


fiable. In writing to his brother, Galasso, he 
expresses this opinion, and at the same time enters 
into the reasons which induced him to accede to 
the wishes of the old Rector. 

Diinque io dard del capo nella rete, 
Ch' io soglio dir che il diavol tende a quest! 
Che del sangue di Cristo han tanta sete ? 

Ma tu Tedrai, se Dio vorra che resti 
Questa chiesa in man mia, darla a persona 
Saggia e sciente, e di costumi onesti, 

Che con periglio suo poi ne dispona. 

Qui la cagion potrestl domandanni 
Ferchi mi levo in collo si gran peso, 
Fer dover poi su un altro scaricanuL 

Ferchd tu e gli altri frati miei, ripreso 
M' avreste, e odiato forse, se offerendo 
Tal don fortuna, io non 1' ayessi preso. 

Sai ben che il veochio la riserva avendo 
Inteso d' un costi, che la sua morte 
Bramava, e di velen percid temendo ; 

Mi preg6 che a pigliar venissi in Copte 
La sua rinunda, chd porria sol tdrre 
Quella speranza, onde temea si forte. 

Opra fed io che si Tolesse pone 
Nelle tue man!, o d' Alessandro, il cui 
Ingegno dalla chierca non abbone. 

Ma nd di voi, nd di piii giunti a lui 
D' amicizia, fidar unqua si voile ; 
Io, fuor di tutti, scelto unico fui. 

Questa opinion mia so ben che folle 
Diranno molti, che a salir non tenti 
La via ch' uom spesso a grandi onoii estolle. 

Questa, povere, sdocche, inutil genti, 
Sordide, in&mi, ha gi& levato tanto 
Che fatti gli ha adorar da re potenti. 

Ma chi fu ma! si saggio, o mai si santo, 
Che d' esser senza macchia di pazzia, 
O poca o molta, dar si possa vanto ? 


Ognun tenga ia sua ; questa 6 la mia : 
Se a perder s' ha la libertA, non stimo * 

II piii ricco cappel che in Roma aa. 

Che giova a me seder a mensa il primo, 
Se per questo piti saiio non mi levo 
Di quel, che d stato assUo a mesm o ad imo ? 

Come nd cibo, cosi non ricevo 
Piii quiete> pit! pace, o pit! contento, 
Sebben di cinque mitre il capo aggrevo. * 

Fellcitade istima alcun, che cento 
Persone t' accompagnino a palazso, 
E che 8tia ii yolgo a rigaardarti intento. 

lo lo stimo miseria ; e son s) pazzo, 
Ch' io penso e dico : che in Roma fumosa 
II Signore d piii servo che '1 ragazzo.' 

The reasons, which he here assigns for having 
accepted the rectory against his principles, are 
evidently the same which induced him to engage 
in the service of the Cardinal and the Duke of 
Ferrara, although fond of his liherty. He sa- 
crificed his pride and his independence, not to 
selfish or interested views, not to ambition, hut 
to the happiness of his relatives to whom he 
was in the place of a father ; of which station he 
fulfilled the duties with extraordinary zeal and 
affection. Had he possessed enough to support 
himself, and those who had become dependent 
on him, he would never have stooped to serve. 

Ma poi che figliolo unico non fui 
Nd mai fu troppo a' miei Mercurio amico, 
E viver son sforzato a spese altrui : 

Meglio d, s' appresso il duca mi nutrico, 
Che andare a questo e a quel dell' umil volgo 
Accattandomi il pan come mendico. 

' Satir, III. 


So ben chc d>l parer ia pib ml tolgo, 

Che '1 ilare In cnrte itimuio gnmdein, 
Ch' io pel contrario a Mnilii nTolgo. 
Stiad volentjer dunque chi I' appreiui : 

CM brama anor di sproae o di cappello 
Serra re, duo, canlinale, o papa ; 
la no, cbe poco euro qucsto e quelle. 

In can mla mi sa meglio una rapa, 
Ch' io cuDU, e eetta i' uno itecco m' infnco, 
E moado, a (pargo poi di aceto e wpa, 

Cbe all' alCrui mensa tordo, itaraa, oporto 

E M, come d' onor mi trovo aaila 
II m 

From ambitious and interested views, we maj 
safely affirm that no man was ever more fiee ' 
than Ariosio. In the fourth satire, which is ad- 
dressed to Annibale Maleouccio,'' he replies in 
the following words to those who said, that if be 
had gone to Rome, when Leo X. had become 
Pope, he would have caught many livings. 

Or ^ vera the 'I Papa aicenga lutto 
CUi che gii efferae, e Toglia di quel leme, 
Cbe gik Umti anni sparsi, or danni il Diillo ; 

Sia »er che tanle mitre e diademe 
Mi doni, quante lona di Capella 
Alia meosa papal non vede inaieme ; 


Sia ver che d' oiro m* empia la scanella 
£ le maniche e il grembo, e, se non basta, 
IT empia la gola, il ventre e le budeUa : 

Sar& per questo piena quella vasta 
Ingordigia d' aver 1 rimarri sazia 
Per dd la sitibonda mia cerasta 1 

Dal Marocco al Catai, dal Nilo in Dazia, 
Non che a Roma, anderd, se di potervi 
Saziare i desiddri impetro gnzisu 

Ma quando cardinale, o delli servi 
lo sia il gran Servo, e non ritrovino anco 
Termine i desiderii miei protervi ; 

In ch' util mi risulta essermi stance 
In salir tanti gradi ? 
• ••««•••• 

Se nell' onor si trova, o nell* immensa 
Ricchezza il contentarsi, i* loderel 
Non aver, se non qui, la voglia intensa. 
Ma se vediamo i papi e i re, che Dei 
Stimiamo in terra, star sempre in travaglio ; 
Che sia contento in lor dlr non potrei. 

Se di ricchezze al Twco, e s' lo me agguagfio 
Di dignitade al papa, ed ancor brami 
Salir pill in alto, mal me ne prevaglio. 

Convenevole d ben ch* i' ordisca e trami 
Di non padre alia vita disagio, 
Che, piii che quanto ho al mondo, d ragion ch' ami. 

Ma se r uomo d si ricco, che sta ad agio 
Di quel che la natura contentarse 
Dovria, se firen pone al desir malvagio ; 
Che non digiuni quando vorria trarse 
L' ingorda &me, ed abbia fiioco e tetto, 
Se dal freddo o dal sol vuol ripararse ; 

Nd li convenga andare a pid, se astretto 
E di mutar paese, ed abbia in casa 
Chi la mensa apparecchi e acconci il letto ; 
Che mi puo dare o mezza o tutta o rasa 
Lti testa piii di questo ? d d misura 
Di quanto pon capir tutte le vasa. 



Convenemle d ancor che s' abUa cunt 
Dell' onor suo ; ma tal che noa divenga 
Ambiztone, e passi ogni xaimtnu 

II vero onore d di' aom da ben ti tenga 
Ciascuno, e che ta na : che non essendo 
Fon' d che la bogia toato si spenga. 

Chd cavaliero, o conte, o reverendo 
n popolo ke chiami, io non t' onoro 
Sa MMglio in te, che 11 titol, non comprendo. 

Quante collane, quante cappe noTe 
Per digniti si oomprano, che sono 
Pubblici vituperii in Roma e altrove ? 

Vestir di romagnuolo ed esser buono, 
Al vestir d' oro ed aver nota o macchia 
IM barro e traditor, sempre piepono. 

In all that we arc able to trace of the cha- 
racter of Ariosto we do not find the least reason 
for doubting his kindness and singleness of heart, 
or for supposing him capable of bearing malice 
towards any man, or of acting otherwise than man- 
fully and openly. He was not without failings 
and weaknesses, but no vices stain his memory: 
and it is remarkable, that notwithstanding die 
great abhorrence which he expresses for vice, he 
seems to have been incapable of hating any in- 
dividual. Even his failings may be restricted to 
one — ^his love for the fair sex. This weakness he 
himself acknowledges repeatedly ; but says that 
he must be excused, as he cannot help himself. ^ 
Nay, he admits that he does wrong in not over- 
coming this passion ; but he pleads that, after all, 
it is not perhaps so great a crime as it is supposed 
by those who reproach him with it. He was cer- 

' See above, pag. xIH. note r; and also the following note. 


tainly little disposed to be pleased with such re- 
proaches ,^ 

* In the fourth satire to Annibale Malaouzzi he says : 

Parmi vederti qui ridere e dire, 
Che non amor di patria, nd di studi, 
Ma di donna, d cagion che non vogl* ire. 

Liberamente tel confesso : or chiudi 
La bocca, che a difender la bugia 
Non volli prender mai spada nd scudi. 

Del mio star qui qual la cagion si sia, 
lo d 8to vokntier; ora nessuno 
Abbia a cor, pi(k di me, la cuia mia. 

And in the fifth satire, addressed to Sioismondo Male- 
GU22I, in which he says, that for a whole year that be had 
been governor in Gar&gnana, he never wrote one single line 
of poetry, he enters more iiilly into the subject 

Maleguzzo cugin, che taduto abbia 
Non ti maravigliar ; ma meravigha 
Abbi, che morto io non sia omai di rabbia, 

Vedendomi lontan cento e piii miglia, 
E da neve, alpe, selve, e fiumi escluso 
Da chi tien del mio cor sola la briglia. 

Con altre cause e piii degne mi escuso 
Con gli altri amid (a dirti il ver) ; ma teco 
Liberamente mio peccato accuso. 

Altri a chi lo dicessi, un occhio bieco 
Mi Tolgerebbe addosso, e im muso stretto : 
Guarda poco cervel I poi diria seco. 

Degno uom, da chi esser debba un popol retto, 
Uom che poco lontan da dnquant' anni 
Vaneggi nei pensier di giovinetto ! 

E direbbe il vangel di San Giovanni ; 
Chd, se ben erro, pur non son si Iosco, 
Che '1 mio error non conosca, e ch' io nol danni. 

Ma che g^ova s' io '1 danno e s'io '1 conosco, 
Se non d posso riparar ? nd truovi 
Rimedio alcun che spenga questo tdsco ? 


I hope I >ludl not be accused of being either 
blinded by my love for Abiosto, or of being too 
easy with respect to passages which, it is always 
to be regretted, disfigure his works, when I assert 
that his poems, although occasionally marked by 
a little too much warmth and viTacity, yet never 
display in the poet a depraved disposition or a bad 
heart. There are certainly parts of the Furioio 
which it were better had never been written ; but 
if we compare this poem with those of con- 
temporary writers, if we recollect the manners of 
the age, and the character of his master, the 

Tu forte e aaggio, cbe a tua poet* mnoTi 
Quesli afibtti da te, cbe in noi nucendo 
Natura afflgge con si aaldi chiovi 1 

Fisse in me questo ; e ibrae non tH Onendo, 
Come in alcun c' ba dt me tanta cuta, 
Cbe non puo toUerar cb' io non mi emeado. 

lo non uccido, lo non percueUi pongo, 
la non do noia altrui, <e ben mi dolgo, 
Cbe da chi meco 6 sempre io mi dilungo ; 

Per cia non dice, n* a difender tolgo 
Che non ua faUo il mio; ma non st grave 
Che di via piil non ne perdoni il volgo. 

Con manco lanoo il volgo, non cbe lave 
Hag^or macchia di quests, ma sovente 
Titolo al vizio dl viitil dato bate. 

Co^ dik onore a cbi doirebbe olCreggia, ';, 
N£ sa da coipa a colpa ecemer Torbo 
Giudicio, a cui non moatra il sol ntti rag^O ; 

E adma il c<nbo dgno • il cigno cotbo ; 
Se aentiin cb' io amud, &rla on via( 
Come moideiw allora aliota un mbo. 

Kca ogDun come Tuole, e liagli avTiao 
Quel cbe gli pare. 


Cardinal, it will be but justice to Ariosto to say 
that he is by far less censurable than he might at 
first sight appear. The Furioso has not one 
single low word or phrase; and the strange 
stories or allusions which occur in it are writ« 
ten in as delicate a manner as they could be, 
consistently with the subject. They seem like 
stones told by a gentleman in a moment of oc- 
casional excitement and uncontrollable spirits, not 
by a confirmed debauchee. Bojardo, although 
a high-bred gentleman throughout his work, is, 
however, less delicate than Ariosto; and some of 
the passages of the Mamhriano are disgustingly 
coarse. Even the Amadigi of Bernardo Tasso, 
whatever may be GiNouENi's opinion, is worse 
than the Furioso in this respect, as in every 
other. Ariosto never wrote any thing half so 
bad as, I do not say Aretino, but Casa, who 
became an archbishop. In Ariosto's age. His 
Holiness, Leo X., did not hesitate to sanction by 
his presence, the representation of the Calandria 
and the Mandragola. Bembo was made a Car- 
dinal, although he was the father of (I do not 
know how many) illegitimate children, and was 
celebrated for the variety of his intrigues, which, 
moreover, he had not forgotten when a Prelate, 
and sixty-nine years of age.i 

* Nothing but the desire of flattering the memory of 
Bembo has made historians declare, that, after he had become 
a Cardinal^ he was quite an altored character, and dedicated 
himself entirely to theological studies, and to the duties of his 
new calling. The following fact, hitherto overlooked by all the 

ORL. FUR. I. g 

iMxxH THB UF8 or ABiona 

Of the morala of His EnuDence of Eite mestiiHi 
bu already been aude. It will be only ntfo- 

Hmnrj Milinrilin if ltil|-. ifnnh frrr Itmlf BBino lud Uca 
l^BPildy In loK wkh a cattda HiMOilMA, wfa* <M bc- 
Gira he becuu ■ Cudinal, in Usreh 1939. Ht «Mte * 
CnuBM on her death, widdi h^oi 

Donna, de' eui begli occhi alto diletto ; 
and, from two letEcn of hii to Libabetta Qoimha, daMd 
the lOIh and 3lU of Jul;, 1339, we lean that thia Caom ' 
*ai mitten dating thai roontb; that ii, more than thiw 
monthi after be bad racelTed a Caidinal'i hat. In Ibea 
latten ba begged LiaAlBTTa not to menticm diii poem u 
an; ftnua ; bat by another laCtei, dated Septambtt 13, 1139, 
Hia Bninence gaTO penuiuion to that lady to thow the C»- 
Imu, on condllian, however, that ihe should tell a grou Utt- 
hood for ma Emtnence'i uke ; name!; that tbe poem ml 
written a year befeie thai time ; wUdi untruth he iniiiud 
opoQ bdng dmlated, in order tliat it eboiild appMr that lite 
Cammt waa writteo by htttitr P. Behso and not by Hia 
Eminence CarHivd F. BEiiao. In the British HuMum then 
are the originali of two of theae letters in Be hbo'b own hand- 
writing ; and aa tbey contain acme varioua leadinga, I beg U 
g^Teaabicdy fiu'thfU transoHpt of Aem. 

I^DUtami uoglia da laltrhieri in qna di Gnvlr la csuont 
inconundala per la morte ddla mis buooB et belia > Monuna i 
et fotnitane [a prima alonia, e( incaainciata la seconda; uoa 
mi aon poluto ritener di f^i qoeale righe' et di maudanj 
^ne* pochi Tcrai, che io Gitti ho : acdo uediate che anchoi* in 
fiKMi naoid mlei pewleri lotti lontaoi dalla poena, et nneni 
eierdly ; pure nu Bolleatra a quatche bora neDuumo * aknn 
poco spirito dell antiche Muiemte. Spera non rimetter qnerto 

' It ■aiSpocke ri^u. The word poete )■ eroMed onr. 
* It aid fwtM, bM he BlteKd h. 

site to add, that fir ftom being iAanied of ki* 
intrigiiefli, IprouTO fVM not ofieoded whmi ne* 

spirito; die io k iorniro. Pel yostro u^nure in gua nuUa odo : 
et pooo ne spew. Non so che altro ^Unii : se pon che stiate 
sana. Mandoid etiandio* con qaesta una iettera nenutami dl 
Spagna dal ado M. Giorgia. Laqual leggarale Unseam oaa 
M. Oanlanao* et poida la daiett a M. FlamiiMOi cli^ mt la 
nportiy et dl lei M« Criiol' non am cbe altri ne lapp&a coia 
alcuna. Vnaltra uolta state sana et millei anzi pujr sempre. 
Alii X (fi Luglio Mpxxxix. dl Pad. Bem B. 

Vi rimando la nua Canzona sopra la morte deHa Morostna.* 
La ^nal poCiete mostrara a ehi ni piacerax pore dM non na 
diate lessempio a persona : et didate, che d un anno, et piu, 
dl io la led : ma non ho Tohito si uegga, se non hora. Di' 
Quella nooe Santa ; dellaquale duUtauate : non d da dubitame 
pnnto. Perdo che tatte le anfme, che Bono in delo, sante 
Bono : e cod cbiamar si possono yiolto jragioneuolmente^ Et 
VD in dd molto meno ho detto della piia, che essendo morta, puo 
in delo esscre : die non le ii Petr. che disse ddla sua et idua 
et fimdoHetta che i^ era Saatusiaaa in qud uerso,*' Gi4 santia* 
ana etdoke* aaduna acerba* M' d incresduto iel mal uoitM^ 
qnanto pptete credere. Ma hor% che sete ^uarita* uorrei puri^ 
K piacesae a Dio, nederui, prima che io partissi. Sate sana. 
Am ziij Sett. 1539. di Pad. A M% Isab*. Quir*. 

Any one, by comparing tins fidthfnl copy with the printed ones 

* etiandio is added. 

* He had written lltM*.; then hie crossed itover and wrotf 

Girolamo above it. 

" Heibad wnttea mUt Marpma, ijmii he /p-opsed over the 

* iHif added. 

^ Me had wjiittaa 4eU§ m» non 4flo et mm^ m^4mchot<^ 
fanduUetia, Santissitnoi then he altered it as it stands now* 
" The words in quel uerso are add^dt 



minded of tbem. In & Capitolo which Aaiosio 
addresaed to him when, on being taken ill od the 
road, he waa unable to follow his master to Rome," 
the Poet candidly confeiaes that he was not 
pleased at being obliged to leave Ferrara, on ac- 
count (as usual) of being thus forced to part 
firom his lady> He adds, that he knows full well 
that it will seem improper that he should appear 
melancholy among so joyful a party ; and that he 
is in hopes (hat the Cardinal, who knew what was 
a wound fiom Cupid's dart, would excuse him. 

Voitie imprcM co^ tutte nan liete. 
Com* i ben ver ch' clli talor t' ha punto. 
He ano taae sncDFa oggi at sete. 

BABCFFALni bas been very anxious to prove 
that Abiosio repented of his early transgressioos, 
and that he died like a good catholic, afler having 
confessed bis sins lo a priest, whom the biogrs- 
pher, by a very circuitous route, brings to the 
death-bed of the Poet. I, for one, shall not 
quarrel with Babuffaldi'b conclusion, as I do not 
think it worth while to disprove his arguments. I 
cannot, however, refrain from noticing one of the 
proofs which this biographer adduces in support of 

(as I have done with thote in the fill. edit, ot Bbmbo'i works, 
Ven. 1729, vol. 3, pag. 33S and 339], wiii lee the variations. I 
■liall onlf |H^t out the omiuion of the Ladjr'i name in the 
printed tetters, which is very plain in the MS., and the date of 
the second, which i* 13, and not 13 Sept., ai in the printed 

" See above, pag.ix. 



his favourite scheme'' of sanctifying AaiosTo. 
Among certain papers of Monsignor Bsccadelli 
was found the following epigram : 

Fingon oostor che parlan della Morte 
Un' effigie vederia troppo ria; 
Ed io, che so che da somma bellezza 
Per mia felice sorte 
A poco a poco nascer^ la mia, 
Colmo d' ogni dolcezza, 
Si bella me la formo nel desio, 
Che il preg:io d* ogni yita d 11 viver mio. 

Supposing these lines to have been written by 
Ariosto, which I am not prepared to assert, and 
supposing them to be faithfully transcribed, and 
that in the last line morir be not the correct read- 
ing instead of viver , and pretnio instead ofpreffio, 
it seems clear to me, that the Poet meant nothing 
more than that, as he felt he should be gra- 
dually killed by the beauty of his lady« he fan- 
cied death beautiful when caused by her. Now 
to Baruffaldi it seemed that these lines were 
suggested to Ariosto by the thought of a future 
life, and by the hopes of a blessed immortality ; 
and afler having, with great acuteness, discovered 
this, it was easy to jump to the conclusion, that 
the Poet wrote them during his last illness. The 
Platonic refinement and allusion of this madrigal 
are no doubt very strange ; but they seem to me 
reason itself, when compared to the wild dream 
of Baruffaldi. To attempt to argue the point 
would be to abuse the patience of the reader. 
Some Latin lines, designed by Ariosto as an 

luocvi T8B UFE Ot AUCMTO. 

inavriptloii tor )m tomb, and whleh am to be found 
among Ut Imu poenu, d» not impisM us with 
the idea that tb» Poet wto particuWl; serious 
wbeD speakiiig of death.' The directions which 

■ ToeoDtndietaUtbeitmieaHatiedie^edlagMheTbyllK 
KTcnl miten who hiTC had oeomm la (puk ot Abiosto, 
would be ■ long and tadiom Uik. The epigtam here men- 
dODcd deeerm tv have • few wordi betCowed upon it. Ba- 
KOtii and Bakutpaldi, while ao wrath igainaL those who 
auert that it wai cagiaved an the Poet's tomb, ihonld hiie 
iccoUeded that the atoiy waa repeated more than once by 
conlempDraTy writen. In ka edition of the Furiaii, fiialti 
at Venice in ISSS, 4tD., withont piinter'a name, and •rilb 
notes by U. Livio CobAido, I find a life of Aniono, by F. 
Sansoviho, mottlf copied fiimi FoBMABI*8. AMwogb i)ii> 
writer merely nyi that Akiobto wrote the e^gmn In qaa- 
Uoo, SaKMViira add! diot it wm eaganA on hi* taab. 
AmSBg iboM lAe aawited lUt feet, wa muit not reckon Zdth- 
OERVB ; and BabdffaLDI, who states this on Basotti'i 
authority, wrongs tliem both. BARorti did not, tnd ccold 
not say 80 : he only uya that ZViUQEBVIt BCcntU AjUoiTO 
of BpcaUng of the redirection with Unbeconillig iBTitf, at will 
ifpear ftom the feUowbig words : (Thtal. Hi, *i«iui6LiTii. 
Ub. viH. { i.) Ludailcui Arioslui Ferraiiemi^ in Temaculi 
et Latina poeii (icellenlissimus ilbi ipo scripmt nTeas ejnU- 
phium antiqoa nuOeatste et urbanltate reffertotn, CB l en m i 
Chiistisno homiue intUgnttm, enm ImtJctalis ius|HdmMn pnt- 
b«at, monwndK renuMsticiiem MDRflher inMeDlo. E« 
■aUm talci 

Sab boi tOaniMre ani nib baa Iibmu^ mt 
Itih quMfuid Ttlsit beBiguu* ha«s, 
SiTe herede beuignior cornea, liie 
Oportuniua inddens Tiator ; 
Vam scire hand pOfuIt fumn ; wd nee 
ntttt ent TacBm <M vidafm*, 

be left for bis obsequiefi m»y lie fsomodered 9$ 
a proof either of great hpmility or gfe^i contempt 

Ut nrnam cupecet pvrare yivena : 
Yhens Utft tamen nbi p^ravit, 
Quae inscrihi voluit suo sepulchrp 
(Glim si quod haberet is sej^uld^rum) 
Ne cum sj^tus, ezili ^Tracto 
Pnescripti spadOi misellus artus, 
Quos aegrd ante reliquerit, reposoet, 
Hac et hac dneren^ hunc et hunc reyeUeny 
Dum nofio^ propriuniy yagus pererreL 

I befiere tint it requires all the devodon of « Mognrpber to 
deny that this is somewhat bold and fne, and a deiigyman 
Kke Barotfaloi should have been the last to find &ult with 


I shall presently give another ludicrons epitaph of Ariosto, 
which cannot be found fault witfi on account of unchristian 
sentiments. As a iover of truth more than of die Poet, I must 
addy Ihat the Latin epigram just transcribed cdnddes with 
some mery eqinvocal Hnes in the Furioso, C. zxiy. st 6, to 
which the reader is referred. 

Another strange story respecting Ariosto may be deemed 
worth nodce, as it charges him with being a lunatic, on the 
authority of an English writer. L&ssels, in his Voyage rf 
Italy t apei&ing of Ferrara, says as foflows : 

'* The monastery of the Benedicttns is stately; in whose 
chordi I found the tombe of Ariosto, author of the long poeme 
called Orlando Furioso. He was esteemed in his lifetime a great 
poet, and as such, was crowned Laureat Poet by the Emperor 
Charies Y.; but be was oftentimes seen, even in die streets, 
to be too much transported with poetick fury, and to become 
Ariotto Fwrioto while he was penning his Oriando. He had 
a ridi vaine, but a poore purse ; and while his head was 
crowned with laurel, his breeches were often out behfaide, as 
well as those of Torqnato Tasso." 

Mencrenius, in ins aecond DeclmmHo de QmUtttmrta 
erudiiorum, (a w«^ Ht mbkk he 9aA his jaaqditoia ahowed 


for the pageantry of funerali, accordii^ to the 
Roman Catholic practice in Italy.' His body was 

tbdnMlTM perfect eanaaiMieuri,) took the itory ttom a Frmch 
tmulotioD dT LAflSGLS, snd wrote what fbllom : CooiUt de 
Ludorieo Arioato, quod eum ab ip)o Impentore Carolo V. 
Uuream ucepiuet, tanto repente gaudio fuerit perluauir a' 
velut «tTO peidtui per omaei plateu cursitsTerit, ipn So- 
iando Ftaiom quern caimine descrtpKiat tonge (imonor. By 
comparing bim with Labbeli, we see atODce that he poll into 
tfali ttaveUer's mouth what he did Dot say ; and in htg aniiety 
to cbBige others with quackery, showa his own dishonesty. 
lUi was a wilful misrepiesentatioa ; that of Lasbblb one of 
tbote mitaktt to which traTellers, and especially En^h tra- 
Tellen in llaly, are aubject in our own times. The story, 
however, oFAkiosto's madness continued spreading. HoH- 
TAIONE, in his Etiaj/t (Lib. ii. Es. 12,) mentions that he saw a 
great poet in a mad-house at Ferrara. Florio, who published 
• third edition of a translation of Che Etnat in 1 G33. ibL Lon- 
don, properly writes in the margin (pag. 274), " Torqaali 
Tauo." But Cotton, in a later tnmslalian (I quote tlie 
fifth edition, 3 vols. IZmo. London], has bravely snbstitnted 
*' Ariotln," and ssysnomore. Had he read all Montaione'i 
fforka with the attention which one should expect in a trans- 
lator of the Eiua/i, he would not have taken the trouble of 
correcting FLoaio. In the Foyage of HonTAIohe, the day, 
month, and year of AhioSIO's death, are correctly recorded 
from the monnment in the dimch of Fenaia, wiiich that 
traveller went to see. 

* Notwithstanding tliis, ArioSTO complains in the FarioM 
Qmt Ametala had ceased to be conducted with that loleniiuty 
wtiich was customary in Ibrmer times. See OrL Fur, c. S3, 
at. 47. In the BIh CapUott, refcired to in tlie fbregiHQg note, 
be speaks with great leellng of the possibility of his death 
taking place fiir from his frieDds. 

Ch£, ae qui cooro, non ho clii ml pianga ; 
Qui soreQe non ho, non ho qui madre, 
Che topra U corps gtidi, oilo^franga. 


taken to the Church of the Benedictines during 
the night hy four men, with only two tapers, and 
in the most private and simple manner/ The 
monks followed him spontaneously to his last 
abode, contrary to practice, out of respect for his 
memory. He was at first laid in a very humble 
tomb. His son, Virginio, wished to have his re- 
mains removed to a chapel, which he had built 
in the garden of the house erected by Abiosto, 

Ne' quattro frati mid, che con Testi adre 
M' accompagnino al lapide, che V ossa 
Dovria chiuder del figlio a lato al padre. 

He then alludes to the misfortune of his being likely to die 
without being seen by his lady, whose eyes would be like 
Prometheus' fire, and recall him to life when dead ; and this 
the reader win not consider to be said in earnest. Afterwards 
he feelingly turns to the Cardinal to request him to have his 
body carried to Ferrara' if he should not die in that city . 
but he concludes this poem with proposing an inscripdon for his 
tomb, which is enough to make us doubt whether the whole is 
not intended as a joke. 

Se pur d mio destin che debbia trarmi 
In scura tomba questa febbre, quando 
Non possa voto o medicina aitarmi ; 

Signor, per grazia estrema vi domando, 
Che non vogliate deUa patria cara, 
Che sempre stien le mie reliquie in bando. 

Ahnen 1' inutil spoglie abbia Ferrara, 
£ suU' avel che le terrk sotterra. 
La causa del mio fin si legga chiara : 

< Nd senza morte talpa dalla terra, 
' Nd mai pesce dall' acqua si disgiunge ; 

< Nd potd ancor chi questo marmo serra 

< Dalla sua bella Donna viver lunge.' 

» Barotti Fit. di L. A. 


but the monks would not consent to it ; yet his 
ashes were often disturbed to enrich some hand- 
some monument, erected to his memory by iiidi^ 
viduals. This was not, perhaps, showing any 
particular respect for the great man^ whose bones 
were thus indelicately discomposed ; but it served 
to gratify the vanity of obscure persons, who, 
although they could not lower Amosxo's name 
by coupling their own with his in the same se- 
pulchral inscription, yet hoped thus to raise their 
own into celebrity. The first individual who thus 
invaded the sepulchre of Ariosto was one Mosti, 
who, by this equivocal testimony of respect to the 
Poet, has not obliterated the fact that he was for 
years the cruel, ungenerous, and immanly jailer 
of ToRauATO Tasso, whom he took a delight 
in annoying when confined in the mad-house at 
Ferrara. As late as 1801, and under the di- 
rection of a French General, Miollxs, the tomb 
of Ariosto (which had been twice altered from 
its original state,) was removed firom the church 
to the public schools, as if even the ashes of the 
departed were fated not to escape firom the dis- 
graceful pollution of foreigners, who trample on 
the nation and contaminate the soil of Italy. But 
Peccato d nostro, e non natnral cosa. 
Those who may have happened to peruse the 
different accounts of Ariosto's life which have 
been published from time to time, will, perhaps, 
be surprised in the present memoirs not to meet 
with various anecdotes related of Um in leveral 


publioatioiui} and asserted to be true. I have 
not hitherto alluded to them« not being satisfied 
as to their authenticityi nor considering them suf- 
ficiently important to be recorded, even if true* 
Not, however, to disappoint such of my readers 
as may feel inclined either to believe or to relish 
sttdi anecdotes more than I do, I will here shortly 
enumerate some among them. 

On a certain occasion, his father, being highly 
indignant at the supposed misconduct of the poet, 
rebuked him severely. Ariosto bore the rebuke 
with the utmost temper, and without uttering a word 
in reply* Shortly after, in talking over the matter 
with his brother Gabriel, Ludovico explained 
the affair so satisfactorily, that his brother asked 
him why he had Hot given the same explanation 
to his fiither, which would have entirely pacified 
him ? The Poet answered, that whikt his father 
was scolding him he was thinking of his comedy 
La CassariUf in which a parent is represented as 
having occasion to rebuke his son, and that be 
did not think of interrupting his Either, but lis- 
tened attentively, in order to be able to give a 
truer portrait of an angry parent in his comedy. 
Even supposing that Akiosto was writing La 
Cassarla as early as 1496, the epoch to which 
the anecdote is referred by Baruffaldi, when he 
was only twenty^two years of age, we recognise 
in our Poet's comedy rather an imitation from 
the Andria of Terence than a copy from nature. 
Baruffaldi wishing to find in the Ckusaria the 
copy of aa original which perhaps never existed. 


mentions the second scene of the fifth act of that 
comedy, which, however, does not seem to me so 
replete with natural beauties as to warrant the 
conclusion, that Ariosto was closely imitating na- 
ture when he wrote it. 

As a proof of his great popularity even among 
the wildest inhabitants of Italy, it is related by 
Garofa^lo, that on his going to take possession 
of his office in Garfagnana, Ariosto fell in with a 
party of banditti headed by Filippo Pacchione, 
one of the most redoubted chiefs of that pro- 
vince, who, on learning who the Poet was, instead 
of attacking him, went up to him and apologized 
for not having shown him due respect on his 
passing by. 

From his son Viroinio we learn that Ariosto 
was very absent, and that he ate with a voracious 
appetite, and without discrimination. This state- 
ment is confirmed by what Ariosto himself says 
in the Satire addressed to his brother Galosso, 
requesting him to provide him with an apartment, 
and servant who should attend to him, on his 
proposed visit to Rome. ^ That singular dish, 

^ lo non ho molto gusto di vivande 
Che scalco io sia ; fui degno essere al mondo 
Quando viveano gli uomini di ghiande. 

iSb^. 11. 
Prowedimi di legna secche e buone ; 
Di chi cudni pur cosi aUa grossa 
Un poco di vaccina o di montone : 

Non euro d' un che con sapori poesa 
De' vari cibi susdtar la fiune. 

SaHr, III. 




viz. turnips seasoned with vinegar and sapa, to 
which Ariosto alludes in the seventh satire,'' and 
which one would think was mentioned by him 
merely to illustrate his meaning, was perhaps really 
a favourite with him, since Viroinio has particu- 
larly remarked that he was fond of turnips. This 
being the case, his indiscriminating palate is not 
to be wondered at, particularly when we recollect 
his absence of mind. A singular instance of this 
absence is recorded by Fiona, which is confirmed 
by the evidence of Virginio. These writers re- 
late, that when at Carpi, Ariosto went out one 
summer morning in his slippers to take a walk, 
and before he was conscious of it, he found him- 
self half way to Ferrara : to which town he pro- 
ceeded on discovering how far he had gone. 

He was as fond of building and of altering 
what he had built, as he was of writing and re- 
vising what he had written; and he regretted 
that his finances rendered it more difficult for 
him to alter a house than a poem. He also loved 
gardening, but could not leave his plants alone 
any more than his verses ; and not being very 
skilful in botany, he committed sad mistakes. I 
shall insert an anecdote translated from Virgi- 
nio, which illustrates at once the Poet's igno- 
rance of horticulture and his restlessness of dis- 

" In the business of gardening he proceeded as 
he did in writing verses, for he never left any 

' The passage was quoted above, pag. Ixzvi. 


thing in the same pUce more than three moDth« ; 
and if he sowed stonet of peaches or other aeeda, 
he went so many times to see whether they 
were germinating, that he at last destroyed the 
sprout As he had not much knowledge of j^anta, 
he took it for granted that any pknt whidi sprung 
from near the ^bce where he had sown seed must 
be from that seed, and accordingly he took great 
eare of it, till the time came when no doubt oould 
exist as to the mistake. I reccdleet that onee he 
had sown siHae capers, and he went every day te 
see what he supposed were their sprouts, and was 
delighted with them. It turned out Jit last, that 
what he mistook for capers were shoots of elder- 
tweoBf and not one single caper had g^erminated." 

A portrint of Ariosto, engraved in wood by 
TcEiANo, is contained in the edition of the Fu^ 
rioso published At Ferrara in 1582'^ and a dose 
Jke simile of that rare and masterly wBoodncut, 
has been prefixed to the present memoir. Pioka 
says, that " in the painting by Tiziano, Ariosto 
seemed still alive {* and the same may be said of 
the wood*cut.« 

■ Wliat became of the paintiog mentioned by FiavA ii 
not known; although old portraits of Aeiosto are extant. 
FoNTANim says that he had seen a portrait of Ariosto 
painted by TzziAiro, in ^le family of the Vzanoli of Venice, 
near San Casciano. In the bibliographical notice of the edition 
of 15S2, will be found the extract of a letter of VsRDiZPTTi 
to Orazio Ariosti, from which it is proved, that the wood-cut 
portrs^ in that edition was not only painted, but drawn by 
TiziANO. Copies of this engraving are common in the early 
editions of Arimto'« wwks. 


Hari^ thus, perhaps with too much minute- 
ness, mentioiied such points connected with Ario- 
std's life as might be supposed to interest the 
reader, I shall now speak of the poem, which con* 
stitates his principal claim to immortality. In 
the first place^ fei us consider the subject of that 

The feoeval opinion has been, that the Orlando 
Fmrioso is a collection of several poems on distinct 
subjects; and the number, as well as the de- 
nomination of these subjects, is determined ac- 
cording to the idea which each critic or com- 
mentator has formed of the work. But no one 
has hitherto tried to discover whether there might 
not be in the Orlando Furioso one main subject 
on which all die others depended, or from which 
they were derived ; vdiether the different branches 
of this Blaitely tree, although so widely spread, 
might not be all proceeding from a single stem, 
concealed from the eye by their own luxuriant 
foliage. This has not entirely escaped ihe at^ 
tention of certain critics, but unable to account for 
the pleasure derived from so irregular a poem, 
they fancied this " regular irregularity^* con- 
stituted the charm of the Furiosoy absurdly be- 
lieving, to use one of their own comparisons, that a 
jumble of divers buildings might form a beauttfiil 
^ty. They forgot that, in the construction of a 
labyrintli, the several outlets are not left to chance, 
but that the very art of the projector requires 
such a distribiilion of the VMious paths, as may 

xcri THE UFB OF ABI03Ta 

divert the attention of the stranger ^ma the main . 
wavi which, however, does not the lesa eidst, be- 
cause undistinguishable by him. Those who 
touched upon the main aubject of the Puriom, 
and then followed their own fancy, resembled 
those who in the labjrrinth stumble upon the right 
path and afterwards abandon it for a secondary 
one, which they persist in calling a principal out- 
let. They &ncied, that by breaking through the 
divisions from one path to the other, they ar- 
rived at the conclusion by the r^ular way. 

The main subject of the poem of Ariosto is 
The Love of Rcooero and Bkadahakte. This 
wa« lately admitted even by Ginoueke, when he 
said that the principal end of the Furioso was the 
praises of the house of Estb ; ' a piece of infor- 
mation nearly as old as the poem itself, " although 
offered to the Italians as a new importation from 
France. We know, moreover, that, for this same 
purpose, Ariosto had undertaken to write a poem 
in tersta-rima, the beginning of which is published 
among his minor works ;' but, not liking his plan, 
be undertook to write the Furioio. Yet although 

< HUt. Lit. d'ltal. Fort U. cb. 7. 

■ See particulacly ILe Dialogo of Pelleqrcho, the aniwer of 
the Infahtnato, ther^oinderHndthe rejiij, co the Jenualem 
DelivBTid, in which Ihe point is unply and repeatedlf dii- 
cusud. That Abiosto wrote to praise the bouse of EstE, 
nu Ukewige asaerted by Fao)TO DA LoNOIAKO, ia bis noUi 
to the Purioio, aa well u hy other old cooiiDentaton. 

' See ibetertine, beginning 

Canter£> 1' anne, canCara gU aAnid, ftc 


it has been either asserted or conjectured that the 
praises of the House of Este were the principal 
end which the poet purposed to himself in writing 
the Furioso ; and although it has been admitted 
that the marriage of Ruggero with Bradamante is 
a very important part of the poem, no one has 
attempted to show that it is the frincipal subject 
of the Furioso, and that Orlando's love and sub- 
sequent madness, as well as all the wars of the 
Christians against the Saracens, are dependent 
on that marriage, which, insignificant in itself, ac- 
quires an epic importance when we consider it in 
connexion with the mighty feats of arms over which 
it has so much influence. But to understand 
this better, and give at the same time a clue for a 
more intelligible and interesting perusal of the 
Furioso, the following brief sketch of the prin- 
cipal story is offered to the reader, divested of 
all poetical embellishments, and separated from 
all subordinate matters. Every other part of the 
poem will be seen to be dependent on, or to branch 
out from this ; and the connexion of the main story 
will become at once so visible, that if one single 
part, however apparently trifling, be omitted, the 
chain will be broken, and what follows be un- 

Angelica, who had been entrusted to the care 
of Namo,y foreseeing by her magical art that the 

f The Furioso being a continuation of the Innatnorato, the 
reader is here referred to the latter poem, or to the analysis 
of its prindpal action, vol. ii. pag. Ixiv. and seq. for the events 
ORL. FUR. I. h 


Gbristians, would \}e beaten in the battle wUcli 
they were about to fight against the Pagans, 
mounted a palfrey, and took to flight as soon as 
the Paynims had in fact beaten the Christians, 
and taken old Namo prisoner. Rinaldo.was fol- 
lowing his horse Bajardo, which had run away 
from him tp a wood« when he. happened to meet 
with Angelica, who detesting him, fled, and, from 
a bush in which she concealed herself, she dis- 
covered Sacripante, an. old friend of her's, weep- 
ing bitterly and lamenting that she had fallen into 
the power of Orlando. . She suddenly appeared 
before him, and whilst they were talking, a knight 
arrived, jiding in great haste through the wood. 
Sacripante, vex^d at the interruption, challenged 
the knight, who immediately met him, unhorsed 
him, and pursued his way. Whilst Angelica 
ironically endeavoured to console Sacripante for 
his misfortune, a courier arrived, who, to make 
Sacripante's. condition still worse, told him that 
the knight by whom he had been unhorsed, was 
a gallant young damsel, Bradamante, whom he 
was endeavouring to overtake. The poor Cir- 
cassian was so ashamed that he could not reply, 
and the courier went in pursuit of Bradamante, 
whom he found listening to the misfortunes of an 
afflicted knight. The messenger informed Bra- 
damante of his errand, and thus the knight dis- 

which pi;ppe4^ tbpee R^corde^ by Ariosto. T|ie analysis of 
the Furma ,wj|l Q«ver ^ A^U^, un4?n»too4 Ji>y thote who are 
not acquunted with Bojardo*s work. 


covered who she was. The house of Chiara- 
monte, to which Bradamaate belonged^ were sworn 
enemies to ihat of Maganza^tof which this knight,, 
who was called Pinabello, was a memher. He 
was terrified atiMs^hger^ knowing that he should, 
pay dearly-' if he were * recognised as a Magan- 
zese hy .hei^!: and as he was aware that his 
strength was not equal, to her'a, he resorted to 
treacheryv 'to which jtheMagaozese had often re-, 
course in.their quarrels^ .He eventually succeeded, 
in throwing: poor Bradamante. into a. kind of pit,, 
where he hoped she would he destroyed, and no 
traces left.of his offime. • There, however^ Brada- 
mante found^Melissa, >a iairy or witch, who was 
particular^ attadbted* to Ruggero and herself. 
This fairy was waitiag for her» as she had fore-, 
seen what would ;h^pen. - From Melissa, Bra- 
damante leams^'how* she ia to. proceed in deliver- 
ing Ruggero from the hands of Atlante the old 
enchanter' his: master^ who did all. he oould. to, 
prevent Rn^cro jooning the war in France, as he 
knew that, this brave Jcnight would there, turn. 
Christian^ and be muirderod within seven years 
from his conversion to the true. religion. ...To.der 
liver Ruggero) Bradaniante,-soon after leaving the 
grotto, lahei fffom- King. Qrunello the. enchanted 
ring which 'he had (Stolen from Angelica, and by 
virtue of that ring, she makea Atlante. her. pri- 
soner, and JBbliges him to- set Ruggero at liberty^ 
Atlante rode upon a very peculiar steed: it bad. 
wings, and galloped and trotted through the air. 


Ruggero caught it, and as it would not follow 
him he mounted it. The horse began to rise 
gradually, and Ruggero, unable to restrain it, was 
carried off, to the great distress of Bradamante, 
who feared lest Jupiter should want a substitute 
for Ganimede, who, according to her opinion, 
was much surpassed by Ruggero in beauty. 

Having lost sight of him, the heroine takes 
his horse, Frontino, which, although swifler than 
the arrow, had, however, no wings, and returns 
to Melissa to ask what was to be done under 
such circumstances. She hears from Melissa 
that Ruggero is far, very far out of Europe, in 
the possession of Alcina, a fairy, who appears to 
be very beautiful and very young (although she 
is neither), who loves him, and who has contrived 
that he should forget Bradamante to love only 
herself. Poor Bradamante was more distressed 
than before on hearing this ; for if it was grievous 
to see him disappear in the air without any one 
knowing whither he was gone, it was far more pain- 
ful to hear of his being in such hands. Melissa 
got the ring from Bradamante, and with it suc- 
ceeded in freeing Ruggero from Alcina*s power. 
He left her and departed for Europe on the winged 
horse called Ippogrifo ; and for his better secu- 
rity, Melissa gave him the &mous ring. On bis 
way he saw Angelica exposed to a marine monster, 
somewhere in one of the Orcades, and delivered 
her, in doing which he very good naturedly trusted 
her with the ring. Angelica having got posses- 


sion of it, as it was her's originally, determined 
to keep it, and putting it into her mouth, she 
disappeared from Ruggero's sight. Not long 
after, proceeding alone, she saw a young soldier 
wounded. Having cured him, she married him, 
and went to India with him. No more is heard 
of her in the poem ; whilst Orlando, on discover- 
ing this marriage, became furious, and recovered 
only by Astolfo's going to the moon,j and return- 
ing both with his own and with Orlando's wits. 

As for Ruggero, he was once more entrapped 
by Atlante into a palace. The necromancer made 
it appear to him that a giant had carried his Bra- 
damante thither, whom Ruggero thought he be- 
held in danger, now here, now there, calling for 
help whenever he tried to leave the place. Me- 
lissa informed Bradamante of this new enchant- 
ment ; and told her, moreover, that sheiY as to go 
to that place and kill the person who should ap- 
pear before her in the semblance of Ruggero, 
this being the only means of destroying the en- 
chantment. She went, but could not find courage 
enough to destroy what appeared to her the true 
Ruggero ; nor could she prevail upon herself to give 
greater credit to Melissa's opinion than her own 
eyes. It did not require the intervention of her 
sight ; her heart could tell her whether Ruggero 
was far or near. Having entered the palace, bhe 
fell exactly into the same error into which Rug- 
gero and many others had fallen before ; and 
there they all remained till Astolfo arrived with 


A horiii the Mund «f wbich no one, hovtaoeven 
brave, could withstand. Couequaitly, the ma- 
gicun and the very fieods who had the place in 
their keeping weie driven out of it ; and as soon 
aa they were at large, Ruggero and Bradamante 
recognized each other. This rect^uitian had 
been hitherto prevented by the en^antment. On 
letting off from the place where the palace had 
stood (for it now disappeared), they are told that 
a young man was about to be turned alive, and 
they set off U> deliver him. On the v^y Brada- 
mante meets with her old acquaintance, Pinabello, 
whom she pursues, overtakes, and lulls in a wooil. 
Not beieg able to &id her way ba^b, she is se- 
parated from Ruggero, who in the meantime pro- 
ceeds to deliver the young man, who proves to be 
Ricciardetto, Brsdamante'a .brother, .This heroine 
cannot with propriety avoidretuming'to Montal- 
bano, having unexpectedly met with aaotber bro- 
ther of her's who was going thither. To get some 
ddings of Ruggero, she determines upon sending 
his own good horse, FroWino, which had been in 
her pctssession from the time Ruggero had set 
olFon the Ipp<^ifo,' to an abbey where they bad 
appointed'to'meet, and where Ruggero was to be 
baptised. Rodomonle, who wanted Oihprse, meets 
with this, and takes it ibrciblyi Irotathe damsel, 
who was to convey it tO' Ruggero. -The latter 
being iitforraed of tbisdnsult, eetscfi'to call Ro- 
domonte to account for it.- -The oombat coin- 
but is suddenly interrupted : Rodomonte, 


fbllawed by Ruggero, is overtaken in the camp of 
Agramante, where many quarrels' were raging 
between the chiefs of the Saracens, and amongst 
others, between Ruggero himself and Mandri- 
cardo. Ruggero is obliged to stop to fight a 
duel with this Mandricdrdo, whilst * Rodomonte 
departs with Frontino ih spit^ of him* Mandri- 
cardo is killed in the duel ; but Ruggero is very dan- 
gerously wounded, and is confined to hi& bed for a 
long time. Meanwhile, Bradaniantd, who before 
tbis bad received a letter from Him, promising that 
be would be with her in a fortriigbt, ot in twenty 
days at the utmost, was extremely surprised at 
bis not coming, as she did not know the reason. 
She heard of it at last ; but heard, moreover, that 
a great intimacy had arisen between Ruggero and 
Marfisa ; so much so, indeed, that it was given 
out as certain that they were to be married as 
soon as he recovered ; fVom which marriage a 
race of heroes was expected, of whom the like 
were never heard of on earth. Mad with jea- 
lousy, Bradamante goes immediately to the Sa- 
racen camp, where she challenges Ruggero, and 
fights Marfisa; but aflei^ all it turns out that 
Marfisa is Ruggero's sister, so that a general 
peace is made between these friends and relations. 
Agramantej in the meantime, had been beaten by 
Charlemagne ; and Ruggero's obligations to him 
as a knight, a vassal, and a firiend, compel him to 
go to his assistance, *that he may not be accused 
of deserting his sovereign in need, whom he had 


' followed in proBperity. A duet is agreed upon 
to be fought by two champions, a Cbristian and 
a Saracen, the result of which is to decide the 
general content. Ruggero is chosen on behalf of 
the Saracens, whilst the honour of the Christians 
is entrusted to the valour of Rinaldo, brother 
to Bradamante, Now Ruggero was very un- 
willing to kill him, and thus fought sluggishly 
and onljr in self-defence. Whereupon Agramante, 
urged also by Melissa's instigations, who pre- 
sented herself to him in the garb of Rodomonte, 
is persuaded to break a truce which had beea 
agreed oo, and determines not to abide by the 
success of the duel. He is however defeated, 
and flies from France. Ruggero, through an ex- 
cessive sense of honour, followed him, but was 
shipwrecked, and afterwards received by a hermit, 
and christened by him. At the hermit's abode, 
Orlando, who had killed Agramante in a duel, 
happens to arrive with Rinaldo, who both promise 
Bradamante to Ruggero as his lawful wife. This 
lady had in the meantime been all but betrothed 
to a certain Leo, son of the Emperor of Constanti- 
nople. When Ruggero finds this to be the case, and 
that the parents, more particularly Beatrice, Bra- 
damante'smother,who wasan ambitious and avari- 
cious woman, were inclined more to Leo than to 
himself, he seta off with the intention of killing Leo 
In a duel— the shortest way of getting rid of a 
rival. Though he does not succeed in this, he 
succeeds in killing a cousin of his ; but then being 


treacherously taken prisoner, he is confined in a 
tower and condemned to be starved to death. He 
is delivered thence by Leo himself, who did not 
know who he was, but admired his valour : still his 
situation continues very bad. Bradamante, for fear 
of being obliged to marry any other than Ruggero, 
and conscious of her own strength, had recourse 
to Charles, and obtained his word, that she should 
not be obliged to espouse any one who could not 
conquer her in a duel, or resist her from morning 
tin night. Leo, who was as conscious as she was, not 
only of her valour, but of his own, asks Ruggero to 
fight for him, and under his name ; to which Rug- 
gero, through an excess of gratitude, consents. 
He stands against Bradamante the whole day and 
then disappears, determined to die, since he could 
not have her for whom he lived. Marfisa, how- 
ever, as his sister, opposes Leo's marriage, and de- 
termines to fight him, on the plea that Ruggero 
was to be heard before he was deprived of the 
lady betrothed to him. Leo accepts the challenge, 
hoping to be backed by the unknown knight ; but 
he was not to be found. After many inquiries 
he is discovered, with Melissa's assistance, in a 
wood, where he had been, without eating or 
drinking, for three days. Upon Leo learning 
who he really was, in order not to be surpassed 
in generosity, he yields Bradamante to him, and 
with their marriage the poem concludes. ) 

It is not necessary to remark, that the main sub- 
ject of the Orlando Furioso is accompanied by a 


great variety of collateral stories, whicli are lU 
raoreorleaa connef ted with U. Thelove.ofBrada- 
mante and Ruggero is, bawever, the main source, 
and influencea them all, whilst it is to turn afiected 
by them. The connexion of events in thb ptin- 
oipal narrative is evident, Widiout the flight of 
Ang^ca, and her meeting with Rioaldo, she would 
not have trusted hers^to Sacripanle ;^ had they 
not stopped to tallc together, they no.uld not hat 
aeen-Bradamante pais hy; nor .would the mes- 
senger have been &ble to learn which way she had 
gone; nor would he have overtaken her so soon; 
nor would Pinabello have learnt who she was; 
nor would he have then thrown her into the jHt; 
nor would she have been. instructed bqw to deliver 
Ruggero ; and so on to the end pf the poem. The 
madness of Orlando and his recovery are derived 
from this principal subject of the Furioto; for had 
not Bradamante got the ring from Brunello, she 
could not have sent it to Ruggero ; he would not 
have given it to Angelica; and without it An- 
gelica would not have ventured to go .alone, so as 
to be in the situation to heal .Medoro. and marry 
him, by whkh was caused Qtlando's madness. 
Melissa delivered Ruggero f^om Alcina's hands 
ohieBy by means of the ring ; it vras there that Rug- 
gero learnt how to master the Ippogrifo, without 
which he could not have delivered Angelica ; and 

' I do not mean to saf Ibat Ibeee effecli follow neceasarilg 
fioni M<ie tastes, but some other causes must be assigned if 
the 'piEHnt ones b« omitted. 


it was on this damsel's account that Ruggero lost 
the winged horse. Had he not so lost it, it would 
not have heen found hy Astolfo in the enchanted 
palace of Atlante ; and without the Ippogrifo how 
could Astolfo have gone to the terrestrial para- 
dise to see St. John, who took him to the moon, 
where he found Orlando's wits ? But without Or- 
lando, Agramante could not he finally conquered ; 
ixor his capital, Biserta, taken ; and we do not 
see how Orlando was to have a$sisted the other 
Paladins in taking Biserta, except by recollecting 
that he^ went to Africa when out of his senses. 
J>udon would not haye been allowed to escape 
alive from Ruggero's hands, had ndt the knight 
known that the PaUdin was a relative of his be- 
loved Bradamante ; and it is evident that Rinaldo 
would have been the loser in the duel with Rug- 
gero, had not the latter been in love with the sister 
of his antagonist ; it was therefore in consequence 
of that love only that the empire of Charlemagne 
escaped from being made tributary to the Moslems. 
The absence of Ruggero from the army, as well 
as that of other chiefs, more particularly of Or- 
lando when out of his senses, is so striking, and 
sp much affects the march of events, that it is 
enough to allude, to the fact, to convince any 
one of its important consequences. Now, if the 
reader will take the trouble to inquire into the 
causes of this absence, he will find it in some 
ws^y or other connected with the love of Ruggero 
and Bradamante, and consequently all tlie events 


of the war are dependent on that love. Atlante had 
built the enchanted castle (which was destroyed 
by Astolfo) to prevent Ruggero from going to 
France, where, as I said, he foresaw that the 
knight would turn Christian and be murdered: 
and the reader is aware that Ruggero had no 
stronger reason for becoming a Christian than his 
love for Bradamante. Orlando was allured to the 
castle by Atlante ; but on Angelica discovering sud- 
denly herself to him, and afterwards disappearing, 
(all owing to the ring which she had from Ruggero,) 
he came out of the palace, and wandering about 
in search of Angelica, he fell in with the Saracen 
troops of Alzirdo and Manilardo, whom he de- 
stroyed. This was the immediate cause of Man- 
dricardo leaving Agramante's army to fight Or« 
lando, which led him to conquer Doralice. 
Hence, arose his mortal enmity to Rodomonte, 
which ended with the latter leaving Agramante's 
camp, and subsequently being unhorsed by Bra- 
damante; in consequence of which he with- 
drew into a dark cave and never came out to 
Agramante's assistance. But Rodomonte having 
taken the horse Frontino from Ippalca, who was 
leading it to Ruggero by Bradamante's order, 
quarrelled with Ruggero, and from their quarrel 
Sacripante came to blows with Rodomonte ; and 
Marfisa threatened to hang Brunello in spite of 
Agraraante, who lost Sacripante's assistance in 
consequence, and, for a while, that of Marfisa 
also. This last, by being extremely attentive to 


Riiggero when oonfined by the wound which he 
had received from Mandricardo, excited the sus- 
picion that she was to marry him, which caused 
Bradamante to be in&riate with jealousy. If the 
reader will look back at the origin of all this, he 
will find that nothing would have so fidlen out 
had not the ring been in Angelica's hands. It 
was given to her, I must repeat, by Ruggero, who 
had it from Bradamante, through Melissa, only 
on account o£ their mutual attachment. I shall 
not go on to add proofs to those already adduced, 
as I might easily do, drawing them from any 
part of the poem. 

The dependence of all the minor stories of the 
Furioso on the principal one, is such, that I do not 
know any poem in which there are fewer episodes 
in proportion to its bulk : an assertion which will 
rather surprise those persons who have good- 
naturedly believed what sundry critics have told 
them, namely, that the poem of Ariosto is but a 
collection of episodes. We must not forget that 
the stories in the form of relations, narrations, 
tales, &c. are not episodes. The parts of Ariosto*s 
poem which can be omitted without injuring its 
main subject, are very few. The better to express, 
my meaning, I beg the reader to recall to mind the 
above comparison of this poem with a tree. Its 
strong and solid trunk diverges into different 
branches, each of them subdivided into smaller 
ones. Many of these smaller branches may be 
cut away, still the tree will stand and vegetate ; 


it wiU not, however, be either so magnificent, or 
so Tigoroas as before. By catting off a branch of 
some importance, an infinite number of smaller 
ones will be destroyed along with it. Episodes, 
strictly and properly speaking, are not branches 
diverging out of the inain trunk, they spring from 
the common root, but are not part of the same tree ; 
and although they cannot subsist without that 
root, they vegetate independently of the troiiL 
Tasso, in the preface to his iSino/ilo, says, that he 
has left some parts of the poem which may appear 
useless ; yet, he contends that, if not each by itself, 
certainly taken altogether they are of great im- 
portance. *' Thus, a single hair, or two or three, 
taken from a person, cause no' defbhnity ; 'but 
would not a man be deformed if his hair were aU 
plucked out ?" . These words of Tasso serve to- il- 
lustrate the importance of the minor stories' in* 
Abiosto's poem. * The ramifications out of die 
main story are, however, still more important ; 
they do not stand in the relation of the haif to 
a man, but, generally speaking, in that of his 

To illustrate, by a very well-known part of 
the FuriosOf the way in which the Poet connects 
what in the jEneid is a mere episode 'with* his 
principal subject, let the reader recall to mind-the 
episode of Nisus and Euryalus in the Latin poem. 

> What I say of the Furiaso in this respect, may be said also 
of the Innamorato, 


and that of Cldridano and M^oro, evidently imi- 
tated from' ViROiL by AftiosTo.' If the former 
episode were taken out altogether from the poemy 
it would be the loss of a fine piece of poetry, bat 
the main story would proceed and bet;ompleteeven 
without it. But the case is far different widi the 
Furioso. If Medoro had not been found wounded 
by Angelica she Would not have fallen in love with 
and married him ; nor WouM Orlando have lost his 
reason. Zerbino returning from his pursuit of the 
villain who had Wounded Medoro, falls in with 
Marfisa, and is forced to take catC' o£ Gabrina,i 
who at last nearly causes him to be put .to death 
by Anselmo, father of Pinabello, who had been 
killed by Bradamante. The lover of Isabella i» 
rescued by Orlando, who was accompanied by 
this damsel after he had delivered her from the 
hands of some banditti. Out of gratitude • to 
Orlando, Zerbino fights Mandricardo, to prevent 
him from possessing himself of Durindana, and 
is mortally' wounded in the dueL By bis death, 
Isabella is lef^ unprot^ct^, and falls into Rodo- 
monte's hands, who kills her. This warrior, to 
punish himself for this misdeed, builds a narrow 
bridge, on which he jousts with all knights who 
happen to go that way, andivhose armour he hangs 
up as a trophy in honour of Isabella. There, how- 
ever, he is overthrown by Bradamante, and in 
consequence of this defeat he goes to hide himself 
in a cave, from which he will not come forth to 
Agramante's assistance. 


The art of aggrandizing the merits of a hero by 
imagining that whenever he is absent his party are 
beaten, is very skilfully resorted to by A&iosto. 
In his poem there are at least six persons of this 
class; viz. Orlando, Bradamante, and Rinaldo; 
Rodomonte, Marfisa, and Mandricardo. When- 
ever any of them share in the battle, his or her 
party is victorious ; and as they belonged to the 
two opposing armies, things are so managed that 
their simultaneous presence in their several ranks 
is prevented. Had not Orlando lost his senses 
he would not have acted as he did ; and why 
should he not have been in the Christian camp? 
And if there, whilst Ruggero was wounded, Man- 
dricardo killed, and Marfisa, Sacripante, and 
Rodomonte away, why should he not have crushed 
the Moslems? Who could have withstood him 
and Rinaldo ? On the other hand, if Rodomonte 
had been with Agramante, how could the Chris- 
tians have defended themselves ? Had Agramante 
been altogether destroyed, or had he been victo- 
rious, what excuse could Ruggero have found for 
not marrying Bradamante without any further de- 
lay ? And with their marriage the poem would 
have concluded several cantos sooner than it does. 
Now, if we examine why this does not so happen, 
we find that it is all owing to the sortie of Cloridano 
and Medoro, pregnant with such mighty conse- 
quences in the Furioso, whilst its prototype, Nisus 
and Euryalus, in the Mneidy stands altogether se- 
parate from the rest of that poem. > 


I have preferred referring to tbese parts of the 
FuriosOj hecause they have been speciaDy men- 
tioned by Pelleoriho in his reply to the Cruaca^ 
to prove that this poem is composed of several 
detached parts. ^ In this he was certainly wroogy 
although Ulnfarinato did not point out his mis- 
take. So far from not sufiering any injury, the 
poem would be utterly destroyed if the parts which 
are mentioned by Pslleoeiko were omitted. And 
if this acute critic, (whose noble defence of Tasso 
and fairness of avgument do infinite honour to his 
character, and form a singular contrast with the 
bitterness and dishcmesty of his malicious and ve* 
nomous, although able, adversaries,) had weD 
considered the structure of the Furtoso, he would 
not have ventured to assert that its different parts 
can be removed from one end to the other of the 
poem without injuring it. He says, that the assist- 
ance which Rinaldo brings at the head of the 
English army, when the Christians are hard pressed 
by the Saracens, might be substituted for that of 
the same Rinaldo when coming to relieve the 
Christians from the attack of Agramante ; and that 
the latter part might be inserted in place of the 
former. But it would then be necessary to alter 
the part of the poem which relates to Zerbino and 
Isabella ; to change all the causes and effects of 

^ Dbtaccandosi dal corpo di detto poema, non cbe le novelle 
sovercliie, ma molte azioni intere, che ognuna farebbe una fii- 
▼oia ; non solo la novdla d' Olimina, ma ancbe gU amori di 
Angelica, di Buggero e di Bradamante, di Z^rblno e d' Isa- 

ORL. FUB. I. i 


the quarrels of the Sancen chiefi anxHig diem- 
selves ; to assign difierent motives for their dif- 
ferent actions; and any alteration of this description 
would necessarily produce a new poem, which 
might be better or worse, but not the same Or^ 
iando Furioso with the present. These oonsi- 
derations will also be enough to satisfy the reader, 
that not only the order of the poem and of its 
several parts cannot be disturbed without in- 
juring the whole, but that the interruptions of 
the several stories^ are necessary to the structure 
of the poem, and not capriciously introduced, as 
some have believed. Whoever may try to read 
any particular part of the poem, without refer- 
ence to the general design, will soon find himself 
lost among the allusions continually recurring 
to facts and persons mentioned throughout the 

There are, certainly, a few episodes in the Ot" 
Iando Furioso; but fewer, as I said, than most 
persons believe, and less than can be expected in 
so long a poem. The very nature of this poem 
was highly favourable to the introduction of epi- 
sodes in a more comprehensive sense ; that is, if 
by this denomination are to be understood the 
tales, stories, narratives, &c. with which the Fu- 

bella ; la fim>la del Furioso sarebbe la medesima sensa alcun 
notabile cambiamento. Tasso Opp, vol. ii. peg. 97. Yen. Ed. 
« With respect to the origin of these intermptioiis in the 
romantic narrative poems in general, see what has been said 
in the JSfcay on the Bam, Nar, Poet^ nf the Ital, 


rioso al>ounds. Whenever a knight9>errant was 
going from one place to another, nothing could be 
more in keeping with such a character as well as 
with the spirit of the times, as fancied by the 
poets^ than that he should &31 in some adven- 
ture ; nothing more natural, than that if any 
person in distress (particularly a lady) should 
meet with a knight, she should tell him the cause 
of her sorrow ; and a knight would have been 
guilty of the most unchivalrous conduct, had he 
hesitated a moment in imdertaking to redress a 
wrong* or to assist a lady. Hence, Rinaldo, on his 
way to England, goes to the assistance of Ginevra; 
Orlando gives up the search of Angelica to go to 
destroy Ebuda (he secretly hoped, moreover, that 
he might find his lady there); Ruggero and Bra- 
damante go to assist Ricdardetto, without knowing 
who he was, when they hear he was to be burned; 
and the same couple, joined by Marfisa, go to 
punish Marganorre, though all this delays the exe- 
cution of the plans which they had previously de- 
termined upon. These are episodes peculiar to this 
species of poems. As for the tales or stories re- 
lated by persons who happen to meet on a jour- 
ney, or at dinner, these are no more episodes 
than the journeys and dinners themselves. We 
cannot suppose that people travelled and ate with- 
out saying a word ; and, if they spoke, why should 
the Poet hesitate to tell us their conversation ? ^ 
It is to be remarked, that most of the additions 
made by Abiosto to his poem between 1516 


and 15S2, consist of episodes of this description; 
and in having added new difficulties to the mar- 
riage of Ruggero with Bradamante, so that the 
main story of the poem was left substantially the 
same. The differences between these seyeral 
editions are well worth being critically considered, 
and I shall therefore make a few observations upon 
them. I am the more inclined to do this, as the 
first edition of the poem is extremely rare; and 
few readers, if even they had the inclination, can 
have the means of instituting a comparison of tbe 
first with the last edition of the Orlando FuriosOf 
as published by its author. 

The edition of 1516, as well as that of 1521, is 
divided into forty cantos, as I have already ob- 
served.^ The four principal additions to the 
poem, made in 1532, are, 1st; The story of 
Olimpia, whose name does not even occur in the 
two first editions of the poem. Her love for Bi- 
reno, as well as her misfortunes, the battle of 
Orlando with the Orca, Bireno's treachery and 
punishment, are all additions of 1532, 2dlj; 
UUania is not mentioned in the edition of 1516. 
Whatever the Poet tells us with respect to her, 
lier golden shield, her knights, &c. ias well as all 
■that regards Tristram's castle, the origin of its 
customs, and the pictures in it, is added in the last 
iedition. Sdly ; The whole of the thirty-seventh 
fanto, containing the story of Marganorre and his 

^ See aboTCi pag. ix. zxiz. and Ixviii. 


punishmenty is new : not a syllable of it occuring 
in the edition of 1516. 4thly; What happens, 
towards the end of the poem, owing to the ob- 
jections made by Bradamante's parents to her 
marriage with Ruggero, and to the request of 
LeOy the son of the Emperor of Constantinople, 
IS an interpolation. This embraces the journey of 
Ruggero into Bulgaria, and his adventures in that 
country ; his victory, imprisonment, and deliver- 
ance ; his gratitude to Leo ; his duel with Bra- 
damante; his determination to die; and, lastly, 
the assistance of Melissa, and his election to the 
Bulgarian throne.^ 

It may be reasonably doubted whether all these 
additions are improvements. The question is not, 
whether each of them, considered by itself, be not 
replete with beauties of various descriptions — 
whether, in every one be not visible the masterly 
hand of Ariosto ; but whether the Furioso is im- 
proved by them. As to the first of these ad- 
ditions (Olimpia's story), it resembles, in many 
parts, Angelica's capture and subsequent fate, 
and is made up of Perseus and Andromeda, as 
well as of Ariadne and Theseus. The part which 
is peculiar to Olimpia, and which could not be 
transferred to the narrative of Angelica, is her 
waking, when she finds, to her great dismay, that 
she is alone in an uninhabited island, and aban- 
doned by Bireno : but I do not think it so ex- 
quisitely beautiful, especially after Ovid, as to 
warrant the author in introducing this story. The 


daughter of the Qrca night easily be acGompIished 
by Ruggero ; aldiough it were better^ in my opi« 
aioiiy that neither he nor Orlando had been sup* 
posed to per&nn that clamsy feat* Oberto's mar- 
riage with Olimpia, when he was still alive whom 
she had loved so sincerely, and who was her laW' 
Jtdf but unworthy partner, seems to me a very 
untofvard eyent. The story of Ullania, particularly 
diat part which is connected with Sir Tristram^s 
castle, is very amusing, and poeticaUy told in many 
parts ; but I would rather lose its beauties than 
have to read the dresome description of the pic- 
tures, which is crammed in by the Poet to flatter 
his masters, at the expense of the patience of his 
readers. This is moreover an imitation from Bo- 
^ ARDO. The jokes of Ullania, on the three knights, 
are nothing compared with the consolations ofiered 
by Angelica to Sacripante, when overthrown by 
Bradamante; and no pride can be punished by 
the golden lance with more pleasure to the reader, 
than that of Marfisa. We have not, therefore, 
any particular reason to thank Amosto for this 
addition. The story of M^ganorre is not ori- 
ginal, as will be shown in the notes. As to the 
style and the embellishments in general, tbey 
are inferior to what we have a right to expect 
from Ariosto. 

The last addition, which serves to prevent for 
a while the marriage of Ruggero and Bradamante, 
seems to me less objectionable. The characters 
both of Ruggero and Bradamante gain by it; 


and, perhaps, the Poet thought he ought to spa 
out his poem, so as to give time to Rodomonta 
to do penance for having allowed himself to be 
unhorsed by Bradamante. I can well conceive^ 
however, that others may consider this addition 
an encumbrance. To those particularly who are 
imbued with a classical taste, it will seem that this 
new branching-out and after-growth of the trunk» 
may cause the whole plant to look too wild and 
disproportionate in certain respects; and they may 
rather wish that the pruning-knife had been ap- 
plied to soften down and moderate the excessive 
fertility of the soil and exuberance of the tree. 
There is something very striking, as well as simple 
and grand, in seeing the marriage of Ruggero suc- 
ceed immediately to the triumphal entrance of that 
knight and the Paladins into Paris after their vic- 
tory over the Saracens, when his union with Bra- 
damante openly appears to the reader, what it is 
in fact — the direct and immediate consequence of 
this victory. 

As for the minor alterations of lines and 
verses, they are generally for the better, and affi>rd 
ample room for reflection to the reader, who 
feels the niceties of the Italian language and 
versification, as well as to those critics who ex- 
amine with more discriminating eyes the great 
patience with which authors, who seem the most 
natural, fluent and easy, have incessantly la- 
boured to correct and alter their writings. In 
the extract already given from the memorandum 


of hu son ViRoiNio, allusion is made to this never- 
ceasing anxiety of correcting and improving, by 
wbich Akiosto was distinguished. Viroinio makes 
a more direct allusion to this in another place, 
saying : " He (Ariosto) was never satisfied with 
his lines, and altered them over and over again. 
This was the reason that he never could recollect 
any of his verses ; and thus many things of his were 
losL" Fiona has chosen a hundred verbal altera- 
tions of the Ftfnofo, and has attempted, generally 
very satisfactorily, to explain the reasons which 
induced the Poet to alter as he did.® On men- 

• The very first line of the poem was altered three times, 
and Fiona has given the following reasons for the changes. It 
stood first 

Di donne e cavallier gli antiqui amori. 
Per dare una rispondenza a donne con jimori, ed un' altra a 
CavaUeri con /trmef o vero per pigliar V anima dell' Eroico che 
era I* arme, la qual parte era stata tralasdata, vdle coil mutar 
da prindpio 

Di donne e cavallier 1' arme e gli amori. 
E finalmente veggendo che era stato accettato per regola, che, 
dandod V articolo nel retto d* un nome, porlo parimente blso- 
gnava nel secondo caso di quello, da che egli dipendeva, edac- 
cortosi che separando cimaUier ed etrme potea fiir piii vago II 
proponimento, disse : 

Le donne, i cavallier, 1* arme, gU amori. 
II che fece ancora principalmente, perchd 11 pronome relativo 
col qual cominda il tcrzo verso, avea bisogno, come a fona, 
che gli precedesse V articolo. Perdoodid sdogUendo qudls 
sentenza : lo canto gli antiehi amori, le certene, e P tmprese di 
donne e cavaltteri che faro al tempo &c, era parlar che con- 
traiaceva gli Schiavoni Italianati, che dicono : avtUa la bene- 
dizione di Vescovo di terra nostra. E per questo convenendo 
che in quella sentenza fosse un articolo a cui si riferisse il detto 


tiojiing the subject in the biographical part of his 
work, he says : " Auosto was never satisfied with 
the alterations which he caused to be made in his 
house ; and said the same was the case with his 
verses, which he changed many times. And (having 
perceived that sometimes, when he endeavomred 
to alter even the s%htest thing, he did more 
harm than good) he used to say, that it hap- 
pened with verses as with trees. If the hand of 
the gardener be applied to a plant which grows 
beautifully, it may be improved; but if it be ex- 
cessively cultivated it loses its native grace. In 

proDome, era fona (oltre alia poco di sopra detta lagione) che 
dicesse de le dcrnne, e dei eavaOieri, &c. There b another 
reason by which Ariosto was probably induced to adopt the 
last reading ; namely, that it is nearer the original, which is in 
Dante ; who, when upbraiding with noble indignation the 
state of the degenerated inhabitants of Romagna, remembera 
with exquisite pathos 

Le donne, i cavallier, ^ a£5mni e gfi agi, 
Che inspiravano amore e cortesia. 

Purgat. xiv. 109 & 110. 

Neither Akiosto, nor any reader of a delicate and discrimi- 
nating ear, could tolerate the ungracious Di do (Di doone) 
with which the poem b^an in the former editions ; and this 
was as good a reason for changing, as any of those given by 
Fiona. The casting and recasting of these two lines was fa- 
mous in Italy in the dzteenth century, as we learn from Mu- 
RETua. Audivi a maximis viris, qui fociUimd id nosse poterant, 
Ludovicum Areostum nobilissimum nobilissimae domus praeco- 
nem, in duobus primis grandiosis illius poematis sui versibus 
plusquam credi posse laborasse ; neque sibi prius animum ex- 
plere potuisse, quam quum illos in omnem partem diu mul- 
tumque versasset. 


like maimer, a fine line, written as it were by in- 
spiration, if it be slightly altered, so as to renioTe 
the little trace of carelessness perceptible in it, as 
originally written, will be improved; but if the 
Poet be not satisfied, and wish to polish it still 
more, he runs the risk of taking from it all its 
native beauty." This excessive care produces 
what we Italians call amfnameratnento^ or amma' 
nteratura^ and was elegantly described by HoRACSf 
when he said, that in vUium duett fug<B culpa. 
Ariosto is not, however, liable to be found fimlt 
with on this score; and the great charm of his 
style is precisely the apparent ease and facility, 
nay, even slight carelessness, with which he writes. 
It has been asked, why A&iosto, if he did not 
mean that Orlando's madness should be the prin- 
cipal subject of his poem, called it Orlando Fu* 
rioso ? Fiona seems undoubtedly correct, when 
he tells us that AitiosTO was influenced in giving 
a title to his poem by the great popularity of the 
Innamorato, He deemed himself justified in 
profiting by this popularity in continuing a work 
which it was generally regretted had been left un- 
finished by its author. It seems that it was con- 
sidered the object of the highest ambition for any 
poet in those days to attempt a continuation of the 
Innamorato. But the popularity of Bojardo was 
extreme at Ferrara, where Ariosto must have 
seen and known him at the very court of which 
that nobleman was the highest ornament, and in 
which Ariosto liimself succeeded him. Although 

7HS tIPE OF ARI08TO. exzni 

tbe iminediate subject of the Innamorato he not to 
pr^se the House of Este, yet Bojarbo had shown 
that he knew hdw to mix up the glories of that 
house with those of Charlemagne. How he could 
have connected the marriage of Rnggero and Bra* 
damante with the rest of the poem^ is not known; 
but that from that couple was to descend the 
House of EsTS is certain, even according to Bo* 
JABDO. It is likewise undoubted, that the glories 
and misfortunes of Ruggero and Bradamante, at 
well as their attachment, were to be the principal 
subject of the third book of Bojabdo's poem. 

All the continuators of Bojasdo have attempted 
to follow up his design with respect to the mar* 
riage of Bradamante with Ruggero, and the sub* 
sequent treachery of Oano, who destroyed that 
hero. Some have gone farther, and have cele* 
brated the revenge taken for that murder by 
a descendant of Ruggero, who is dif tinguuhed by 
the names of Rugino, or Ruggerino, or Rug-* 
geretto. But their compositions are every way 
contemptible. Their stories are altogether un* 
connected with one another, and have nothing to 
do either with the war of the Saracens against 
Charlemagne, or with the nuurriage of Ruggero, 
or with Gano's treachery. They are without in* 
terest, either as respects subject or style. The 
versification is bad, having neither harmony, 
strength, nor softness. These versifiers, in many 
instances, wrote merely for the sake of rhyme, to- 
tally disregarding the sense. Without the simpli* 


city of the old romancers, pitiful when they attempt 
the humorous, and ridiculous when they affect 
to be sublime, their works are utterly unread- 
able. They abound in tales and descriptions, 
compared with which the most exceptionable pas- 
sages of the Furioso may be accounted delicate 
and pure ; to atone for which, they &vour us 
with numberless conversions of Pagans to Chris- 
tianity. To increase the dullness of such writers, 
more particularly of Aoostiki, the most celebrated 
among them, the reader is presented with a suc- 
cession of allegorical beings, such as Death, Sin, 
Prudence, Pleasure, and the like. There are 
only two good comic conceptions in Aoostini, 
which in other hands might have been used with 
great effect. During a battle, Brunello picks up 
the golden lance which had fallen firpm the hands 
of its owner, and, rushing upon the enemy, he 
unhorses the most valiant warriors, one after an- 
other ; and this whimsical conceit might have 
afforded room for very amusing incidents, had 
the style corresponded with the idea. On an- 
other occasion, Ferrau, by enchantment, is so 
transformed as to resemble Dardinello, who had 
married Angelica, and the most amusing mistakes 
might be imagined between these two Dardinellos, 
had they been conceived by a really humorous 
writer, and one who would bestow the requisite 
care on a production intended for the public. 
Aoostini, on the contrary, boasted of having 
written the last book of his continuation in ten 


days. Such an assertion, if untrue, is a gross 
impertinence : and if true, (as there is reason to 
suppose,) is scarcely less reprehensible. 

It is almost a waste of words to censure such 
wretched writers. The superiority of Ariosto is 
so great, that it would be an insult to his genius 
were we to attempt a comparison between Ago- 
sTiKi and himself. Ariosto, in using Bojardo's 
materials and continuing his poem, and yet im- 
perceptibly changing the main subject of it, is 
truly marvellous. Orlando's love is still of the 
greatest importance to the story, as we have seen. 
It is, however, impossible to conceive a greater dis- 
similarity than exists between the love of Orlando 
for Angelica, and that of Ruggerofor Bradamante. 
The reader who takes the circumstances into con- 
sideration, and who is acquainted with the Innamo^ 
rato and Furioso, will perceive the malice or igno' 
ranee of those critics who pretend to speak with 
contempt of Ariosto's plan, because he has fol- 
lowed BojARDo.^ I am certainly &r from wishing to 
underrate the latter poet, or the many obligations 
which Ariosto is under to him ; but as far as 
invention goes, I am fully satisfied that the author 
of the Furioso laboured under considerable disad- 
vantage in having to continue a work begun by 
another poet. An evident proof of the originality 
of Ariosto is aflbrded by the curious fact that. 

' NisiELT and Speroni are here particularly alluded to 
among those who spoke from malice. 


although the Furioso i» but the second part of a 
poem, although the characters are introduced as 
old acquaintances, although the stories are often 
but half told, and although the reader who is not 
Acquainted with the Innamarato cannot certainly 
expect thoroughly to understand the Furioso, yet 
he will understand enough of it to feel deeply in- 
terested, and will acquire a general view of the 
subject without being particularly informed of 
what the Poet assumes to be known, in order to 
the full comprehension of his work. 

I have already had occasion to observe, that 
BojARDO meant to tell the story of Ruggere's 
murder by Gano in the part of his poem which 
he left incomplete.' I believe that Ariosto also 
intended, as the other continuators of Bojardo 
have done, to speak of the death of Ruggero by 
Gano's treachery. Whether he meant this to be 
the subject of another poem, or of another hook 
of the poem which we now read, it is impossible 
to ascertain. I am inclined to think that he 
meant to write a poem which was to be a conti- 
nuation and conclusion of the Furioso, and that 
for the following reason. 

A friend of Ariosto, Giovio,^ in his dialogue, 

s See L\fe qfBajardo, pag. Ixi. 

^ That Giovio was one of the friends of the Poet, appears 
from Ariosto's own words, who, in the seventh satire, men- 
tions him along with Behbo, Sadoleto, Molza, &c., as one 
of those whom he would be delighted to converse with, if he 
were to go to Rome as ambassador to C&EMENT VII. 


De Fhis Utteris illustribust first publii^bed by Ti- 
SABOSCHI, mentions as a positive fact, that another 
poem was exp^ted from Ariosto, as a completion 
of the FuriosOf in which the Poet was to surpass 
himself.^ Fragments of this poem are existing ; 
and these form the five cantos which the editors 
of Akiosto commonly consider to have been 
written in continuation af the subject of the Fu" 
rioso^ and which occur in several editions of « 
that poem. Fiona asserts positively, that Aeiosto 
had said that he meant to write another poem 
complete in itself, but connected with the Furtoso} 

*■ The feUowing are fhe words of Giovio, lutherto nnob- 
senred by the biographen of Abiobto. OpenMum est atque 
omni eruditione, lepore, ac urbanitate peromatum Ariosti 
poema, quo fbrentis Orlandi &bixIo8i herois admirabiles res 
gestas-m gratias non otiosamm modo matronarum, sed occu- 
patOTom etiam hominum jucnndisomd decantavit. Sunt et 
nonnullae gus satyrse; et SupposiH perfiiceta oomcedia: sed 
m ezpectatione summa est ad prions fiibulae coronidem alte- 
ram Yolumen justum, quo seispum supezare perhibetur. 

^ Vhe seguono la materia del Furioso. Such are the very 
words used by Aldo in the first edition of these five cantos, 
Venezia, 1545. He says, they had been given to him by 
ViBamio Ariosto, who was then living, and who did not 
contradict this positive assertion, constantly employed by sub- 
sequent editors; even by those who did not believe that these 
cantos were intended as a continuation of the Furiogo* 

1 Comincid 1' Ariosto un altro poema, che dall' invenzione 
del Furioso non si partiva, del quale (forse contra sua voglia 
per non esser egli state il pubblicator d' essi) cinque canti si 
If^gono, che il Falagio del Signor delle Fate hanno nel prime 
aspetto. Egli diceva che questa era un' orditura, e che deli- 
berato avea di trapporvi abbattimenti, e viaggi ed aitre somi- 
g^anti coK che oompimento le dessero ...... Quest! 


The following is a short sketch of the suhject 
of these five cantos. 

The fiiiries, who in old times were called 
nymphs and goddesseSym were wont to meet every 
five years at the temple of Demogorgon, in the 
mountain which separates Scythia from India." 

dnque canti fiumo un poema tale qual d 1' Odissea, che segiuita 
r Iliade in Ulisse, e uegaoao la materia del Furioso con nuoTO 
e diTeno aoggetto che da' proposti prindpii non si acosta. 
Gindicano alcnni che esa da lui sarebbono stad spard qui e 
lA per vaij luoghi dd suo Orlando ; il che ^li non disse 
giammai. And per oontrario lasdosd intendere, ch' ^11 di 
hre un' altra opera intendeva, che dovease star da per se. Ga- 
aoPALO likewise mendons the fi?e cantos pur teguenti la ma- 
teria del FuriotQ. Giraldi, to contradict Fiona, in his MS. 
notes to the Bomanzif quoted by Baeotti, says, on the con- 
trary, that the Cinque Canti were scattered in the Furioso, and 
were in &ct rgected stansas. If the five cantos be taken as 
a continuation of the Furioto, it is not of the Furioto as we 
now read it, but as it appeared in the first edition ; for in 
the Cinque Canti, Bradamante, fitf from bdng Queen of the 
Bulgart, (as she becomes in the Furioeo, c. zld. st 78, 
added in the last edition,) is the lady of a poor knight, 
whom the Emperor entrusts with the government of Mar- 
sdlles and Aries. {Cinque Canti, c. iii. st. 43.) Ruscelli's 
statement can be reconciled vnth both verdons of the story. 
He says, that Ariosto originally thought of writing a poem in 
fifty cantos, to end with the defeat of Roncesvalles and die 
death of Ruggero ; but that he was prevailed upon not to do so, 
both because the subject was not new, Pulci having treated 
it, and because it was not right that an epic poem should end so 
tragically. With the stanzas omitted in consequence, Ariosto 
meant to write a new poem, but was prevented. 

" Cant. i. st 9. 

" The chdn of mountdns here intended is the Caucasus, 
and its continuation the Imaus, which is mentioned by the 


The object of the meeting was to settle any quar- 
rel which might have occurred between them, 
and to unite their strength to avenge the wrongs 
of any of their number, who should happen to 
have been maltreated. At one of these assemblies, 
Morgana appeared with a mournful countenance, 
pale, and dressed as when Orlando, afler a long 
chase, had made her prisoner.^ As she had 
sworn not to injure Orlando, Alcina spoke in her 
behalf, and called upon the other fairies to join in 
destroying Charlemagne and his followers. She 
was the more eager for this, as she herself had 
been very ill-used by Ruggero, who had cruelly 
deserted her.^ When Demogorgon had heard 
all the tales of sorrow of Morgana, Dragontina, 
Fallerina, Alcina, and several other fairies, he 
authorized them to make common cause to avenge 
themselves ; and the assembly gave full powers to 
Alcina for that purpose. This fairy, after a long 
deliberation with herself, thinks that Envy would 

poet in the thirty-eighth stanza of the first canto. According 
to the ancients, Scythia was divided into two parts, extra et 
intra Imaum. As, however, the poet speaks here of that 
part of the mountains which separates Scythia from India, 
it is probable that it is at the point where the Caucasus, the 
Imaus, and the Emodi, or Himaleh mountains join, that the 
poet fancied the palace of Demogorgon to be situated. It se- 
parates Thibet from Hindostan. 

« This, as well as the other causes of complunt, which were 
alluded to by Alcina in her speech, are for the most part fully 
related by Bojardo. See OrL Itmam, I. iz. 74 ; II. iv. 28 ; 
ix. 17 ; and ziii. 23. 

' Because she was ugly and old. See OrL Fur. viii. 74. 

ORL. FUR. I. k 


be the proper agent to employ ; and, accordingly, 
at her request. Envy poisons Gano, who became 
bitterly envious at the rich presents that Charle- 
magne made to Orlando, Ruggero, Rinaldo, Bra- 
damante, Marfisa, &c. ; in fact, to all the warriors 
who had so bravely fought against Agramante.^ 
The better to conceal his treacherous design, Gano 
asks permission to go, as a pilgrim, to the Holy 
Land ; the truth was, that he wanted to speak to the 
Caliph of Egypt, to induce him to attack Jerusalem, 
then in the hands of the Christians f and at the 
same time to prevail upon the Arabs to make war 
against Africa, then under the dominion of Charle- 
magne.* He had arranged beforehand that De- 

* Speaking of the landed property presented by the Em- 
peror to his warriors, Ariosto says; 

N6 feudi Qominando, ne livelli 
Fur senza obbligo alcun liberi i doni ; 
Acd6 il non sdorre i canoni di quelli, 
O non ne tdrre a tempo investigioni, 
Potesse li lor figlio U frateHi 
Eredi, far cader di lor ragioni. 
Liberi furo e veri doni, e degni 
D' rni Re cfae degno era d' imperio e regni. 

Cant. L St, 65. 

Ariosto most probably had in his mind the property called 
Le Arioste, which he lost on the death of his relative Rinal- 
do Ariosti, as we have observed. This stanza vras, there- 
fore, written later than 1519 ; and, if so, after the first edition 
of the poem. 

' See Orl Fur. xv. 97. xvii. 78. xviii. 97. 

■ It was conquered by the taking of Biserta and the death 
of Agramante by Orlando. 


siderio, king of Lombardy, should attack the Pope, 
who was supported by Charlemagne ;* that the 
Duke of Bavaria, TassiUone, (Gano's son-in-law, 
according to the Poet,) should invade France ; ° 
that the Danes (Normans) should attack the best 
allies of Charlemagne, Scotland and England; and 
that Mar'siglio' should at the same time march an 
army into Provence and Catalogue. Gano himself 
promised, that in less than a month he would ex- 
cite a rebellion against Charlemagne at Mayence, 
Basle, Constance, and Aix-la-Chapelle, and take 
from the Emperor all his dominions on the Rhine. 
On his voyage to the Holy Land he was driven 
by a storm, to a place belonging to Gloricia, a 
fairy, who caused him to be carried, by the devil, 
through the air, to Alcina's palace, where he 
settled all the points necessary to carry his plan 
into execution. Alcina had the devils under such 
constraint, that only a few could have answered 
Malagigi if he had applied to them, and those few 

* Charlemagne's age and that of his fiuber are confounded 
together. See Etsay on the Rom, Near, Poet, of the Ital. p. 89, 
94, 100. Notes to Orl Inn, I. i. 14. 

" Tassillo, or Tassillone, was in fact Duke of Bavaria in those 
days. Being son of Hiltrude, nster of Pepin, fiither of Charle- 
magne, he was made Duke of Bavaria in 749, afterwards con- 
demned to death for high treason against this Emperor, then 
pardoned and sent to a convent together with his son Theodo. 
See Anndl, Fuld, ad an. 749 ; Eginhard. An. de Oest, Car. 
M. ad an. 787. 

' He stiU occupied the Spanish throne, although previously 
defeated by Charlemagne. . 


spoke languages unknown to that enchanter.7 She, 
however, put one of them under the command of 
Gano, inclosed in a ring. This devil was a goblin 
called Vertunno, who had the power of taking the 
form of any person he chose, and who, being bora 
in Italy," spoke a language that Gano could 
understand. And as it seemed that Desiderio 
proceeded rather slowly in performing that part 
of the task which was confided to his care, Alcina 
caused Suspicion to enter into him, by which he 
was urged to action. It so happened, that whilst 
Charlemagne was closely pressed by Agramante 
and Marsiglio, Desiderio had taken possession of 
part of Romagna, contrary to the treaties with 
the Emperor, so that Desiderio suspecting that 
Charlemagne would not overlook his conduct, de- 
termined upon attacking the empire, as did also 

y Carandina had had recourse to some such scheme before 
Alcina ; and probably Ariosto imitated Bello in this pas- 
sage. See Essay above quoted, p. 313. 

■ Vertumnus, or Vertunnus ; he says of himself ; 

Tuscus ego, Tusds orior 

Opportuna mea est cunctis nature figuris : 
In quancumque voles verte, decorus ero 

At mihi, quod formas unus vertebar in omnes, 
Nomen, ab eventu, patria lingua dedit. 

Propert. Ekg, iv. 2. 

Ovid has closely imitated this elegy in the xiv. of the Me- 
tamorph. ; and Vertumnus, speaking disguised as an old wo- 
man, says of himself, addressing Pomona, whom he loved : 
Adde quod est juvenis : quod naturale decoris 
Munus babet : formasque apte fingetur in omnes. 


Tassillo, who drove Namo from Bavaria, whilst 
Saxony again rebelled.^ The Bohemians and 
Hungarians entered, at the same time, into an 
alliance against Charlemagne, together with the 
King of Denmark, who prepared a fleet to invade 
England and Ireland : Marsiglio was arming, and 
Unuldo had raised a party of banditti against 
Charlemagne in Aquitania, secretly assisted by 
Lupo, son of Bertolagi of Baiona. 

Charlemagne determines upon weathering the 
storm, and his Paladins bravely second him. At 
the request of the Cardinal di Santa Maria in 
Po&Tico,c he sent Orlando against the king of Lom* 

^ It 18 historically true that Charlemagne was engaged in 
several wars with the Saxons, whom he forced to emigrate 
^d embrace Christianity. See Essay, pag. 99. 

^ Unuldo is Hunold, concerning whom, see Essay, pag. 93. 
That Lupus or Lupo betrayed Charlemagne, I observed. Ibid. 
pag. 93. 96. and 100 ; I also conjectured, pag. 115, that he 
was one of the prototypes from which Gano was formed. 
By AaiosTo he is here said to be a son of Bertolagi, who was 
a Maganzese, Orl, Fur. xzv. 74 & 75. In what relation he 
stood to Gano I cannot find, but as he was surnamed di 
BamOf he must have descended from Ginamo of Baiona, the 
uncle of Gano. The names of the descendants from the race 
of Maganza are not given in the ReaU di Francia, for the fol- 
lowing reason : Non si pone la gran schiatta di costoro per il 
testo, imperocchd questi figliuoli di GaUone (father of Ginamo ; 
see the Geneahg. Tree of the Paladins in the Esiay) ebbero 
piii di sessanta figliuoli maschi, tra i matemali, e chiamossi la 
schiatta di Maganza. 

^ BiBiENA, the author of the Calandra, was made Cardinal 
<^« Santa Maria in Portico in 15 13,- by LeoX. who in a great 
wieasute owed the pontificate to his intrigues. He was a 


bardy, who was defeated at Mortara.^^ Rinaldo was 
sent to Gascony ; Bradamante and Ruggero were to 
guard Marseilles and Provence ; Oliver, Flanders ; 
Salomon, Britanny; and Richard of Normandy," 

great friend of Aftiosro, but gate him no sobstantial proof of 
hit friendship. The lines of his iv. satirei in which Ariosto 
mentions that so many of his friends who had had the power 
never had the inclination to serve him, were particniariy 
intended for Bibiena, as we leam from the memorandum of 
ViRGiNio. We have seen above, pag. zxvii. note^ that 
Ariosto pointedly mentioned that this friend pocketed the 
half of the fees of a bull, of which the other half had been re- 
mitted to the Poet by the Pope ; and yet Fork ari asserts that 
he behaved munificently to the Poet, and Tiraboschi speaks 
of his liberality to literary men. Bernt, his relative, and 
who knew liim best, seems to have been of another opinion. 
See vol. ii. jpag. czi. It is but too true that Ariosto has 
countenanced the opinion that Bibiena was a liberal patron of 
literature, by the flattering encomium which he pronounces 
upon him in the Furioso, zxvL 48. I have no doubt that it 
vras in compliment to Bibiena, that a Cardinal of Santa Maria 
in Portico, is supposed to go as Legate to the Emperor, to ask 
assistance against Desiderio. This was also observed by 

' Quivi cader de' Longobardi tanti 
E tanta fu quivi la strage loro, ^ 

Che il loco della pugna gli abitanti 
Mortara da poi sempre nominoro. 

Cani, ii. tt, 88. 

* Biccardo di Nomumdia is one of the principal heroes of 
the Innamorato, and was probably taken from EUchard-Csor- 
de-Lion, as I have observed, notes to the Imum. I. ii. 39, as 
frir as regards chivalrous character. There was also a Richard 
Duke of Normandy in the times of Charlemagne, according 
to la Chroniqtu de Normandie, who did homage to that Bm- 


with a large fleet, was to protect the coasts from 
Flanders to Picardy. Charlemagne himself went 
against Tassillo, conquered him^ and then ad- 
vanced toward Praga, to which he laid siege« 
He was there joined hy Gano, who came from 
Palestine hy land, through Hungary, where he 
assured the king that he would do all he could to 
prevent Praga being taken for a month at least ; 
a delay which the Hungarian thought sufficient to 
enahle him to go to its assistance. Cadorano, 
who was king of fiohemia, proposed, hy Gano's 
advice, that an equal numher of warriors should 
decide the contest between the Emperor and him- 
self, which was accepted ; and Gano, by plausibly 
insisting upon the necessity, that the best Paladins, 
who were then at a distance, should take the field 
for the Emperor on that occasion, obtained for 
Praga a truce even longer than he had promised. 
Then, to work farther mischief, he sends Vertunno 

peror for this province, became his chamberlain, and per- 
formed many gallant feats of arms against his Majesty's enemies, 
particularly against the Turcs, and one of their giants of the 
name of Aiax. More than this ; he once fought against the 
devil . Une fois comme le Due Richard chevauchoit d'un sien 
chasteau k un manoir oh. demeuroit une trds belle dame, le 
diable I'assaillit, et Richard se combatit k luy et le vainquit. 
Et aprds ceste adventure le diable se mist en guise d'une belle 
puoelle richement aom6e, et s'apparut k luy en un batteau au 
Haure de Granville o& Richard estoit. Richard entra au dit 
batteau pour comuniquer et veoir la beauts de cette dame ; ce 
diable emporta le dit Due Richard sur une roche en la mer, 
enl'isle de Guemesey, oh il iut trouv§. Chron. de Norm, 
ch. 9. See Orl Imam* I. v. 33 and seq. OrL Fur* xxxL 92. 



with forged letters, as if he were Terigi, Orlando's 
squire, to Rinaldo, to warn him that the Emperor 
mistrusts him, and means to summon him to the 
camp before Praga, under the pretext of wanting 
him as one of his champions against Cadorano, 
but, in fact, to make him prisoner: he advises 
him not to go, but to rebel, and rely upon Or- 
lando joining him. Rinaldo acted accordingly : 
and uniting with Uniddo, turned against the 
Emperor, who dispatched Orlando to subdue 
him. Then Vertunno went to Marfisa at Mar- 
seilles with orders, forged in the Emperor's name, 
requesting her to join Rinaldo, and to enter Spain 
united with him ; whilst to Ruggero forged orders 
were dispatched to sail for Lisbon with an army, 
and attack Spain .from that side. 

Charlemagne, on hearing, of the rebellion of 
Rinaldo, the march of Marfisa to join him, and 
that Ruggero had sailed towards Lisbon, supposes 
them all traitors. He sends immediately Richard 
of Normandy with his fleet to destroy that of 
Ruggero, and gives full powers to Gano to take 
Marseilles from Bradamante, which he does by 
treachery, at the same time making her his pri- 
soner. Orlando, although angry at Rinaldo's re- 
bellion, being ignorant of the cause of his dis- 
loyalty, could not bear that Bradamante should 
remain in Gano's hands ; and accordingly he went 
to release her, under a disguise, and never in- 
forming her who he was. This turned the state 
of affairs, as far as Bradamante was concerned, for 


Gano became now her prisoner; and on being 
stripped by her squire, Sinibaldo, of all articles 
of value which he had about his person, the ring 
in which Vertunno was inclosed, passed into the 
attendant's hands. Bradamante was leading this 
prisoner to Gascony when she met with Marfisa, 
who was coming to deliver her, and who was 
agreeably surprised in finding her not onl}^ free, 
but in possession of such a captive. On their 
way to Gascony the two heroines put to flight a 
party led by Lupus of Grascony, who had attempted 
to rescue Grano from their hands. 

In the meanwhile Ruggero fell in with Ric- 
cardo's fleet, and not supposing him an enemy, 
did not take any steps to defend himself, in con- 
sequence of which he was easily defeated ; and on 
his ship being set fire to, he jumped into the sea, 
and was immediately swallowed by a whale which 
had followed him for several days, and in which 
those lovers of Alcina who had formerly succeeded 
in escaping from her island, were condemned to 
dwell. He found there two old men, and likewise 
^uke Astolfo, who told him how he had been 
caught, and who inquired Ruggero's story in re- 
turn. Whilst these events happened, Charlemagne 
v^as attacked under Praga by the Hungarians and 
Saxons, as well as by the Russians, Poles, Wa- 
lachians, Bulgarians, Servians, &c. instigated by 
the Emperor of Constantinople, who could not 
hear that Charlemagne should call himself Em- 



peroi/ Although assisted by Marfisa, Brada- 
tnant«, Guidon Selvaggio, and other distinguished 
warriors, Charlemagne was defeated. How and 
why these heroines determined upon going to the 
succour of the Emperor, we do not see, as many 
stanzas are wanting ia this fragment of the poem. 
We only know, that irom Gano's papers they 
had discovered that Ruggero and Marfiaa were 
considered traitors by the Emperor, because they 
had left their former positions ; upon which Mar- 
Gsa thought of going to kilt Charlemagne for his 
injustice. Before setting oS for the army, Guidone 
sent Sinibaldo to ask Malagigi to come to take the 
command of Montalban, and this squire found him 
in a cavern, enraged at the devils for not obeying 
his summons. He was trying his strongest incanta- 
tion, upon which several came who spoke unknown 
languages ; but Vertunno, who was in Sinibaldo's 
ring, let out the whole secret, and informed Ma- 
lagigi of Gano's treacherous schemes. As for 
Rinaldo, he was attacked by Orlando when be 
expected to be joined by him. He met him in 
single combat, and as he called him repeatedly 
a traitor, a truce was concluded for that day; 
and it was agreed, that on the next mombg, 

' We maf conclude that thia ms written before the addi- 
tional eantoa to tlie Farioio : the moat perfect hanaony mnit 
hsve mbidated between the two Emperor! aince the iatinucj 
which had orisea between Leo and Raggero, aceordiog to Ibe 
aldilioaa made b; the Poet in the edition of 1S33. 



Rinaldo should frankly explain wby he so in* 
sisted on calling Orlando a traitor, and at the 
same time clear himself from the charge of having 
betrayed his sovereign. Here terminates the frag- 
ment of this poem. 

These unfortunate five cantos have been the 

subject of the universal reprobation of critics, 

who have vied with each other in abusing them. 

1 confess that I cannot see sufficient reason for 

this extraordinary severity. They were but 

rough drafts ; and no one can expect, or ought 

in justice to require them to be perfect. If this 

be kept in view, I really do not know any poet 

who might not be proud of having sketched these 

stanzas. No doubt any hundred stanzas of the 

Furioso will be superior to these, particularly in 

style and diction ; but no sketch can be expected 

to equal a finished painting. Of the plan of the 

work we cannot judge, since the Poet has not 

proceeded far enough to enable us to see what 

his intentions were ; nor can we speak of the new 

characters which he introduces, as there is no 

time for developing them. But some of the 

stanzas are exquisitely fine, and worthy of the 

author of the Furioso, Those who are acquainted 

with that poem need not be reminded of the deli- 

<^te pencil employed by the divin Lunovico ; nor 

18 it necessary to point out the amazing richness of 

mvention, of diction and of imagery, which he 

displays in treating subjects often alike, and 

^hich he always presents under new colours. Yet, 



that his vein was not exhausted, that these fite 
cantos are not such ruhhish as those sages who 
criticise them pretend, will appear from the fol- 
lowing extract. It is only necessary to recollect, 
that Gano, as I have already mentioned, was 
carried to Gloricia's island. His ship had heen 
tossed about for the space of six days. 

Fermosd alfine ad una spiaggia strana 
Tratto da forza piii che da consiglio, 
Dove un miglio dlscosto dair arena 
D' antique palme era una selva amena ; 

Che per mezzo da un' acqua era partita 
Di chiaro fiumicel fresco e giocondo, 
Che Tuna e 1' altra proda avea fiorit% 
De' piii soavi odor che siano al mondo. 
Era di \k dal bosco una salita 
D' un picdol monticel quasi rotondo, 
Si facile a montar, che prima il piede 
D' aver salito, che salir, si vede. 

D' odoriferi cedri era il bel coUe 
Con maestrevol ordine distinto ; 
La cui bell'ombra al sol si i raggi toUe, 
Che al mezzodi dal rezzo d il calor vinto. 
Ricco d' intagU, e di soave e moUe 
Getto di bronzo, e in parti assai dipinto 
Un lungo muro in cima lo drconda, 
D' un alto e signoril palazzo sponda.' 

I do not like ' un muro sponda d* un palazzo ;' 
yet the expression is not unpardonable ; and, 
even supposing that in correcting, the Poet had 
not altered it, I still think that these lines would 
please the most fastidious critic. Ariosto has 

f Cant. i. St. 73, 74, 75. 


described many battles and shocks of combatants 
in the Furtoso^ yet who would regret to see in 
that poem the following stanza, descriptive of 
the encounter between the two armies of Orlando 
and Rinaldo ? 

All' accostarsi, al ritener del passo, 
All' abbassar deir aste ad una guisa, 
Sembra cader Torrida Ercinia al basso, 
Che tutta a un tempo sia dal pid succisa : 
Un fragor s'ode, un strepito, un fracasso, 
Qual forse Italia udi, quando divisa 
Fu dal monte Apennin quella gran costa, 
Che su Tifeo per soma etema d unpo8ta.b 

A few stanzas after this, a comparison occurs 
which deserves particular mention, as well on ac- 
count of its originality, as of the simple and ex- 
pressive lines in which it is presented to the reader. 
The soldiers of Orlando fled from Rinaldo's sword 
as quickly as did the followers of the latter from 
the fatal Durindana, which is forcibly illustrated 
by the following simile : 

Come da verde margine di fossa, 
Dove trovato avean lieta pastura, 
Le rane soglion fiir subita mossa 
E nell' acqua saltar fangosa e scura, 
Se da vestigio uman I'erba percossa 
O strepito vicin lor £& paura ; 
Cosl le squadre la campagna aperta 
A Durindana cedono e a Fusberta.* 

Ariosto had not forgotten his humorous turn 

k Cant V. St 54. 
* Cant V. St. 62. 


when he was writing these stanzas. Malagigi, as 
I have mentioned in the analysis of this fragment, 
had been conjuring the demons, who did not obey 
his summons, being prevented by Alcina ; which 
Malagigi, himself a necromancer, did not know, as 
we, gentle reader, do, though no necromancers ; 

La caasa die tenean lor voci chete 
Non sapeva egli, ed era nigromante ; 
E yoi, non nigromanti, la sapete, 
Mercd che gi& ve The narrato innante.^ 

I have thought proper to quote these few pas- 
sages, as the cinque canti are very little known, 
especially in this country ; and I shall conclude 
with pointing out another fact, which shows more 
convincingly than any thing that I could say, that 
they are not, as some have supposed, unworthy 
of perusal. Tasso is under some obligations to 
Ariosto, who, in the second of these cantos, de- 
scribes a wood which was inhabited by fairies, and 
which no one dared to enter, still less to cut down 
any of the trees. Even the very phrases used by 
Ariosto, when describing the felling of some of 
the trees, have been closely imitated by Tasso. 
Ariosto says : 

Cade Teccelso pin, cade il fundbre 
Cipresso, cade il venenoio tauo, 
Cade r olmo, &c.' 

k Cant ▼. St. 26. 
* Cant ii. st 125. 


Tasso says : 

Cdggion recise dai taglienti ferri 
La sacre palxne e i frassim selvaggiy 

I funebri cipressi 

Gli olmi mariti 

Altri i tasa, e le qiierde altri percote.™ 

It is worthy of remark, that according to this 
plan, what is called the machinery of the poem was 
to have great influence in it. Admitting that some 
parts of the cinque canti are heautiful in this re- 
spect,° the idea of sending Ruggero into a whale, 
and his finding there people living, frying fish, 
grinding corn, drinking fresh water, which they 
procured firom a spring in the body of the monster, 

" Ger. Lib, iii. 75, 76. Both poets were indebted to Sta- 
Tius. In Statius the words are, 


whUit Ariosto, translating VritoiL, substituted Junebre ci- 
presso fat ferales cuprestos: and so did Tabso. Statius, 
in his description, imitated Viroil, and Virgil, Ennius. 
The several passages are worth comparing. 

^ Among the fine passages, the descripticm of Itwidia and 
SospettOf and their dwellings, are remarkable; although it 
cannot be denied that Ariosto owes much to the classics, 
particularly to OviD. Nothing but the excessive partiality 
and disgraceful bitterness which Galileo displayed against 
Tasso, could have led him to assert that the Council of Pluto, 
in the Jerusalem, is inferior to the Parliament of the Fairies 
in this firagment of Ariosto. It would have been much more 
to Galileo's honour, that his invective against Tasso, so 
much beneath his splendid mind, and so bitterly disappoint- 
ing those who wish to find in that philosopher temper, kind- 
ness, and good feding, should never have been published. 


&c.» is. enough to make us condemn the whole. 
Such absurdities are so insipid as to excite neither 
admiration nor ridicule. As we have already had 
occasion to observe, the strange combat of Or- 
lando with the Orca in the Furidso^ was added 
by the Poet in the last edition of his work ; and 
it is to be regretted, that when mature in years, 
Ariosto should have yielded to the temptation of 
writing such monstrous stories. 

Although I have no doubt that the cinque canii 
were written by Ariosto, I am no less convineed 
that the only text to be relied on is the Aldine, 
or the first edition. Several stanzas were added 
by GioLiTO, when he first printed the fragment in 
1548 ; but whilst Aldo gave his authority for 
publishing what he did, no special authority is 
given by Giolito for his additions. For instance, 
in the third canto the fifty-fif^h and fifty-sixth 
stanzas are added, (I use the numbers of Giolito 
followed by all modern reprints,) although no de- 
ficiency is here noticed by Aldo ; the fifly-ninth 
and sixtieth stanzas should, according to Aldo*s 
text be inserted between the fifty-third and fifty- 
fourth ; and the sixty-fifUi stanza has only the 
first four lines in the Aldine, ' whilst it is com- 
pleted by a wretched simile in more modern edi- 
tions, quite unintelligible according to the texts 
of Giolito. The 'excellent editor of the Italian 
works of Ariosto, Mr. Molini, was as much 
surprised as I was, on finding that these four 
enigmatic lines did not occur in the Aldine; 


and he coincided with me in considering tbem 
spurious. In the BihUographical Notices rf the 
FuriosOf I shall give the most incredible speci- 
mens of dishonesty, carelessness and ignorance, 
on the part of those who superintended the edi- 
tions of Ariosto, published by Giolito. It is 
the more necessary to undeceive the public, as 
Bravetti, in his Indtce, has judged the Giolito 
edition of 1551, 8vo. among the best, because 
Hath registers it as one of the finest. Haym 
was perfectly right, and Bravetti was totally 
wrong. His reason for considering the text of 
1551 one of the best was,' that the printer as- 
serted that the cinque canti were ricoretti. Now, 
has ever any publisher, and above all, Giolito, 
scrupled to make such assertions, even when their 
Mntruth appeared from the very title-page in which 
they were made? But Bravetti, like many 
other critics, spoke of the merit of the editions of 
the Furioso from hearsay, trusting to the indul- 
gence of the readers, whom he shamefully mis- 
leads. I cannot let this opportunity pass without 
observing, that his statement of the Roman edi- 
tion of the Furioso being * bella e corretta/ is al- 
together contrary to the fact. The edition is 
but passable; inferior in beauty to the first by 
Giolito, and not to be compared with those by 
Giunta in 1544, and Aldo in 1545 ; and as to cor- 
rectness, it is a mere copy of Giolito's edition 
of 1542. An egregious blunder having been com- 
mitted by this printer in publishing Gonzaga's 

ORL. FUR. I. 1 


Stanzas to Ariosto, and those to his own lady, 
which are so mixed as to make a most ludicroas 
whole, Blapo faithfully copied even this mistake ; 
which may serve as a specimen of the care of 
GiOLiTo, Blado, &c. as well as of the degree of 
credit which is due to Bhavetti. I refer to the 
Bibliographical Notices such readers as take 
any interest in these points, for further ohserva- 
tion ; and I have only to add, that Morali has 
expressed the same opinion as I have of Giolito's 
and Blado's editions. 

That Ariosto intended eventually to publish a 
continuation of the Furioso, may be credited ; but 
it is certain that he never thought of writing a 
Rinaldo, Doni, who by his repeated and im- 
pudent falsehoods deserves no credit whatever, 
is the only writer who speaks of this Rinaldo by 
Ariosto. Barotti has denied that the poet ever 
thought of writing such a work ; but Baruffaldi 
having found some mutilated MSS. of AriostOi 
in which, as he asserts, the name of Rinaldo often 
occurs, has, therefore, concluded that Doki was 
right. Any one conversant with the Furioso will 
agree that this is a ' most lame and impotent con- 
clusion.' In the very beginning of this poem, 
Rinaldo is introduced to the reader, and in the 
first five captos this Paladin acts the principal 
part, whilst Orlando is scarcely mentioned, nor 
does he appear till the end of the eighth canto. 
Shall we then say that the first five cantos of the 
Furioso belong to the Rinaldo which Ariosto is 


said to have written ? If those fragments prove 
any thing, they prove that Ariosto did not write 
a poem intitled Ritialdo, The stanzas supposed 
to helong to this poem were, in fact, connected with 
the Furioso, In the fragment of what is called 
canto iv. we find part of the description of a hattle 
between a bull and Rinaldo, of which there is no 
trace in the Furioso, In the Innamorato, Or- 
lando fights, on a certain occasion, against two 
bulls, and on another i^inst one.^ Rinaldo 
who had then the opportunity of fighting against 
this tremendous animal, was dissuaded from doing 
so, in hopes of being able to undertake the battle 
at a future period.^ Although the monster was 
killed by Orlando, according to Bo jardo, we may 
easily believe, that a wizard like Ariosto might 
have recalled it to life, in order that Rinaldo 
might have his turn against it, if necessary ; at 
all events, we recognise in this fragment a continu- 
ation of, or addition to, one of Bojardo's stories, 
not the trace of any new poem.^ The second 
stanza of the fragment of canto ii. gives a descrip- 
tion of a certain vehicle drawn by four horses of 
a deep red colour ; and the reader acquainted 
with the Furioso will have already recognized the 
car by which Astolfo was carried to the moon by 

* Orl. Iimcan. I. zxiv. 30, and II. iv. 41. 

' iWd. I. xvi. 48. 

In point of fiict, it is not true that the name of Rinaldo 
occurs yery often in these fragments. It is only to be met 
with in the fragments of the fourth canto, and nowhere else. 



St. John the EvBi^list. The second itanu of 
this fragment begins 

QiuUro deitrier na fnO che Ko^iie roai \ 

and the Bixty-ninth of the thirty-fourth canto of 
the Furioto commences 

Quatiro detlrier via piii cbejCoouna niri, 
which seems concluaive as to the identity of the 
two passages. Whether what is pubUshed as a 
fragment be the original draft, or an attempt at 
improvemeut, (in the present instance the lines in 
the Furioso are better then those of the fragment,) 
I shall not pretend to decide ; but enough has 
been said to prove that the assertion of Baboi- 
VALDi, founded on these fragments, is not sup- 
ported by adequate proo&. 

Having thus touched upon all the writings of 
Ariosto, I shall now proceed to say a few words 
respecting the principles by which I have beeo 
guided in editing the Furioso. Although A&iosio 
was not at all satisfied witli the edition of his 
poem published in 1333, and although he meant 
to reprint the work in a still more improved 
state,' yet as he was prevenled by death from 

■' We leani this ftom the letter of Oalabso Akiimti Ui 
Behbo, quoted pag.lui. note''. Ithu been contended Ihilhii 
diualiBbetion referred only to the type, p^>eT, and other a- 
trinaic qualities of the edition, but there ia no proof ofthii pu- 
tisl diaaatii&ctian ; end from that letter it eeema Chat he va> dis- 
pJaaaed with it altogether. Here are the words ; Dopo I' eneit 
atato riii. meii infenuo, finalmente {^l'/frioiti>} a' i morto, come 
V. S. avrl potato inlendere, e coal . . • uon ba potuto li- 


ao doing, we must take the edition of !532 a« 
the only genuine text of the Furioto, This was 
tbe opinion of Zzko, nho said that the edition 
of l5Si was preferable to all those which had 
appeared up to his times, and was the only one 
to be followed in future.* 

Supported by this high authority, Ottavio 
MoRALi published a new edition (4to. Mil. 1818.) 
of the Fvrioto, professing to give the exact text of 
1532. This new edition is beyond all praise; 
and the labour which it must have cost the editor 
can be conceived only by those who are intimately 
acquainted with the subject. The text of Mo- 
BAL[ may be called immaculate ; for, if there bo 
any errors, they are trifling and unavoidable, be 
the diligence of the editor what it may. Cer- 
tainly, the care taken by Morali is unrivalled : 
not satisfied with cancelling sheets after sheets, 
he has erased wrong letters and substituted the 
proper ones in several places, to spare himself 
the risk of reprinting. He has prefixed to his 

rtimpBre il libro di novo come ayeva in animo di fare, perando- 
^ come ero d'easere »Mo mol letviLo in questa ulUma itampa, 

ed isuatiaato Per ouore di M. Lodovico e per de- 

UlD mio diiegno &ue ristampue il Libro e tutle V alDe com- 
po^ioDi aue ijitint e mlgui in bella stampa ed onorevole, 
ed atteader piil cbe eicui belle e ben coneCtc, cbe all' utile. 

■ L'edizioa Ferrarese (del 1S3S) i da preiiani a mio 
credere lopra qualunque alCra tatta e da lira : e di queato 
puere li i dicliiaialo Lodovico Dolce nella aua ^palagia 
itlf Arioitn. Not. alia Bib. deff Eioq. Ital. di FoHTAMiHi. 
CLiil. C.4. 



publication a preface remarluble for taste and 
learning; and has added some tables at the end of 
it, either to defend Akiosto from pedsmtB, or to 
■how the incorrectneBS of former editions, oi to 
point out the very few occasions when he has 
thought himself justified in departing fhim the 
text of 1533. It is superfluous to addhowmtich 
all modem editors of AaiosTo owe to such a pub> 
licationi and the acknowledgments due from the 
admirers of the FurioMo to Morali's exerticms. 

I beg, however, to say, that although I have 
derived immense assistance from Morali'b edition, 
and have in general followed it, I have not ser- 
vilely copied his text, as others have done. 1 I 
am fully satisfied that the edition of I5S2 nai 
never seen by some late editors of Ariosto, 
(with the exception of Molihi) who boast of 
having followed it, and that they did nothii^ 
but reprint that of Moeau. Whenever I have 
departed from his text, it has been only to follow 
still more closely that of 1532. I do not un- 
derstand, for instance, why Morali should not 
have printed populo and nteso, as Ariosto con- 
stantly writes, instead of popoto and mexxo, which 
he has substituted without saying a word respect- 
ing this alteration ; nor why, when Abiosto re- 
peatedly wrote pruova, cuor, &c. Mokali should I 
have printed prooa, cor, &c.' He has also de- 

* RuscELLi aajs, that AstOBTo had taken the % front iht 
wordi CKore./uDca, nuava, throughout his poem, ind left csrr, 
/oce, nova, in a cop; of 153S, which wai seen by him aimed 



parted from the edidon of 1532 on aereral other 
occasions, as I shaD point oat in the notes to the 

A reader unacquainted with Asiosro's delicacy 
of diction, with his exquisite taste and fintidious- 
ness in making continual alterations, even whilst 
the sheets were striking ofl^ (as we shall haYe op- 
portunities to obsenre,) may consider these changes 
too trifling for remark ; hut Morau, who with 
great taste p<Hnted out these qualities of Ariosto's 
style, did not spare other editors £>r much slighter 
changes. He notes as an error the spelling ag' 
gUacci instead of aggiacci in c. i. st. 41, although 
the edition of 1^32 followed by him, has ag- 
gfctocctd, c. xiii. st. 20, c. zxx. st. 53, and c. xli« 
St. 33, and although he changed ingiaUirlo into 
inghiottirlo in c. ii. st. 37. I point out this as a 
specimen of his extreme severity, and to take 
the occasion for saying that he seems to me hy- 
percritical: for even his own edition might be 
made to appear replete with errors, if every word 
of it were to be weighed in so exquisite a scale. 
I must above all declare, that I cannot join in the 
severe judgment passed upon Ruscelu, who 
edited the edition of 1556, 4to. by Valgbisi. The 
point is of importance, not only for the character 

by the poet ; but Morali declared hiB disbelief of RascELLi, 
uid of the alteradons asserted to have been made by 
Ariosto in that Tolome. I shall presently discuss the de- 
gree of confidence to which Ruscelli is entitled. 


ofRnsGSLLi, but for that of Ariosto, sndl shall 
consider it very shortly. 

Rdbcelli relates as follows : " On my passii^ 
through Reggio in I54S, when the Pope went to 
Busseto to have an interview with Charles V., I 
stopped at the house of M. Galasso Abiosto. 
He showed me sever^ MSS. of bis brother Lo- 
DOTico, and a copy of the last edition of the Fu- 
rioto in boards, and with rough edges, not to di- 
minish the margin, with alterations in the hand- 
writing of the poet, who, as M. Galasso told 
me, and as 1 could easily perceive, meant to re- 
print the work, corrected and improved. I im- 
mediately bought another copy of the FutUtto, 
and, with M. Galasso'b consent, transcribed 
all the alterations whicli were in the copy shown 
to me." He then mentions generally some or- 
thographical changes, as well as changes of words 
or lines, which I shall insert in their proper places 
in the notes to the poem ; and with respect to 
the subject, he particularly alludes to some of the 
most objectionable stanzas, cither crossed over, 
or with perpendicular lines or asterisks near them, 
evidently put with the intention of marking what 
was to be altered. We have, therefore, as good 
an evidence as could be wished, that Ariosto, in 
his maturer years, was ashamed of having in- 
dulged in language or images of an improper 
character, and that, bad be not been prevented by 
death, he would have altered such parts of his 
work. This is the point of view under which 1 



considered Roscelli*s assertion, when I said that 
it deserved to be well established, as it affected 
the character of Ariosto." 

Before proceeding farther the reader should 
observe^ that Ruscelu tells his tale so circum- 
stantially, that unless we suppose him a man 
wholly devoid of honour, we are bound to believe 
it. He made his statement when Virginio, the 
son of the Poet, was still living ; and his evidence, 
in certain particulars, is fully corroborated from 
other sources. We know that Ariosto used to 
make alterations in the margin of his Furioso ; 
and it was from a copy of the edition of 1521, 
that Fiona extracted the hundred of the like 
changes before-mentioned made by the Poet when 
preparing the edition of 1532 for the press. The 

*■ I suppose that there was no doubt as to the authenticity 
of the marks here mentioned ; else the mere fact of their be- 
ing in a copy of the poem belonging to the author, would not 
be conclunve that they were his, from the following drcum- 
stan<» : Soleva quel felice ingegno dell' Aiiosto, nato vera- 
mente a questa sorte dl poesia, consigliare i suoi componimenti 
con gU uomini letterati, e spezialmente con gli eccellenti nel 
oomporre in questa lingua, e molte volte secondo il lor giudicio 
mutava, togliera, aggiungeva, variava. Ed era suo costume 
di voter prima vedere s' egli (avanti che gli fusse detta cosa al- 
cuna) sapea vedere quel che desideravano in lui coloro, co' 
quaJi egli consigliavai versi suoi. Laonde solevano que' tali con 
panto, o vero con riga segnar quello che pareva loro che avesse 
bisogno di correzione, poi lasciavano ch' egli vi pensasse sopra ; 
e s' egli si soddisfaceva in veder quello cV essi desideravano, 
non cercava piti in li. Se non, voleva intendere il parer loro, 
e, se gli piaceva, 1' accettava ; se non, si rimaneva nella sua ope- 
niohe. Giraldi, De* Ramansei, pag. 19) ; edit, of 1554, 4to. 


copy from which he took them was lent to Fiona 
by ViBOiKio.' From the letter already quoted of 
Ga LASSO to Bembo, we perceive that Ariosto 
meant to republish his poem ; and therefore it is 
very likely that Oalasso himself said so to Rc- 
8CELLI : whilst the two circumstances are, taken 
together, conclusive in fiivour of the truth of the 
whole statement 

This truth, however, has been denied altogether 
by MoRALi, on the two following grounds : 1st. 
That Barotti says, '* Ruscelli invented of his 
own accord many alterations and corrections, as I 
find in some memoranda of G. B. Giraldi, the 
original of which are in my possession." ^ 2d, 

' Messer Virginio .... dato ci ha parimente il penultimo 
libro 8u che esso suo padre in pid modi nelle margini varie 
cose mutd e rimutd .... Ove stampa non era e di sopra e di 
sotto e dalle bande e tra mezzo mutati furono da lui ora versa 
intieri, era una parte, ora tutta una stanza, ora un pezzo. E 
bene spesso, dopo uno e due raccomodamenti d* una cosa 
medesima, ne segue un terzo. Fiona de'Romanzi, pag. 65 and 
123. edit, of 1554, 4to. 

r II Ruscelli si finse di proprio capriccio piit mutamenti e 
correzioni come trovo notato in alcune memorie di G. B. Gir 
raldi originaii appresso di me. Barotti quoted in the prefiu« 
to the edition of the Ftaioso^ in 5 vols. 8vo. Milano. Morali, 
however, instead of the word pxu, reads que* nnUametUi, which 
alters the case. I find que' also in the notes to c. 2, st. 71, 
of the Furioso, of Zatta's edition, 4to. But since we are not 
to believe Ruscelli, according to this version, what reason have 
we to believe Giraldi ? Ruscelli tells ua how, where and 
when he found those alterations : what proo& does Giraldi give 
of his assertion ? — none whatever. Dolce, who had been very 
severely critidsed by Ruscelli in his discorsi, has denied the 


That Rusc£i»Li asserts, that the fourth line of the 
seventy-ffirst stanza of the second canto, was al-* 
tared from 

Ch' ardesse in mezo a la numtagna cava, 

Ch' ardease in mezo a la montana cava ; 

which cannot be, since we find montana^ not mon~ 
tagna, in the editions of 1516, 15^1, and 1532 ; 
consequently Ruscelli is unworthy of confidence; 
and if so, we cannot give to Ariosto's memory the 
benefit of that editor's assertion with respect to 
his intention of making some changes in the ob- 
jectionable parts of his poem. 

As to the first of these grounds, I confess I 
should rather like to see the very words used by 
GiRALDi. If he said that Ruscelli forged several 

&ct asserted by this critic in the prefiue to an edition of the 
Furioso printed after the death of Ruscelli ; but he never 
seemed to have doubted it before, although he had many op- 
portonitles of contradicting it The following words occur in 
the preface to the edition of the Furioso by Varisco, 4to. Yen. 
1568. «Che s* abbia poi trovato il medesimo esemplare ri- 
corretto di mano dell' Ariosto, come scrive M. Girolamo Ru- 
scelli, arrecando per testimonio M. Galasso, non ha del veriii- 
mile: perciocchd 1' Ariosto si mor) pochi mesi da poi che 
questo tale esemplare o libro suo ultimo use! fiiori, e non ebbe 
il tempo di rivederlo/' Surely, in eight months, the author 
had sufficient time to make some verbal alterations, and to 
mark passages which he meant to reconsider. To thia only 
amounted the corrections mentioned by Ruscelli ; and their 
^ery nature is a further argument confirmatory of his statement. 
Then, observe, that to the potitive assertion of Ruscelli, 
Dolce opposes but a aumtise based on no solid grounds. 



of the alieradouB, he proves the mun point, viz. 
that lome alterationa were not foiled by Roscelli, 
and that the corrected volume mentioned by Ru- 
BCELLi ia not an invention of Lis. The question, 
therefore, being, as to nhich were the alterstions 
vmented by Ruscelli, I ctmtend that these should 
be specified, and that a man should not be de- 
clared guilty of such a barefaced imposture on the 
strength of a random assertion of which he had 
no knowledge. Besides this, the assertion of 
GiRALDi, as conveyed by the words of Barotti, 
quoted in the preface to the Milan edition of the 
Furioto, ia not irreconcileahle with Riiscelli's 
statement. That this editor was a great pedant, 
that he took unwarrantable liberties with the texts 
of the authors he edited, and that he did so with 
AaiosTO, I fully admit; hut the questioo is, 
whether he added impudent falsehood to bis pe- 
dantry and bad taste ; and whether he had the 
eSrontery to put forth his own capricious altera- 
tions as those of the author. This, I contend, is 
not to he believed. GiRAtoi may have aaid, or 
meant to say, that many of the alterations made 
by RcscELLi were unwarrantable, which is per- 
fecdy true, without meaning to assert that some 
of those specified by Ruscblu as AaiosTo's, were 
as capricious as the rest : which is the point in 

But if GiKALDi should so flatly contradict Rn- 
BCELLi as to render it necessary to disbelieve either 
the one or the other, I should, without any hesjia- 



tion, believe Ruscelli ; and the following are my 
reasons -for so saying. 

In 1554y GniALDi and Fiona published each of 
them a work caiUledl Romanzi ; which was, in fact, 
a treatise on poetry, especially on the Furioso, 
They accused each other of literary piracy, ac- 
companied by such breach of faith as would dis- 
grace the vilest of mankind : for, whichever of 
them was guilty of this untruth, added to tliis 
base piracy, breach of friendship, and calumny. 
That one of them was guilty, is, I regret to say, 
undeniable ; but which of them, is quite uncertain, 
and probably will never be known. This naturally 
created a mortal feud between them ; and, if we 
are to believe Giraldi, he was obliged to leave 
Ferrara on account of the persecutions of Pigna, 
who was the favourite of the reigning Duke. 
Fiona, at the conclusion of his work, speaks in 
terms of praise of Ruscelli, and of his forth- 
coming edition of the Furioso; and this learned 
individual, in the preface to that edition, not only 
praises Fiona, but takes upon himself to say, that 
he (Fiona) " has truly been the first" who has 
judiciously examined the works of great writers ; 
which was tantamount to say, that Giraldi was 
guilty of a falsehood, and that it was he who had 
robbed Fiona of his work, as the latter contended. 
In a controversy of this nature there is no medium : 
to lean in favour of either party was to give the 
lie to the other, and declare him capable of the 
Wiost despicable conduct. Is it too much to say, 


that, under these clrcnniBtancei, whaterer Gihauh 
Mays against Ruscelli is liable to excepdont* 
RciCBLLi, on the other hand, had no motiTe fin 
■aying, that he had found corrections by Akiosio, 
unless such were the fact; on the contrary, he 
was 10 conceited as to think himself (and lie said 
so) much better informed than Abjosto in point 
of language. This silly vanity was flattered by 
the impertinencs of correcting Abiobto, not by 
his having merely to point out what the Poet him- 
aelf had corrected. 

As to the second objection, respecting the word 
tnonlagna or montana, I confess I might excuse 
any one for having urged it except Mokali. It 
is, first of all, to be kept in view, that no man 
would act so foolishly as to tell a falsehood which 
can be so easily detected as this would be, if the 
ward montagna had never been printed in dte 
edition of 1532. Ruscb[,li had enemies enough) 
who were not likely to let a mis-statement pass 
unnoticed. Supposing that the corrections by 
Abiosto were all forged, why should Ruscsui 
have chosen to forge the correction of a word 
which could never have required correcting, beiog 
properly printed ? In the second place, Mokau 
well knew, that between the several copies of 1532, 

■ la is, moreover, to be observed, that FlOKA bad approved 
of the alteiationB introdueed by RusCELli in bii edition of tbe 
Furiois. This vis asierled by (hia editor in hia tidrd Dis- 
cDTia ag^ml Dolce, pog. 173. QiRALDinmatthenroieban 
been jir^udiced, not only against RuiCELLi, but (guqu the 
edition ilirif, nnce It bad been ai^ioved by tui mortal foe. 


variations, of much greater importance thanaletter 
more or less, were to be found. The first line of 
St. 1 33, c. xliii, stands thus in the vellum copy 
now before me : 

E di panni d' raaza, e di ooitine. 

In the copy on paper it is : 

Di taped, e di panni d' raxza, e di oortine. 

The printer who could overlook such errors might 
well print montagna instead of mantana (a word 
which he most likely did not understand) ; the 
author may have had time to correct the mistake 
in part (as he did in several other cases), although 
not in the whole of the impression ; and having 
in his possession an uncorrected copy, he of course 
amended it for a future edition. 

The evidence of Ruscelli is therefore cor- 
roborated as much as could be expected : con- 
sequently, we are bound to believe that Abiosto 
intended to take all the objectionable passages 
from his poem, and had already made some al- 
terations specifically pointed out by Ruscelli. I 
have not introduced them in the text, in deference 
to MoBALi's opinion ; but I shall insert them in 
the notes in their proper places. I shall not, 
however, do so, as regards the unauthorised al- 
terations of RuscELLi's edition.^ 

With respect to the notes accompanying the 

*■ Thii distinction was held good in the preface to the 
Milanese edition quoted in note y, page cLiv. That preface 
was written by Rein a, a man of the highest accomplishments, 
and a very able critic of Ariosto, even in Morale's opinion « 


present edition, no pains have been spared to profit 
by the labours of former editors, from which 
has been extracted whatever upon mature con- 
sideration appeared to be of importance. This 
may, therefore, be considered an edition with vari- 
orum notes, of which a considerable number are 
altogether new. The connexion between the In- 
namorato and the Furioso, the numerous passages 
imitated in the latter from the former, and the 
romantic or chivalrous traditions or stories, have 
been particularly attended to. In the hope that 
these new additions might prove both interesting 
and amusing, the present publication was under- 
taken, and in that hope it is now presented to the 
lovers of Ariosto and of romantic poetry in 






Post snmmi patefacta poll, venerataque templa> 
Sacromm cultrix Pietas, tuque optima custos 
Nutritse laurus Cyrrei aspergine fontis. 
Post citharse cantus, sola post pulsata choreis. 
Sacra coliors, votis intendite numina nostris. 
Pro lauro atque hederis, taxos, atrasque cupressos 
Texite, vos Phoebi comites, et ciugite frontem 
Infansti authoris funesti carminis ; at tu 
Diva Deum comitata choros de rore tepenti 
Quern DiYum ante aras mortalia luminli fundunt 
Tristia Buppliciter, sancta et quern pixide servas 
Porrectura Deis, homini et paritura favorem. 
Supple oculis lacrymas ; sed si non munere dignus 

* The Carmen or EpicedUm mentioned ante, page v., was 
printed in 1582, at Ferrara, and I am not aware that it has 
ever been republished. I have not seen the printed copy, but 
baving been fiivoured with a transcript of the one in the library 
at Ferrara, I am induced to insert it entire. It appears to have 
been very incorrectly printed ; and, in a few instances, where 
the sense or metre were unintelligible or erroneous, I have 
ventured to give some verbal alterations. In several cases I 
have £9und it impossible to suggest any emendation, and have 
left the text as I recdved it, although incorrect. The poem 
has little merit, excepting for the incidents related of Ariosto's 
life, on which account it is highly interesting. 

ORL. FUR. I. m 


Qai canit et lacrymis gestit confandere cantos^ 
Iliad conciliet te felix inooU ccdi 
Officiam cari qaod duro in fanere fratris 
Ingreditur, moesto confandens omnia qaesta. 
Vo8 casti fontis dominte, qui fletur ademptiis, 
(Nam vestri pars ille chori tenerisque Bub annis 
Illam Calliope quo paveral Orphea lacte 
Dicitar in vestris reptantem floribus, et jam 
Dulcia de parvis modulantem carmina labris 
Pavisse, et laetis hsec expHcuinBe sub umbris) 
Hunc Paerum, (Aonides aures adhibete canenti, 
Fando namque illis nulla est admissa potestas 
Verba soluta loqui, vetuit Tritonia Pallas, 
Illarum pater et custos Tymbreus Apollo, 
Prsfecere Deas quum Lauro et fontibus illis) 
Summa salutantem primis vagitibus astra 
De gremio matris sublatum Phoebus et Evan 
Parrhasiisque sagax juvenis celebratus in oris, 
Castaliis ter lotum undis, ter murmure sacro 
Afflatum voluere sinu coalescere nostro ; 
Atque hujus, dixere, tibi sit cura perennis. 
Orpheus Odrisias quercus et sacra sorores 
Proximiora movent, sed enim, quae vera fatebor, 
Traxerat ad fontes et flumina duxerat Hebri 
Tygridis et foetus cantu demalserat ; iste 
(Quamquam iitidem et fati vobis notisaixaos «rdo) 
Non fluvios, non saxa puer non montibua altts 
Robora dura tiahet plectra, autfera corda movebit, 
Sed placidos coetus, sed pectora docta virorum, 
Quos ambit mare, quod supra, quodque sestuat infra 
Despicit hinc atque hinc, et quos pater Apenninus, 
Quum recinente lyra memorabit et ora puellam 
Dulcia dictantem et sociaatem carmioa nervis 
Alterkisque rogo diicet miaerabile cw men* 
Turpia quum taxaos, ref twinqae piunque mouefoit. 


Vel cam civili peicurret pulpite socco. 
Qoid dicam quum bella viri fariasqne movebit, 
Stirpis et authorem prsBclara dixerit, oestro 
Hunc alio et grand! devinctns crura cothttrno ? 
Si graviore lyra Divos, convivia, reges 
Atque brevi Cinarae cantavit Horatios annos 
Infaados mores damnavit et acrioB idem. 
MoUhiB exacniit javenum si corda Tibullua^ 
Altias ingressa est et si mens docta Maronis ; 
Attamen illoram qais tot monnmenta reliquit ? 
CastalioB latices qais tot deduxit in amnes 
I>ncet ut iate puer ? felices cnrrite fusi, 
Ingeminans, parvnm tolleas et ad oscula vatem. 
Bixerat : illse aatem tacitse speotasse feruntur 
Sydereos orbes pueri, radiantiaque ora> 
Certatimque omnes vario insudasse labori ; 
Haec florum per samma legit stiliantia mella, 
Miztaqae nectareo declinat ad ora liqnore ; 
Haec liederis cunas, bsec frontem baccare cingit> 
In Solis radios baec laoro nmbracula texit> 
Haec vestigat humum, lateat ne in gramine serpens, 
Incostoditum sola nee linquit in herba* 
Vagitns qnum forte dedit, memorasse feratitur 
Sic vagisse Ltnam*Yultasqae ad celsa tulisse 
Interea ad cunas versus cecinisse beatos. 
^Qstabiles gressus pauUum firmaverat »tas. 
Posse loqui dederat, plectrum cytharamque tenere 
In lucos atque antra novum duzisse poetam. 
Certa fides, placidse perfiinctum munere vitae 
Quern decorare paro, dignum cui ssecula longa 
Atropos et triplices donasset Nestoris annos 
Qoem decorare paro lacrymis et carmine frustra : 
^rustra, nam sine te, circum pnecordia, frater. 
Sanguis bebet, torpentque manus, vox bieret in ore. 
Ta me, tu primum docuisti flectere carmen. 

n umbnm, aacrosqae ostendis Bmicloa- 
Cemere namque iptos artns, diTinaqae Untom 
Ora tihi, pancbque dfttum, qnibas anretis lether 
LntiuB afiulget, aanctte jnvat hanstus et nnda:. 
Te Biae nulla tui roonitos vestigia reatant. 
Omnia tecam nna p«riGTiint munera, frater; 
Decidit omue decuB noBtne doams, hauait iiiiqna 
Gaadia mora costra/ et noatroB spoliavit honoies, 
Ut crepitans grando felici palmite coiles, 
Fulminn Ictidica: frondoea cacuroina quercoB, 
Ut spoliant Auatri redolentia pnta maligoi. 
Oh Taleam proferre in te qnte plura mereda 
Impia niore, nostrig aemper ditata rainb ! 
Ipsa rapis misene genitriris ab abere natoa, 
Atqae patmm juvene* arctis complexibna uifers ; 
Virgo SKpe novo noodnni sociata cnbili 
Per te immatari deflevit fata inariti. 
Ornabat pietaa et grata modestiaVatem, 
Sancta fidea, dictique memor, maciitaque recto 
Jnatitia, et nuUo patientia victa labore, 
Et coDBtans virtus animi, et dementia mitis, 
Ambitione procul pulsa, fastusqne tnmore ; 
Credere uti poaaes natum felicibns haris, 
Felici fulgente astro Joria, atqae Diones. 
Optavere suis laribUB-te aaclscere reges, 
Rega)isque sute fcecunda ad pocula mensK 
In primia Leo tennit qui maximns orbem. 
Hie largos census et lati JDgera campi. 
Hie caput sacra spondet redimire tiara, 
Proventus magnos, et magnos addit bonorea. 
Maluit nmbrosas vites in mollibuB hortis 
Incolere, atqne aures nympbarum adhibere sosurris; 
IIIIe perque vices modulatos reddere cantos 
Propter aqaam et virldem servati cespitis herbam, 
Aonides PhKbumquc colens, gratasque auonim 


nterdum dominoram sedea mensasqae revisens : 

>f amque. alius quisnam tantis tain cairus amicis ? 

Tales ilia viros tunc aurea protulit setas 

Qaum creat Ascrseum^ quumqueOEpheaMseoniamque 

Dirceuzn vatem et Siculum^ doctamqae Maronem. 

Nee tibi degeneres ortus, humilisque propago 

Contigit^ ingenui sed utraqae a stirpe parentes. 

Hinc Valeri proles, qua non praestantior ulla 

Ferre Tiros, qui jura colant, decreta senatus 

£t mandata sui partes deferre per omnes . 

Qui prorsus valeant, et opes propriamque salutem 

Dulce putent patriae carisque impendere amicis ; 

Unde genus sanctos duxit et Daria mores, 

Quam cultus superum, castus sermo, atque pudicns . 

Frontis honos, certo spondebat ab aethere lapsam. 

Illam si ferro instructus violasset adulter, 

Non peteret ferrum temerata ut solveret aegram 

Sede animam et casti repararet damna pudoris; 

Sat foret ipse dolor stricti non indigus ensis ; 

Tantus amor solidique fuit constantia recti ! 

Haec tibi reclusit nova primo viscera partu. 

Post decimumque levata ipsis volventibus annis 

Felix in numeio indigna nee prole quievit. 

Nee velat indignos contempsit patria elves, 

Quos Areosta illi proles dedit ordine longo, 

Qaos genitor numerabat avos justosqae, piosque. 

Qui meruere sua pro laude insignia, gaudet 

Nostra quibus praesens setas gaudebat et ilia. 

Qaique magistratus notas gessere per urbes. 

Nunc quibus Elysii manes socia agmina jungunt, 

Oratantorque una laetos habitare recessus. 

Cur patruos sileam ? quorum virtutibus alter 

Antistes magni curabat mystica templi. 

Alter eques fiilvo multo auro. 

Dives amicitiis, dives popularibus auris. 


L Sei 


Ut melior nttUns mbvoi iufhngere motu 
Pectontnu dnrii, wnctamque immittcae pacem. 
iBtam magnanimi -videmnt atrU Botsi, 
Atria videnrnt pott Uercalk alta r^eatem 
Agmina nobiliani, moderantem et legibos aolam. 
De numero procernm, totiei mandata quia aiiQs 
Fertulit ad magnos Aeges, lectosqne aenatoa, 
CfeaariB ad tedes, ad taacti limina patria i 
lllo, qaiB potioi dominomin juau peregit i 
Pro qaibtu iDDumeria, miiltnmqDe fideliter actit 
Digna tulit, pingnes et latoa finiboa agroe, 
Indigne amissos fnutra qaos flagitat bsrea ; 
Ami talia amor peratringit corda potentnm 1 
Nsc te, care Pareua semper memorande, eitebo, 
Qai primus Veoetnm aueteDtas fortiter ictoa 
Oppida quum regeree, mediua qns perflnit anuiii 
Lteta secans AthetU, pingoi campestcia limo. 
ludocilesque regi qujw et diacordia veraat 
Rexiati Mntuue popalos, ditione domando 
MitiuB, at prudena cogit parere magister 
Imperio miti surarum corda feraiom 
Legibns inauetia domioiaqne mmoribna illia. 
Bis tibt delattim imperium frenare cohortes 
Et pedites, eqniteaqae toa aab lege teneie. 
Ta dictoa popali Rector Priocepaqne Seaatna, 
Eat urbi qai primus honor post regia eceptra. 
Hquc penes eat summi cuatodia credita ceasos, 
Mteaibua hie urbem, fossis et meeoia cingit, 
Eridani flniaa intra sua clauatrE coercet, 
UDdosoaqne agroa, et cnrsoa curat aquanim, 
Annonam leficit, si quando deficit agroa 
Alma Ceres, lolio piugues et mntat aristas. 
Desint ne iugeoib felicia pabnla curat. 
Sen tabnlas Solonis amant, cauaaaque latentet 
Diacere, give Cboroa, Maaamnique otia Inta. 

APPENDIX I. * clzvii 

fliinc^ si qnaiido poK corrupto sydere transit 

A.d DOS dira lues, domiiu^r et impius annas, 

Oura tenet totam ne corpus tabida membra 

Oorripiant, longoque dehinc post tempore rari 

XJrbis spectentor cives, desertaqae rura 

A^ricolis, cantn pastorum nmbrseqae vacantes ; 

Omnia qu« solera genitor tarn recta peregit 

Oredere at possis, si forte ad singula spectes. 

Quod de tot multis curarit singula tantum. 

Sic summa de puppe sedens qui temperat alnum, 

r^e mat in pneceps, aut casu aut sydere, nauta, 

r<func spectat remos, nunc alti carbasa mali, 

'Nvaxc quid agat pelagus, nunc quid designet Orion. 

Ambitiosus ego, qui prima exorsa reliqui 

Dictarus proavos, laudes et facta priorum, 

Tamquam deficiant primis alimenta repertis. 

Tu genus omne tuum, tu prorsus gloria major 

Ditasti sobolis nostrse proeconia, frater. 

Si qua fuere olim, decet baud memorare minores. 

Pene puer prima signabas ora juventa, 

Quum memorare palam Sopbiae formamquebabitumque 

Et natale solum, dune et discrimina yitae 

Conventu procemm in magno, turbaque sopborum, 

Caesar iem et vinctus puerilia tempora lauro 

Ausus es, et tanto successu munera comples, 

Ut constet stupuisse omnes, magis attamen illos 

Qui novere Beam vestigia certa sequuti ; 

Te laude insigni excipiunt, plansuque secundo 

Et monstrant natis adsunt qui forte parentes. 

Nee tantum dederas baec laudis signa futurae, 

Sed puer et Tbisbes deducis carmen in actus 

Panraque devincis praecoci crura cothurno. 

Nee cceli monstravit iter tantum alma poesis, 

Sed solidae yirtutis amor patriaeque salutis. 

Dam suspecta fides stimulis agitaret amaris 

clxTiu ' APPENDIX I. 

Alfonsum et regni proceres jam foederis icti 
Cum Tulli popnlo, magniqae potentia Juli, 
Solverat infestam Venetus de litore classem. 
Tunc miniiB atqae mimis saspectam de finibus istis, 
Qaalem olim in Phrygios immisit Gnecia vindex 
Dejecturam arces incensuramque penates. 
Ilia ferens ciedemqae viris, incendia tectis, 
Arboribus stragem,. nostras invaserat oras. 
Ex omni princeps nomero te deligit unam 
Pontifici qui dicta feras, et rebus in arctis 
(Inter namque illos stabant baec foedera reges) 
Auro ut subveniat properato^ et milite poscas, 
Occultae et quse sit dicas sententia mentis. 
Imperio parens, per opaca silentia noctis 
Magnum carpis iter properans noctesque diesqae 
Per varios casus, infido et tramite, tandem 
Indefessus (equis mutatis saspius) intras 
Moenia Romulidum, tumidi et penetralia Juli. 
Terribiiem affatu ilium, et prorsus dira frementem 
Invenis, atque animo jam tum nova bella moventem ; 
Angebat fera corda senis, quod jura benignse 
Nolet amicitise, multos servata per annos, 
£t foedus violare datse dextrseque receptse 
Gallorum magno cum principe, magnus et ipse ' 
Alfonsus custos observantissimus asqui. 
Effreni domiturus equi sic insilit audax 
Terga feri, bonus in gyros et flectere, et ipsam 
Cogere non docilem duris parere lupatis. 
Ut sermone potens, et fando qualis Ulysses, 
Atrox ingenium aggrederb, frangensque premensqne, 
Evadis voti compos et divitis auri, 
Te patriae accelerans magno cum pondere reddis, 
Scrutatus duri quae sit sententia patris. 
Instauratae acies confestim, et litore toto 
Discurrit miles, praedae repetuntur abactae. 


APPENDIX I. clxix 

Circumventa ratis, ferrumqae volatile deztriB 
Spargitur, E^idani tinguntur sanguine flactos. . 
Ta tamen interea telis instructus, et ipse 
Spectandi baud studio pugnam, pugnamve canendi 
Facta paratus ades, sed pulchro occumbere letho 
Pro patria, egregiis atque addere rebus honorem. 
Tela per undosum Eridanum sparguntur et arcus, 
Fragmlna rexnomm^ nee non fluitantia transtra 
Atque viris prsesens intentant omnia lethum. 
Una ratis tantum nostris elapsa cathenis, 
Omnem aliam abducunt adverso flumine classem . 
Nostri captivam; chorus adjuvat omnis aquarum> 
Qui modo per ripas ccecis se condidit autris. 
Panduutur pontes, aeratae ad proxima classes 
Urbis euut, intrat feralis machina portus. 
Invisas spectare rates e mcenibus altis 
Funduutar cupidse matres, vulgusque, patresque. 
Capta manu Yezilla tholis suspendere gaudent, 
Falcatosque enses et rostra erepta carinis. 
Areas et pharetras, furor et quibus unda pepercit 
Ipsi ductores collucent omnibus aris 
Thyxni odorati flammse liquefactaque thura. 
Haec nempe Alfonsi victoria parta labore 
Auspiciisque simul ; qui te tamen abneget ipsum 
Partem opere in tanto magnam exhibuisse ? ferebat 
Se Thebas, Tenedonque una Laertius heros 
Cepisse et Chrysen, Cillam, Lesbonque Scyronque, 
Namque capi dederat per quern tot moenia possent. 
A se Priamiden memorabat et Hectora victum 
Cum dederit per quem traberetur maximus Hector. 
Vicerat ille astn matrem, juvenemque volentem 
Commune ad bellum, et fatalia duxerat arma. 
Ta indomitum durumque senem, fcedusque negantem 
Frangis, et armatos hinc nostras vertis ad oras . 
Invitique auri pondus. Date proemia, cives. 


Spargite p wrpi e ua floret et lilia boato. 
Tone Tiete damn, qonm Tinci posae coeg^. 
Furra moim ei^ et clam qam pnelia gesserat atrox 
Nodo saita gerit» finea et regna faftigat. 
Ecoe itenua mitteBdua eiat qui dicat iaiq^ma 
Bdkmaa Botiia, kgea, indusqae reposcat. 
Cai nbie fera cotda tument accedere regem 
Qoiaqiie toneit, jam nota nimia perrefsa Toiontas 
Atqae odia ia noetroa, aitia atqae immeiiBa cnioris. 
Vadia at ipee tamcn per aperta pericala, frater. 
En itcnuB, qaaqaam nee te comhatnr eaiiteiii, 
Nnllaa Tydidea, nolhia Menelaiia in hoatem : 
Tantoa amor patris, tanta est rererentia regis ! 
Sed qaam pene too foBdaatt sangoine ripas 
Tybridis» inqoe iUb jacoisti frigidos agris. 
Te aeptem auesti coUea, Evandria tellaa 
Flerissentt apnmoai amnes, nymphaeqae Ladne, 
Et patria qiaa anom frostra expectasset ab altis 
Eridani ripia, redeontem ad carmina vatem. 
Vixisti ondeno laneta triateride lastro, 
Et ploratoa abia oeo primis raptos in annis. 
Te velatt primK correptom flora jorentae 
Qocret qonqoe etas, qoKient popnliqae patresque. 
Litore barbarico raptom Bitynide nympfaa 
Sic pnemm Alcidae qocsirit Graja joTentos. 
Sic et discerptoa aitos Memphitica pabea 
In ripia, o Nile, toia qoKsivit Oairis. 
Qai potoit besisse Tiium dom pasceret auras 
wStheris, aut poterit post fatum Isedere nomea, 
Et sanctos mores damnare, et libera dicta, 
Utpote nnllins cnlpate conscia frandis, 
Hunc post hkEL truces agitent fnrialibos hydiis 
Enmenides, tripUd peifringat Cerberus ore. 
Hie Phlegetonteis aetemum fluctnet undis. 
Musa sttos (nam qui Mnsamm raysttca cnrant) 


Tatatnr vates^ turpi et procnl amoiovet obu : 
Mystica Moaanun cnnm^ temcreqfiie diORta 
^on janxere maiiiis maniliDSy nee finatrm dedere 
Nee frnstra movere una recinenrihot illb 
Fila lyrtR, aat chordis vooem intendere yndaum 
Quum digitU arcave meloa ciepacfe podJc 
Irreligata tamen mortales nndiqne pisna 
Avehit* umbroaia et Avenii aiatit aieniap 
lUe ait aut paator, aolio vel icgnet aTito, 
Legibna aat nrbea finnet, ant caimina acribat. 
Adstant afflicti circom toa lonera firatiea 
Incuaantque Deoa, cderesqoe H3fperioiiia azea. 
Qui tna tam anbitia complerint aecola luatria, 
Abnuerint propnamqae toa cum moite paciari, 
<£balio8 juvenea duria felida nantia 
Signa, ita janxit amor, fratema nt morte redemptns 
Alter ferveoti componat flamina pooto, 
Interea Elysiia alter apatietar in oria. 
Quia itidem noatmm non pallida regna aabiret 
AYocet ut carom Lethaeo giii]gyte iratrem, 
Atqae etiam nolla redeondi ad aydera lege ? 
Me prseeonte tamen, meritia ugentibaa illia 
Quae conferre in me pietaa toa mijor ad^t. 
Sed yetat stemo qoae torqoet torbine ioaom 
No8 illoB remeare gradoa et linqoere mortem* 
Verom, otinam oenaoa illoa aora aeqoa dediaset. 
Per qnoa none poaaem cinerea ombramqoe aepolchro 
(Ut decoit) tomolaaae too ! non gennina Idomea 
Coryciomqae crocom, lacrymaeqoe qoas maeata podia 
Doro claoaa genaa et levia pectora libro 
Stillat, odorato ligno quod et onicoa ales 
In sua buata aagax, ad Solia lumina versoa 
Befert accenais, flagrantia monera, flammia, 
Deficerent, atrocto magnum super sethera buato. 
At starent circum, vivo para marmore ductse. 


Levi pATB ebore, et soHdo pare staret in aere/ 
Pierides, Teraaque lyra, lacerisqae coronis, 
Pectora nuda dese plectentes, qualis in agris, 
Hebre, tuis visa est lacrymoso in funere nati 
Calliopea suis, sparaos quum quaereret artus 
Discerptamque capat spretaram crimine matram. 
Staret crystallo Cypris formata nitenti, 
Sed demissa ocnlis, proprioqae infesta decori, 
£t tamquam fonnosa minus gestiret haberi. 
Starent et Charites, et amortim argenteus ordo : 
Certatim canerent illis, si gloria quemquam 
Tangit honorata lanro circamdare frontem. 
Quae meraere tui mores et plurima virtus, 
Ingeniumque sagax, praecox et Apollinis ardor 
De grege Caatalio nemo indotatus abiret. 
.£dibas at nostris paries dehinc nullus inesset 
Qui tua Apelleis signis non ora referret, 
Prscipuusque tamen ter deni ponderis auro 
Fulgeres medius nitidis carisque lapillis, 
Surgentes capiti lauros imitante smaragdo. 
Non opis ipse tamen nostrae« non indigus anri, 
Sed propria virtute potens et munere Phoebi 
Sternum vives, et qua nox alta pruinas 
Aggerat Arctoas, et qua proclivior axis 
Inficit iEtbiopes ferventi sideris aestu : 
Fulgentes currus qua primo scandit Eous 
Quaque diem extremis Sol fessus claudit Iberis. 
Has oras tua fama colet ; tuus altus adivit 
Spiritus astra, novos ubi primum comperit ignes 
Seminis seterni, sensusque animique vigorem. 




Mi consiglio di soggiungere alcnnipuntioinemorie 
della vita dell* Ariosto notate di proprio carattere da 
Virginio [suo figlio], e cfae tengo presso di me, dalle 
quali si comprende, che egli pensasse di esporle dif- 
fasamente in on racconto de' casi e degli stadj di sao 
padre. Le trascriverd, come appanto stanno, benchd 
alcune contengano cose che abbiamo dette di sopra, 
ed altre mettano anzi curiositk di sapere, che diano 
notizia di cose non sapute. 

" I. Della sua origine^ de' parentis e ove nacque, e 
eve' fa nutrito^ e in che tempo nacque, come in la 
satira : Pot che Anntbdlle, &c.* 

"II. Come imparava legge a forza e componeva 
delle baje. 

"III. Come si diede alio studio d' Umanitk, e del 
precettore, e dell' amicizia col Sr. Alberto da Carpi ; e 
che compose V Ode Jam, e la causa, che dismise 1* 

' " IV." Come fu condotto dal Duca Ercole a Pavia 
sotto specie di far commedie. 

" V. Come comincio a comporre Orlando, e perch^ 
seguitd il Conte M. B. [Matteo Bojardo] , e perch^ cos! 
tosto 16 pose in luce e perche lo ristampd. 

". VI. II Cardinale disse. che gli sarebbe stato molto 
piii caro che M. Lod. [Ariosto] avesse atteso a servirlo, 
mentre che stava a comporre il suo libro. 

♦ This is the iv satire. 



VII. E qnante cose diverse compose^ e quale corn- 
media fu prima fatta, e quella che laacid imperfetta. 

''VIII. E la prima satira, e la causa che stette poi 
senza far satire. 

'' IX. Quale fa la prima satirache compose, e come 
le tenoe per se ; per il che non ne compose (aUref) ; 
e poich^ r ebbe ritrovate, e* ne principid due altre, 
che restarono- imperfette, delle quali una h scritta al 

** X. Perchd lascid il comporre. 

"XI. Perch^ tomasse a comporre inanimtto dal 
figliuolo del Duca : e per fabbricar forse.f 

"XII. Come era di complesBione robusta e sana^ 
salvo che di an catarro . • . . di statora grande • ; • . a 
cammioare a piedi gug^iardo, in modo ch« partendosi 
di Carpi, venne inun giomoa Ferrarainpianelle perch^ 
non aveva pensato di far cammino. 

" XIII. Del catarro stette assai tempo gravato^ e poi 
guar) per causa del vin buono e maturo. 

" XIV. Come mai non si satisfaceva de' versi suoi, 
e li mutava e rimatava, e per questo non si teneva in 
mente niun suo verso, il che fu causa che peidesse 
assai cose composte: ed io mi ricordo che mi recit6 
il princtpio* deir infra scritto epigramma# la sentenza 
del quale era che mentre 1' ortolaoo stava chino a 
plantar V erbe, senti un movimento, al quale rivolgen- 
dosi senti un olivo che cominci6 a parlare in quests 
forma : Hie ne rasas, Sfc. Ma di cosa che perdesse, niuna 
gli dolse mai tanto, come di un epigramma che fece 
per una colonna di marmo, la quale si ruppe nel por« 
tarla a Ferrara. Quests era quella colonna com- 
pagna di 

* This is now lost 

t Perhaps "to have the means of building.^' The sen- 
tence is very obscure. 


'* XV. NeHe cose de' giardifii teaevA il modo mede- 
siiBo che nei far de^ yersi, perchd znai non kseiava 
cosa alcima che piantasae piii di tre mesi in an loco, e 
se piantava anime di persiche^ o semente di alcana 
sorte, andava tante volte a vedere se germogUava che 
finalmente rompeva il germoglio : e perchd avea poea 
cognizione d' erba, H pi^ delk volte prossumea che 
qnalnnqoe erba che nascesse vicina alia cosa seminata 
da esso, fosse quella; la castodiva con diligenza grande, 
sin tanto che la cosa fosse ridotta a' termini che non 
accascava aveme dabbio. V mi ricordo che avendo 
seminato de' capperi, ogni giorno andava a vederli, e 
stavacon una allegrezzagrandedi cosi bella nascione. 
Finalmente trovd che erano sambuchi^ e che de' cap- 
peri non n^ eran nati alcnni. 

" XVI. Non fn molto stadioso^ e pochi libri cercava 
di vedere. OK piacera Virgtlio ; Tibnllo nel suo dire, 
ma grandemente commendava Orazio e Catullo ; ma 
non molto Properzio. 

" XVII. Ebbe la casa del pa^e, e poi si ridnsse ad 
a&itare in una casetta, ove sopra 1' entrata erano scritti 
qvesti versi : Parva sed apta mihi, Sfc, Nella loggetta : 
Sh lauhis Kcet.* Desiderava di accommodarla con 
£abbriche, e totto qnello che poteva ritrarre dalle sne 
ren^te, spendeva. Ma perchd nel principio che 
comincid a fabbricare V intenzion sua non era di stan- 
ziarvi : ma avendo poi preso amore a quel giardino, 
si deliberd di farvi la casa. £ perch^ male corrispon- 
devan le cose fatte all' animo suo, solea dolersi spesso, 
che non gli fosse cosi facile il mutar le fabbriche come 
li suoi versi, e rispondeva agli uomini che dicevano che 
si maravigliavano ch' esso non facesae una bella casa, 

* Of the Latin poems mentioned in this memorandum, this 


essendo persona che cos) ben disBegnava i palazzi ; a' 
qaali rispondeva che faceva qnelli belli senza danari. 

'' XVIII. Di Papa Giolio, che lo voile far trarre in 

" XIX. Dell' amicizia con Medici, e con Santa Maria 
in Porto [Porh'co] ; e li motti detti e risposti. 

" XX. Deirintrinsichezzatennta con il Duca Alfonso. 

" XXI. Per il Cardinale Santa M. in Porto IPortico], 
Poich^ tanti miei amici podestade 
Hanno ayuto di farlo.* 

'' XXII. Mangiava presto e assai e non faceva di- 
stinzione di cibi ; e tosto che giungeva a casa, se tro- 
vava preparato il pane ne mangiava ano passeggiando, 
e frattanto si portava la vivanda in tavola ; il che come 
vedea si facea dar 1' acqua alle mani, e mangiava la 
cosa che piti vicina gli era. Mangiava spesso un 
pane dopo che aveva intralasciato il mangiare. lo penso 
che non si ricordasse qnello chefacesse, percheaveia 
r animo intento a qualche cosa o di composizione o di 
fabbrica. Intesi che essendogli sopraggionto un fore- 
stiere a casa nell* ora« che s' era desinato, gli mangio 
tutto quello che se gli port6 innanzi, mentre che il 
forestiero si stava ragionando, e forse con rispetto e 
vergogna; e poi« dopo la partita del forestiero, fa 
ripreso dal fratello, che avesse mangiato quello che si 
era posto al forestiero ; e non rispose altro, se non che 
era stato suo danno, e che dovea mangiare. 

" XXIII. Appetiva le rape. 

" XXIV. Si parti dal Cardinale e si pose col Duca 
suo fratello. 

" XXV. Egli h una baja che fosse coronato." 

* These lines occur in the v satire. 



Lb donne, i cavallier, V arme, gli amori, 
Le cortesie, V audaci imprese io canto, 
Che furo al tempo che passaro i Mori 
D* Africa il mare, e in Francia nocquer tanto, 
Seguendo 1' ire e i giovenil furori 
D' Agramante lor Re, che si di^ vanto 
Di vendicar la morte di Trojano 
Sopra Re Carlo Imperator Romano. 

Diro d' Orlando in un medesmo tratto 
Cosa non detta in prosa mai, n^ in rima ; 
Che per amor venne in furore e matto, 
D' uom che si saggio era stimato prima : 
Se da colei, che tal quasi m' ha fatto, 
Che '1 poco ingegno ad or ad or mi lima, 
Me ne sar^ pero tanto concesso^ 
Che mi basti a finir quanto ho promesso. 


2 ORLANDO FURIOSO. [s. 3--« 

Piacciavii generosa Erculea prole, 
Ornamento e splendor del secol nostro, 
Ippolito, a^radir questo che vuole 
£ darvi sol pud V umil servo vostro. 
Quel eh' io vi debbo, posso di parole 
Pagare in parte, e d* opera d' inchiostro : 
N^ che poco io vi dia da imputar sono, 
Chd quanto io posso dar, tatio vi dono. 

Voi sentirete fira i piu degni Eroi, 
Che nominar con laude m' apparecchio, 
Ricordar quel Ruggier, che fii di voi 
E de** vostri avi illustri il ceppo vecchio. 
L' alto valore e' chiari gesti suoi 
Vi faro udir, se voi mi date orecchio, 
E vostri alti pensier cedino un poco, 
Si che tra lor miei versi abbiano loco. 

Orlando, che gran tempo inamorato 
Fu de la bella Angelica, e per lei 
In India, in Media, in Tartaria lasciato 
Avea infiniti et immortal trofei. 
In Ponente con essa era tomato. 
Dove, sotto i gran monti Pirenei 
Con la gente di Francia e de Lamagna, 
Re Carlo era attendato alia campagna, 

Per &r sd Re Marsilio e al Re Agnonante 
Battersi ancor del folle ardir la guaneia, 
D* aver condotto, V un, d' Africa quante 
Grenti erano atte a portar spada e lancia ; 
L' altro, d' aver spinta la Spagna inante 
A destriudon del bel regno di Francia. 
E cosi Orlando arrivo quivi a punto : 
Ma tosto si pent! d' esservi giunto ; 

9. 7^1 a] CANTO L 3 

Chd vi fu tolta la ana donna poi : 
Ecco il giudicia uman come ^qpeaso erra \ 
Quella, che da gU Eaperii a i lid Eot 
Avea difesa con m luaga guerrai 
Or tolta gli ^, fra tanti anid auoi, 
Senza spada adoprar, ne la ana terra, 
n savio Imperatoav oh' eatinguer v^se 
XIn grave incendidy fu ^ gli la tolae. 

Nata pochi di inaazi era una gara 
Tra il oonte Orlando e il auo cugin Rinaldo ; 
Ch^ ambi avean per la bellesza rara 
B' amoroso diaio V animo caldOi 
Carlo, cbe non avea tal Mte cara, 
Che gli rendea 1' aiuto lor n^en saldo, 
Questa donzella, che la eauaa n^ era, 
Tolse, ^ die in raano al Duca di Bayera ; 

In premio proiliettendola a quel d' essi, 
Ch' in quel eonflitto, in quella gran giornata, 

De gli Infideli piu copia ucoidessi, 

£ di sua man prestaasi opra piu grata. 

Contrari a i voti poi furo i suocessi ; 

Ch' in fuga ando la gente battezata, 

£» con molti altri, fu 1 Duca prigione» 

£ resto abbandonato il padi^ione. 
Dove, poi che rimase» la donzella, 

Ch' eaaer dovea del vineitor mercede, 

Inanzi al caao era aalita m sella, 

£i quando bisognd, le spalle diede, 

Presaga che quel giomo esaer rubella 

Dovea Fortuna alia Cristiana fede : 

£ntrd in un boaeo, e ne hi stretfa via 

Rincontro un cavallier eh' a pie venla. 

4 ORLANDO FURIOSO. [s. 11-14 

IndoBso la corazza, 1* elmo in testa, 
La spada al fianco, e in braccio avea lo scudo ; 
£ piu leggier correa per la foresta, 
Ch' al pallio rosso il viUan mezo ignudo. 
Timida pastorella mai si presta 
Non Yolse piede inanzi a serpe crudo, 
Come Angelica tosto il fireno torse, 
Che del guerrier, ch* a pi^ venla, s' acoorse. 

Era costui quel Paladin gagliardo, 
FigHuol d' Amop, signor di Montalbano, 
A cai pur dianzi il suo destrier Baiardo 
Per Btrano caso uscito era di mano. 
Come alia donna egli diizzd lo sguardo, 
Riconobbe, quantunque di lontano, 
L' angelioo sembiante e quel bel yolto, 
Ch' all* amorose reti il tenea involto. 

La Donna il palafreno a dietro volta, 
E per la selva a tutta briglia il caccia ; 
N^ per la rara piu che per la folta. 
La piu sicura e miglior via procaccia : 
Ma pallida, tremando, e di se tolta, 
Lascia cura al destrier che la via faccia« 
Di su di giu ne 1* alta selva fiera 
Tanto giro, che venne a una riviera. 

Su la riviera Ferraii trovosse 
Di sudor pieno, e tutto polveroso. 
Da la battaglia dianzi lo rimosse % 
Un gran disio di here e di riposo : 
E poi, mal grado suo, quivi fermosse ; 
Perche, de 1* acqua ingordo e frettoloso, 
L* elmo nel fiume si lascio cadere, 
N^ 1* avea potuto anco riavere. 

s. IS — 18] CANTO I. 

Quanto potea piu forte, ne yeniva 
Gridando la Don2ella ispaventata. 
A quella voce salta in su la riva 
II Saracino, e nel viso la guata ; 
G la conosce subito ch' arriva, 
Benche di dmor pallida e turbata, 
£ sien piu di cbe non n' udi novella, 
Che senza dubbio ell' .h Angelica bella. 

E percbe era cortese, e n' avea forse . 
Non men de i dui cugini il petto caldo, 
L' aiuto, cbe potea, tutto le porse, 
Pur cone avesse 1' elmo, ardito e baldo : 
Trasse la spada, e minacciando corse 
Dove poco di lui temea Rinaldo^ 
Piu volte s' eran gia non pur veduti, 
Ma 1 paragon dell' arme conosciuti. 

Cominciar quivi una crudel battaglia, 
Come a pi^ si trover, co i brandi ignudi : 
Non cbe le piastre e la minuta maglia, 
Ma a i colpi lor non reggerian gV incudi. 
Or, mentre V un con V altro si travaglia, 
Bisogna al palafren cbe 1 passo studi ; 
Cb^, quanto pud menar de le calcagna, 
Colei lo caccia al bosco e alia campagna. 

Pol cbe s' afiatic&r gran pezzo invano 
I dui guerrier per por V un V altro sotto ; 
Quando non meno era con V arme in mano 
Questo di quel, n^ quel di questo dotto ; 
Fu primiero il signor di Montalbano, 
Cb' al cavalber di Spagna fece motto. 
Si come quel c' ba nel cuor tanto fuoco, 
Che tutto n' arde e non ritrova loco. 

6 ORLANDO FURIOSO. [i. 19--22 

Disae al Pagan : Me sol creduto avrai, 
E pur avrai te vaeeoaiicora ofieso : 
Se questo avvien percbd i fidgenti rai 
Del nuovo Sol t* abbkio il pelto acceso, 
Di farmi qui tardar che gusdagno hai ? 
Che, quando ancor tu. m* abbi morto o preso^ 
Non pero tua la beUa donna fia, 
Che, mentre noi tardian, sh ne va Tia. 

Quanto fia toeglio, aniaad<^a tu ancora» 
Che tu le venga a traversar la strada, 
A ritenerla e fwAe far dimora, 
Prima che pin Icxitana se ne vada ! 
Come r avremo in potestate, allora 
Di ch' esser de' si pruovi con la spada. 
Non so altrimente, dopo nn lui^o afianno) 
Che possa riuscirci ahro die danno. 

Al Pagan la proposta non dupiaeque : 
Cos! fu difierita la tenzone ; 
£ tal tregua tra lor sabito nac<]^» 
Si r odio e r ira va in oblivione, 
Che '1 Pa^^o aLpartir da le ^esche acqne 
Non lascid a piedi il buon figHol d' Amone, 
Con preghi invita, et al fin togHe in groppBi 
E per r orme d' Angelica galoppa. 

Oh gran bonta de' cavdlieri »9i%iqai ! 
Eran rivali, eran di fe diversi, 
E si sentaan de gli aspri colpi iniqin 
Per tutta la fiersiHia aneo doienu ; 
E pur per selve oscme^ caHi obyqni 
Insieme van Tsenzasospetto aversi. 
Da quattro sptotn il destrier panto amva 
Dove una strada in dae si dipartiva. 

s. 2S^263 CANTO I. 

E come quel die noa npean se T una 
O r altra via faoesse la DonzeUa, 
(Pero che senza diSkr&udtL alcana 
Apparia in amendue V onna noTella) 
Si messero ad afbitrio di fiirtiuia, 
Rinaldo a questa, il Saracino a quella. 
Pel bosco Ferraii molto s* aTvolsey 
£ ritrovossi al fine onde ai toke. 

Pur si litrova ancox su la rivera, 
JA dove r ^mo gli cased ne 1' onde. 
Poi che la Donna ritrovar non sperat 
Per aver 1* elmo che '1 fiume gli asccmdet 
In quella parte, onde caduto gli era, 
Discende ne V estreme umide sponde : 
Ma quello era si fitto ne la sabbia, 
Che molto avra da far prima che Y abbia. 

Con un gran ramo d' albero rimondo, 
Di che avea j&tto una pertica lunga, 
Tenta il fiume e ricerca aino al fondo, 
Ne loco lascia ove non batta e punga. 
Mentre, con la jaiaggior sdzza del mondo, 
Tanto r indugio suo quivi prohinga, 
Vede di mezo il fiume un cavalUero 
Insino al petto uscir, d' aspetto fiero. 
Era, fuor che la teata, tutto armatcip 
£t avea un elmo ne la destra mano : 
Avea il medeauno elmo« che cercato 
Da Ferrau fij lungamente ^in vanor 
A Ferrau parld come adiratOy 
E disse: Ah mancator dife» Marano! 
Perch^. dilasciar V elmo anche t' aggrevJu 
Che render gift gran tempo.mi dovevi ? 

8 ORLANDO FURIOSO. [s. 27-30 

Ric6rdati, Pagan» quando uccidesti 
D' Angelica il fratel (che son quelT io) 
Dietro a 1' altre anne tu mi promettesti 
Fra pochi di gittar 1* elmo nel rio. 
Or, 86 Foituna (quel che non volesti 
Far tu) pone ad effetto il voler mio, 
Non ti turbar ; e se turbar ti dei, 
Turbad, che di fe mancato sei. 

Ma, se desir pur hai d' un elmo fino, 
Trovane un altro, et abbil con piu onore ; 
Un tal ne porta Orlando paladino, 
Un tal Rinaldo, e forse anco migliore : 
L' un fu d' Almonte, e V altro di Mambrino : 
Acquista un di quel dui col tuo valore ; 
£ questo, c' hai gia di lasciarmi detto, 
Farai bene a lasciarmelo in effetto. 

Air apparir che fece all' improvviso 
De r acqua Y ombra, ogni pelo arricciosse, 
£ scolorosse al Saracino il viso ; 
La voce, ch' era per uscir, fermosse* 
Udendo poi da V Argalia, ch' ucciso 
Quivi avea gisl, (che V Argalia nomosae) 
La rotta fedetosi improverarse, 
Di scomo e d' ira dentro e di fuor arse. 

N^ tempo avendo a pensar altra scusa, 
£ conoscendo ben che '1 yer gli disse, 
Resto senza risposta a bocca chiusa ; 
Ma la vergogna il cor si gli traffisse, 
Che giuro per la vita di Lanfusa 
Non voler mai ch' altro elmo lo coprisse, 
Se non quel buono, che gia in Aspramonte 
Trasse del capo Orlando al fiero Almonte. 

s. 31 — 34] CANTO I. 

E servo meglio questo giuramento, 
Che non avea quell* altro fatto prima ; 
Quindi si parte tanto mal contento, 
Che moiti giomi poi si rode e lima ; 
Sol di cercare d il Paladino intento 
Di qua di la, doye trovarlo sdma. 
Altra Ventura al buon Rinaldo accade, 
Che da costui tenea diverse strade. 
Non molto va Rinaldo, che si vede 

Saltar inanzi il suo destrier feroce : 
Feima, Baiardo mio, deh ferma il piede ! 

Che r esser senza te troppo mi nuoce. 

Per questo il destrier sordo a lui non riede, 

Anzi piu se ne va sempre veloce. 

Segue Rinaldo, e d' ira si distrugge : 

Ma seguitiamo Angelica che fugge. 
Fugge tra selve spaventose e scure, 

Per lochi inabitati, ermi e selvaggi. 

II mover de le frondi e di verzure, 

Che di cerri sentia, d' olmi e di faggi, 

FattQ le avea con subite paure 

Trovar di qua e di la strani vi'aggi ; 

Ch* ad ogni ombra veduta o in monte o in valle, 

Temea Rinaldo aver sempre alle spalle. 
Qual pargoletta o damma o capriola, 

Che tra le fronde del natio boschetto 

AUa madre veduta abbia la gola 

Stringer dal pardo, e aprirle '1 fianco o '1 petto, 

Di selva in selva dal crudel s' invola, 

£ di paura trema e di sospetto : 

Ad ogni sterpo che passando tocca, 

Esser si crede all' empia fera in bocca. 

10 ORLANDO FUBIOSO. [8.4»— 38 

Quel di e lanotlc e neso V akro giorno 
S* andd aggirando, e non sapeva doFe : 
TroTOBsi al fin in un bosohetto addrno^ 
Che lievemente la firesoa aura move. 
Dui chiari rivi monncHrando iiitonio« 
Sempre V erbe vi fan tenere e uove ; 
E rendea ad aacoltar dokse conoentOy 
Rotto tra picciol sassi, il correr lento. 

Quivii parendo a lei d' esser sicura 
£ lontana a Rinaldo mille miglia. 
Da la via stanca e da V estiva arsufa, 
Di riposare alqiumto si oonsiglia. 
Tra fiori smonta, e lascia alia pastura 
Andare il palafren senza la briglia ; 
£ quel va enrando kitorno alle chiare onde, 
Che di fresca erba avean piene le sponde. 

£cco non lungi un bel cespuglio vede 
Di spin fioriti e di vermiglie rdse, 
Che de le liquide onde al specchio siede, 
Chiuso dal Sol fra V site querde ombi ese ; 
Cos! voto nel mezo, die concede 
Fresca stanza fra V ombre piii nascose : 
£ la fbglia coi zami in modo h mista, 
Ch' el Sol non v' entca, non che minor vista. 

Dentro lette vi fan tener' erbette, 
Ch' invitanoajposar chi a' a|ifNr6senta. 
La bella donna in mezo a quel si matte ; 
Ivi :si scorca, et ivi s' addormenta* 
Ma non per lungo spaissio cosi stette, 
Che un calpestio le par ohe venir senta; 
Cheta si lieva, e appvesso aUaxwera 
Vede ch' armato un cavallier ^unt' era. 

s. 39 43] CANTO 1. 1 

S' egti g amioo o neraico noa cwnpr^ide ; 
Tema e speranza il dubbio cuor le scuote; 
£ di quella avventiira il fine attende, 
Ne pui d' un sol sospir 1' aria percuote. 
n caTalliero in riva al fiiune soende 
Sopra r un braccio a ripotar le gate ; 
Et in un grao peosier tanto penetra, 
Che pai caagiato in iDsenribil pietra. 

Pensoso piu d' ua' ora a«apo buso 
Stette, Signore, U cavallier dolente ; 
Poi comiDcid c<hi suobo afBitto e laaao 
A •lamentarsi si Boav^nentei 
Ch' avrebbe di piet^ speazato un saisOi 
Una tigre crudel fatta clemente : 
Sugpirando piangea, tal di' tin ruscello 
Paiean le guancie, e 1 petto un Mongibello. 

Pensier (dicea) che 1 cor m' aggtacci ed avdi, 
E cauBi 1 duol che sempre il rode e lima, 
Che debbo far 1 poi ch' io son giunto tardi, 
E ch' altri a efirre il fhitto £ andato prima. 
A pena avuto io n' ho paiole e agnardi, 
Et altri □* ha tutta la spoglia opima. 
Se Don ne tocca a me frutto ah fioie, 
Ferch^ a£Biger per lei mi to' piil il core 1 

La verginella @ simile alia rAga 
Ch' in bel giardin su la nativa spiiia 
Mentre B<da e aicura si riposa, 
NS gregge nS pastor sS le ovviciiia : 
L' aura soave e 1' alba rugiadow, 
L' acqua, la terra a) sno favor a' inchina : 
Gioreni vagfaie dcmne ioamontte 
AmaDO averoe e seni e ten^ie ornate. 


12 ORLANDO FURIOSO. [s. 43--46 

Ma non s\ tosto dal matemo stelo 
Rimossa viene, e dal ano ceppo verde, 
Che quanto avea da gli uomini e dal cielo 
Favor, grazia e bellezza, tutto perde. 
La vergine, che^'l fior, di che piu zelo 
Che de' begli occhi e de la vita aver de', 
Lascia altrui cdrre, il pregio ch' avea inanti, 
Perde nel cor di tutti gli altri amanti. 

Sia vile a gli altri, e da quel solo amata, 
A cui di se fece si larga copia. 
Ah Fortuna crudel, Fortuna ingrata ! 
Trionfan gli altri, e ne moro io d' inopia. 
Dunque esser pud che non mi sia piu grata ? 
Dunque io possolasciar mia vita propia? 
Ah piu tosto oggi manchino i di miei, 
Ch' io viva piu, s' amar non debho lei ! 

Se mi dimanda alcun chi costui sia, 
Che versa sopra il rio lacrime tante, 
Io diro, ch* egli d il Re di Circassia, 
Quel d* amor travagliato Sacripante : 
Io dird ancor, che di sua pena ria 
Sia prima e sola causa esser amante ; 
E pur un degli amanti di costei, 
E ben riconosciuto fu da lei. 

Appresso ove il Sol cade, per suo amore 
Venuto era dal capo d' Oriente : 
Ch^ seppe in India, con suo gran dolpre. 
Come ella Orlando seguitd in Ponente : 
Poi seppe in Francia che V Imperatore 
Sequestrata 1* avea da 1' altra gente, 
E promessa in mercede a chi di loro 
Piu quel giorno aiutasse i Gigli d* oro. 

s. 47.-^50] CANTO I. 13 

Stato era in campo ; area veduta quella, 
Quella rotta che dianzi ebbe Re Carlo ; 
Cerco vestigio d' Angelica bella, 
Ne potuto avea ancora ritrovarlo. 
Questa e dunque la trista e ria novella, 
Che d' amorosa doglia fa penarlo, 
Afiligger, lamentare, e dir parole 
Che di pieta potrian fermare il Sole. 

Mentre costui cosi s' affligge e duole, 
C fa de gli occhi suoi tepida fonte, 
C dice queste e molte altre parole, 
Che non mi par bisogno esser racconte ; 
li' avventurosa sua fortuna vuole 
Ch' alle orecchie d' Angelica sian conte : 
E cosi quel ne viene a un' ora, a un punto, 
Ch* in mille anni, o mai piii, non ^ raggiunto. 

Con molta attenzion la bella Donna 
Al pianto, alle parole, al modo attende 
Di colui, ch' in amarla non assonna; 
Ne questo e il primo d! ch' ella V intende : 
Ma dura e fredda piii d* una colonna, 
Ad aveme pieta non pero scende ; 
Come colei c' ha tutto il mondo a sdegno, - 
E non le par ch' alcun sia di lei degno. 
Pur tra quei boschi il ritrovarsi sola 
Le fa pensar di tor costui per guida ; 
Ch^ chi ne 1' acqua sta fin alia gola, 
Ben ^ ostinato se merc^ non grida. 
Se questa occasione or s^ 1' invola, 
Non trovera mai piu scorta si fida ; 
Ch' a lunga prova conosduto inante 
S' avea quel Re fedel sopra ogni amante. 

14 ORLANDO FURIOSO. [a^ 51—54 

Ma non perd disegna de V i^&niio, 
Che lo distrugge, allegerir chi Y ama, 
£ ristorar d' ogni passato daimo 
Con quel piacer eh' ogni amator pA brama : 
Ma alcuna fizione, alcuno inganno 
Di tenerlo in speranaa ordisce e tranaa ; 
Tanto eh' al suo bisogno sd ne servai 
Poi torni all' uso suo dura e proterva. 

E fuor di quel cespuglio oseuro e cieco 
Fa di se beUa et improvyisa mostra, 
Come di selva o fvLot d' ombroso speeo 
Diana in scena, o Citerea si mostra ; 
£ dice air apparir : Pace sia teeo ; 
Teco difenda Dio la &iBa nostra, 
E non comporti, contra ogni ragione, 
Ch' abbi di me si falsa opinione. 

Non mai oon tanto gaudio o stupor tanto 
Levd gli occfat al figliuolo alcuna madre, 
Ch' avea per morto sospirato e pianto, 
Poi che sensa esso udi tomar le squadre; 
Con quanto gaudio, il Saracin^ eon quanto 
Stupor, r alta presenza e 1# leggiadre 
Maniere e vero angelioo sembiante, 
Improvviso apparir si vide innante. 

Pieno di dolce e d' amoroso afietto 
Alia sua donna, alia sua diva corse, 
Che con le braoeia al collo il teopse stretto, 
Quel ch' al Catai non avria fktto forse. 
Al patrio regno, al suo na^ ricetto, 
Seco avendo costui, 1' animo torse : 
Subito in lei s' awhra la speransKt 

tosto riveder sua ricca stanza. 

s. jU»— 58] CANTO I. 15 

Clla gli feade conto pienamente 
Dal giorno che mandato fii da lei 
A domandar soecorso in Oriente 
Al Re de' Sericaii Nabatei ; 
£ come Oriando la guards soTetite 
Da morte, da disnor, da casi rei ; 
£ che '1 fior virgiiial oosi avea salvo, 
Come s^ lo porto del materno alvo. 

Forse era ver, ma non pero credtbile 
A chi del senso suo fosse signore ; 
Ma parve faciimente a lui possibile, 
Ch' era perdnto in via piu grave errore. 
Quel che Y uom vede, Amor gli fa invisibile, 
£ r invisibil fa yeder Amore. 
Questo crednto fb ; ch^ 1 miser suole 
Dar facile credenza a quel che vnole. 

Se mal si seppe il eavallier d^ Anghmte 
Pigliar, per sua sciocchesza^ il tempo buono, 
II danno s^ ne avra; ch$ da qui inante 
Nol chiamer^ Fortnna a si gran dono ; 
(Tra sh tadto paria Sacripante) 
Ma io per imitarlo gia non sono, 
Che lasci tanto ben che m' h concesso, 
£ ch' a doler poi m* abbia di me stesso. 

Corro la fresca e miatutina r6sa 
Che, tardando, stagion perder potria. 
So ben ch' a donna non si pud far cosa 
Che piu soave e piu piacevol sia, 
Ancor che sd ne mostri disdegnosa, 
£ tal' or mesta e flebil se ne stia : 
Non stard per repulsa o finto sdegno, 
Ch' io non adombri e incami 3 mio disegno. 

16 ORLANDO FURIOSO. [s. 59—62 

Cosi dice egli ; e mentre s' apparecchia 
Al dolce assalto, un gran rumor, che suona 
Dal vicin bosco, gF intruona V orecchia 
Si, che mal grado V impresa abbandona 
E si pon r elmo ; ch' avea usanza vecchia 
Di portar sempre armata la persona. 
Viene al destriero, e gli ripon la briglia : 
Rimonta in sella, e la sua lancia piglia. 

Ecco pel bosco un cavallier venire, 
n cui sembiante e d* uom gagliardo e fiero : 
Candido come nieve e il suo vestire, 
Un bianco pennoncello ha per cimiero. 
Re Sacripante,.che non pud patire 
Che quel, con V importuno suo sentiero, 
Gli abbia interrotto il gran piacer ch' avea, 
Con vista il guarda disdegnosa e rea. 

Come ^ piu appresso, lo sfida a battaglia, 
Che crede ben &rgli votar Y arcione ; 
Quel, che di lui non stimo gia che vaglia 
Un grano meno, e ne fa paragone, 
L' orgogliose minaccie a mezo tagha, 
Sprona a un tempo, e la lancia in resta pone. 
Sacripante ritoma con tempesta, 
E corronsi a ferir testa per testa. 

Non si vanno i leoni, o i tori in salto 
A dar di petto, ad accozzar si crudi, 
Come li dui guerrieri al fiero assalto, 
Che parimente si passar li scudi. 
Fe' lo scontro tremar dal basso a V alto 
L' erbose valli insino a i poggi ignudi ; 
E ben giovo che fur buoni e perfetti 
Gli usberghi si, che lor salvaro i petti. 

s. 63--66J CANTO I. 17 

^ Gia non ferb i cavalli un correr torto, 
Anzi cozzaro a guisa di montoni. 
Quel del guerrier Pagan mori di corto, 
Cb' era, vivendo, in numero de* buoni : 
Queir altro cadde ancor ; ma fu risorto 
Tosto ch' al fianco si senti li sproni* 
Quel del Re Saracin resto disteso 
Adosso al suo Signor con tutto il peso. 

L* incognito campion che resto ritto, 
E vide r altro col cavallo in terra, 
Stimando avere assai di quel conflitto, 
Non si curd di rinovar la guerra ; 
Ma, dove per la selva e il camin dritto, 
Correndo a tutta briglia si disserra ; 
IS, prima che di briga esca il Pagano, 
Un miglio o poco meno e gia lontano. 

Qual istordito e stupido aratore, 
Poi ch' e passato il fulmine, si lieva 
Di la dove 1* altissimo fragore 
Presso alii morti buoi steso V aveva, 
Che mira senza fronde e senza onore. 
II Pin che di lontan veder soleva : 
Tal si levo il Pagano, a pie rimaso, ^ 

Angelica presente al duro caso. 

Sospira e geme, no|x perche 1* annoi 
Che piede o hraccio s* abbia rotto o mosso, 
Ma per vergogna sola, onde a* di suoi, 
N^ pria, ne dopo, il viso ebbe si rosso : 
£ piu, ch* oltra il cader, sua donna poi 
Fu, che gli tolse il gran peso d' adosso. 
Muto restava, mi cred* io, se quella 
Non gli rendea la voce e la favella. 

OBL. FUR. I. c 

1 8 ORLANDO FURIOSO. [s. 67—70 

Deh (diBse ella) Signor, non vi rincresca! 
Ch^ del cader non h la colpa vostra^ 
Ma del cavallo^ a cui riposo et esca 
Meglio si convenia, che nuova giostra. 
Nd peTci6 quel guerrier sua gloria accresca, 
Ch^ d' esser state il perditor dimostra : 
Cosi, per quel ch* io me ne sappia, stimo, 
Quando a lasciar il campo e state il primo. 

Mtotre costei conforta il Saracino, 
Ecco, col como e con la tasca al fianco, 
Galoppando venir sopra un ronzino 
Un messaggier, che parea afflitto e stanco ; 
Che» come a Sacripante fu vicino, 
Gli domando, se con lo scudo bianco 
£ con un bianco pennoncello in testa . 
Vide un guerrier passar per la foresta. 

Rispose Sacripante : Come vedi, 
M' ha qui abbatuto, e s^ ne parte or ora, 
£, perch' io sappia chi m' ha messo a piedi, 
Fa che per nome io lo conosca ancora. 
Et egli a lui : Di quel che tu mi chiedi, 
Io d satisfaro senza dimora : 
Tu dei saper, che ti levo di sella 
L' alto valor d' una gentil donzella. 

Ella ^ gagliarda^ et e piu bella molto ; 
N^ il suo famoso nome anco t* ascondo : 
Fu Bradamante quella, che t' ha tolto 
Quanto onor mai tu guadagnasti al mondo. 
Poi ch' ebbe cosi detto, a fireno sciolto 
n Saracin lascio poco giocondo, 
Che non sa che si dica o che si faccia, 
Tutto avvampato di vergogna in faccia. 

s. 71— 74] CANtO I. 19 

Poi che gran pezzo al caso intervenuto 
Cbbe pensato in vano, e finalmente 
Si trovo da una femina abbatuto, 
Che, pensandoyi piu, piu dolor sente ; 
Monto 1' altro destrier, tacito e muto : 
£, senza far parola, chetamente 
Tolse Angelica in groppa, e difierilla 
A piu lieto uso, a atanza piu tranquilla. 

Non furo iti duo miglia, cbe sonare 
Odon la selva cbe li cinge intomo, 
Con tal rumor e strepito, cbe pare 
Che tremi la foresta d' ognintorno ; 
£ poco dopo un gran destrier n' appare 
D' oro guernito, e rieoamente adomo, 
Che salta macchie e rivi, et a fracasso 
Arbori mena, e cid die vieta il pasio. 

Se r intricati rami e 1' aer fosco 
(Disse la Donna) a gli ocohi non eontende, 
Baiardo b quel destrier ch' in mexo il bosco 
Con tal rumor la cbiusa via si fende« 
Questo k certo Baiardo ; io '1 riconoeco : 
Deb come ben nostro bisogno intende ! 
Cb' un sol ronzin per dui saria mal atto; 
E ne Tien egli a satisfarci rattou 

Smonta il Circasso, et al destrier t* accoata ; 
E si pensava dar di mano al freno* 
Colle groppe il destrier gli & risposta, 
Cbe fu presto al girar come nn baleno ; 
Ma non arriva do<ve i calci appoata : 
Misero il cavallier se giui^es a pieno \ 
Ch^ ne' calci tal possa avea il cayallo^ 
Ch' avria spezzato un monte di metallo. 


Indi va nuuiueto alia Donzella 
Con umile Mtnbiaote t gesto umano, 
Come intomo al patione il can aaltella, 
Che aU dui giomi o tre statu lontano. 
Baiardo ancora avea memoria d' ella 
Ch' in Albracca il servia gia di sua mano, . 
Nel tempo che da lei tanto era amato 
Rina]do, allor crudele, allora ingrato. 

Con la sinistra man prende la brigliai 
Con r altra tocca e palpa il collo e il petto. 
Quel destrier, ch' avea ii^gno a maraviglia, 
A lei, come un agnel, si fa suggetto. 
In tantp Sacripante il tempo piglia: 
Monla Baiardo, e I' urta, e lo tien stretto. 
Del ronzin disgravato la Donzella 
Lascia la groppa, e ai ripone in sella. 

Poi, riTolgendo a caso gli occhi, mira 
Venir aonando d' acme un gran pedoae. 
Tutta g' avvampa di diapetto e d' ira, 
Chd conoHce il figliuot del Duca Amone. 
Piu che sua vita I' ama egli e desira ; 
L' odia e fugge ella piu che gru falcone : 
Gict fu ch' esso odio lei piii che la morte ; 
Ella amd lui : or han cangiato sorte. 

E questo hanno causato due fontane, 
Che di diverse effetto hanno liquore, 
Ambe in Ardenna, e non sono lontane : 
D' amoroso diaio i' una empie il core ; 
Chi bee de 1' altra, sensa amor rimane, 
E volge tutto in ghiaccio il primo ardoce. 
Rinaldo guatd d' una, e amor lo strug^ : 
Angelica de 1' altra, e Todia e fugge. . 

s. 79—81] CANTO I. 21 

Quel ]iquor di secreto venen misto, 
Che muta in odio Y amorosa cura, 
Fa che la Donna, che Rinaldo ha visto, 
Ne i sereni occhi subito s' oscura ; 
£9 con voce tremante e viso tristo, 
Supplica Sacripante e lo scongiura, 
Che quel guerrier piu appresso non attenda, 
Ma ch' insieme con lei la fuga prenda. 

Son dunque (disse il Baracino) sono 
Dunque in si poco credito con vui ? 
Che mi stimiate inutile, e non buono 
Da potervi difender da costui. ^ 
Le battaglie d' Albracca gi£i vi sono 
Di mente uscite ? e la notte ch' io fui, 
Per la salute vostra, solo e nudo, 
Contra Agricane e tutto il campo, scudo ? 

Non risponde ella, e non sa che si faccia, 
Perche Rinaldo ormai V e troppo appresso, 
Che da lontano al Saracin minaccia, 
Come vide il cavallo e conobbe esso, 
£ riconobbe V angelica faccia, 
Che r amoroso incendio in cor gli ha messo» 
Quel che segui tra questi dui superbi, 
Vo* che per Y altro Canto si riserbi. 

22 ORLANDO PURIOSO. [s. 1-3 


Ingiustissimo Amor, perch^ si raro 
Corrispondenti fai nostri disiri ? 
Onde, perfido* avTien che t* d si caro 
II discorde voler ch' in dui cor miri ? 
Ir noQ mi lasci al facil guado e chiaro, 
E nel piu cieca e mi^gior fondo tiri : 
Da chi disia il mio amor tu mi richiami, 
£ chi m* ba in odio voi oh' adori et ami. 

Fai cb' a Rinaldo Angelica par bella, 
Quando esso a lei brutto e spiacevol pare : 
Quando le parca bello e V ama^a ella, 
Egli odid lei quanto $i pud piu odiare. 
Or a s' affligge indarno e si flagella : 
Cosi renduto ben gli e pare a pare* 
EllaT ha in odio; e 1* odio e di tal sorte, 
Che, piu tosto che lui, vorria. la morte. 

Rinaldo al Saracin, con molto orgoglio, 
Grido : Scendi, ladron, del mio cavallo : 
Che mi sia tolto il mio, patir non soglio ; 
Ma ben fo^ a chi lo vuol, caro costallo : 
E lev^ questa donna anco ti voglio, 
Che sarebbe a lasciartela gran fallo : 
Si perfetto destrier, donna si degna 
A un ladron non mi par che si convegna. 

s. 4—7] CANTO 11. «3 

Tu te ne menti che ladrone io sia 
(Rispose il Saracin non meno altiero) : 
Cbi dicesse a te, ladro, lo diria 
(Quanto io n' odo per fama) piu con vero. 
La pmova or si vedra, chi di noi sia 
Piu degno de la donna e del destriero ; 
Bench^, quanto a lei, teco io mi convegna, 
Che non e cosa al mondo altra si degna. 

Come soglion talor dui can mordent], 
O per invidia o per altro odio mossi, 
Awicinarsi digrignando i denti, 
Con occhi bieci e piu che bracia rossi : 
Indi 2L morsi venir, di rabbia ardenti, 
Con aspri ringhi e rabufiad dossi : 
Cos! alle spade, e da i gridi e da T onte, 
Venne il Circasso e quel di Chiaramonte. 

A piedi k V un, 1' altro a cavallo : or quale 
Credete ch' abbia il Saracin vantaggio ? 
N^ Ye n' ha pero alcun ; che cosi vale 
Forse anoor men ch' uno inesperto pa^io : 
Che 1 destrier, per instinto naturale, 
Non Yolea far al suo Signor oltraggio ; 
Ne con man ne con spron potea il Circasso 
Farlo a voluntiL sua mover mai passo. 

Quando crede cacciarlo, egli s' arresta ; 
E, se tener lo vuole, o corre o trotta ; 
Poi sotto il petto si caccia la testa, 
Oiuoca di schiene e mena calci in frotta, 
Vedendo il Saracin, ch' a domar questa 
Bestia superba era mal tempo allotta, 
Ferma le man sul primo arcione e s' alza, 
E dal sinistro fianco in piede sbalza. 

24 ORLANDO FURIOSO. [s. 8-11 

Sciolto che fu il Pagan con leggier salto 
Da r ostinata furia di Baiardo, 
Si vide cominciar ben degno assalto 
D' un par di cavallier tanto gagliardo. 
Suona r un brando e V altro, or basso, or alto ; 
II martel di Volcano era piu tardo 
Ne la spelonca Affumicata, dove 
Battea all' incude i folgori di Giove. 

Fannoy or con lunghi, ora con finti e scarsi 
Colpi, veder, che mastri son del giuoco : 
Or li vedi ire altieri, or rannicchiarsi ; 
Ora coprirsi, ora mostrarsi un poco ; 
Ora crescere inanzi, ora ritrarsi ; 
Ribatter colpi, e spesso lor dar loco ; 
Girarsi intomo ; e, donde 1* uno cede, 
L' altro aver posto immantinente il piede> 

Ecco Rinaldo con la spada adosso 
A Sacripante tutto s' abandona ; 
£ quel porge lo scudo, cb' era d* osso, 
Con la piastra d' acciar temprata e buona. 
Taglial Fusberta, ancor che molto grosso ; 
Ne geme la foresta e ne risuona» 
L* osso e r acciar ne va che par di giaccio> 
£ lassa al Saracin stordito il braccio. 

Come Tide la timida donzella 
Dal fiero colpo uscir tanta ruina, 
Per gran timor cangio la faccia bella, 
Qua! il reo ch' al supplicio s' avvicina ; 
Ne le par che vi sia da tardar, s' ella 
Non vuol di quel Rinaldo esser rapina, 
Di quel Rinaldo ck' ella tanto odiava, 
Quanto esso lei miseramente amava. 

s. 12—153 CANTO II. 25 

Volta il cavallo, e ne la selva folta 
Lo caccia per un aspro e stretto calle : 
£ spesso il viso smorto adietro volta ; 
Chd le par che Rinaldo abbia alle spalle. 
Fuggendo non avea fatto via molta, 
Che scontro un Eremita in una valle, 
Ch* avea lunga la barba a mezo il petto, 
DevOto e venerabile d* aspetto. 

Dagli anni e dal digiuno atteniiato, 
Sopra un lento asinel se ne veniva ; 
C parea, piii ch* alcun fosse mai stato, 
Di conscienza scrupulosa e schiva. 
Come egli vide il viso delicato 
De la donzella, che sopra gli arriva, 

Debil quantunque e mal gagliarda fosse, 

Tutta, per carita, se gli commosse. 
La Donna al Fraticel chiede la via, 

Che la conduca ad un porto di mare, 

Perche levar di Francia si vorria 

Per non udir Rinaldo nominare. 

II Frate, che sapea negromanzia, 

Non cessa la Donzella confortare, 

Che presto la trarra d' ogni periglio ; 

£t ad una sua tasca die di piglio. 

Trassene un libro, e mostrd grande effetto, 

Che legger non fini la prima faccia, 

Ch' uscir £k un spirto in forma di valletto, 

£ gli comanda quanto vuol che 1 faccia. 

Quel s^ ne va, da la scrittura astretto, 

Dove i dui cavallieri a faccia a faccia 

Fran nel bosco, e non stavano al rezo ; 

Fra quali entr5 con grande audacia in mezo. 

S6 ORLANDO FURIOSO. [s. 16-19 

Per cortesia (disse) un di voi mi mostre, 
Quando anco uccida 1* altro, che gli yaglia ; 
Che merto avrete alle fktiche vostre, 
Finita che travoi sia hi battaglia? 
Se '1 conte Orhmdo, senza liti, o giostre, 
E senza pur aver rotta una maglia. 
Verso Parigi mena la Donzelhi 
Che v' ha condotd a questa pugna fella* 

Vicino un miglio ho ritrovato Orlando, 
Che ne va con Angelica a Parigi, 
Di voi ridendo insieme, e mottegiando 
Che senza frutto alcun siate in litigi. 
II meglio forse vi sarebbe, or quando 
Non son piu lungi, a seguir lor vestigi ; 
Ch^, s' in Parigi Orlando la pud avere, 
Non ve la lascia mai piu rivedere. 

Veduto avreste i cavallier turbarsi 
A quell' annunzio ; e mesti e sbigotdti, 
Senza occhi e senza mente nominarsi, 
Che gli ayesse il rival cosi scbernid : 
Ma il buon Rinaldo al suo cavallo trarsi, 
Con sospir, che parean del fuoco usciti, 
E giurar, per isdegno e per ^rore, 
Se giungea Orlando, di cavargli il core. 
£, dove aspetta il suo Baiardo, passa, 
E sopra vi si lancia e via galoppa ; 
Ne al cavallier, ch' a pie nel bosco lassa, 
Pur dice a Dio, non che lo 'nviti in groppa. 
L' animoso cavallo urta e fracassa, 
Punto dal suo signor, cid ch' egli 'ntoppa: 
Non ponno fosse, o fiumi, o sassi, o spine 
Far che dal corso il corridor decline. 

8. 20^23] CANTO U. 27 

Signor, non voglio clie vi paia strano, 
Se Rinaldo or si tosto il destrier piglia, 
Che gia piu giomi ha seguitato in vano, 
N^ gli ha possuto mai toccar la briglia. 
Fece il destrier^ ch' avea inteUetto umano, 
Non per vizio seguirsi tante miglia, 
Ma per guidar, dove la Donna giva, 
II suo Signor, da chi bramar V udiva. 

Quando ella si fuggi dal padiglione, 
La vide et appostoUa il buon destriero 
Che si trovava aver vdto V arcione, 
Perd che n' era sceso il eavalliero 
Per combatter di par t;on tin barone, 
Che men di lui non era in arme fiero ; 
Poi ne seguito V orme di lontano, 
Bramoso porla al suo Signore in mano. 

Bramoso di ritrarlo ove fosse ella. 
Per la gran selva inanzi s^ gli messe : 
Ne lo volea lasciar montare in sella, 
Perche ad altro camin non lo volgesse. 
Per lui trovd Rinaldo la Donzella 
Una e due volte, e mai non gli successe ; 
Ch^ fu da Ferraii prima impedito, 
Poi dal Circasso, come avete udito. 

Ora al demonio, che mostro a Rinaldo 
De la Donzella li &lsi vestigi, 
Credette Baiardo anco, e stette saldo 
£ mansiieto a i soliti servigi. 
Rinaldo il caccia, d' ira e d' amor caldo, 
A tutta briglia, e sempre in ver Parigi ; 
£ vola tanto col disio, che lento, 
Non ch' un destrier,' ma gli parrebbe il vento. 

28 ORLANDO FURIOSO. [s. 24-^27 

La notte a pena di seguir rimane 
Per af&ontarsi col Signor d' Anglante : 
Tanto ha creduto alle parole vane 
Del messaggier del cauto Negromante. 
Non cessa cavalcar sera e dimane> 
Che si vede apparir la Terra avante, 
Dove Re Carlo» rotto e mal condutto. 
Con le reliquie sue s' era ridutto : 

£ perchd dal Re d* Africa battaglia 
Et assedio v' aspetta, usa gran cura 
A raccor buona gente e vettovaglia. 
Far cayamend e riparar le mura. 
Cid ch' a difesa spera che gli vaglia^ 
Senza gran diferir, tutto procura : 
Pensa mandare in Inghilterra, e trarne 
Gente onde possa un novo campo fame ; 

Che vuole uscir di nuovo alia campagna^ 
E ritentar la sorte de la guerra. 
Spaccia Rinaldo subito in Bretagna, 
(Bretagna che fu poi detta Inghilterra.) 
Ben de V andata il Paladin si lagna : 
Non ch' abb;a cosi in odio quella terra; 
Ma perche Carlo il manda allora allora, 
Nd pur lo lascia un giomo far dimora. 

Rinaldo mai di cid non fece meno 
Volentier cosa ; poi che fu distolto 
Di gir cercando il bel viso sereno, 
Che gli avea il cor di mezo il petto tolto i 
Ma, per ubidir Carlo, nondimeno 
A quella via si fu subito volto, 
Et a Calesse in poche ore trovossi ; 
E, giunto, il di medesimo imbarcossi* 

s. 28 — 31] CANTO II. 29 

Contra la volunta d' ogni nocdiiero, 
Pel gran desir che di tomare avea, 
Elntro nel mar, ch' era turbato e fiero, 
C gran procella minacciar parea. 
n vento si sdegno, che da V altiero 
Sprezzar si vide ; e con tenipesta rea 
SoUevo il mar intomo, e cotf tal rabbia, 
Che gli mando a bagnar sino alia gabbia. 

Calano tosto i marinari accorti 
lie maggior yele, e pensano dar volta 
£ ritornar ne li medesmi porti, 
Donde in mal puntp avean la nave sciolta. 
Non convien (dice il vento) ch' io comporti 
Tanta licenzia che v' avete tolta ; 
C soffia e grida, e naufragio minaccia, 
S' altrove van, che dove egli li caccia. 

Or a poppa, or all'orza hann' il crudele 
Che mai non cessa e vien piu ognor crescendo ; 
Essi di qua di la con umil vele 
Vansi aggirando, e Y alto mar scorrendo. 
Ma perch^ varie fila a varie tele 
Uopo mi son, che tutte ordire intendo, 
Lascio Rinaldo e Y agitata prua, 
£ tomo a dir di Bradamante sua. 

Io parlo di quella inclita Donzella, 
Per cui Re Sacripante in terra giacque, 
Che di questo Signor degna sorella, 
Del Duca Amone e di Beatrice nacque. 
La gran possanza e il molto ardir di quella 
Non meno a Carlo e tutta Francia piacque, 
(Che piu d' un paragon ne vide saldo) 
Che '1 lodato valor del buon Rinaldo, 

so ORLANDO rURIOSO. [s. 32-^5 

La donna amata lu da un eavalliero, 
Che d* Africa passft ool Re Agramante, 
Che partori del seme di Rtiggiero 
La disperata figlia d' Agolanle : 
E costei, che nd d* orso ne di fiero 
Leone usci, non sdegnd tal amante; 
Ben che concesso, faor che vedern una 
Volta e parlarai, non ha lor fortuna. 

Quindi cercando Bradamante gia 
L' amante suo, ch' avea nome dal padre, 
Cos! sicura senza compagnia. 
Come avease in ana guardia mille sqnadre : 
£, fatto ch' ebhe il Re di Circassia 
Battere il volto de 1' andqua madre, 
Trayerso un bosco, e dopo il bosco un monte ; 
Tanto che ginnse ad una bella fonte. 

La fonte discorrea per mezo un prato, 
D* arbori antiqui e di beli' ombre adomo, 
Ch' i viandanti col mormoirlo grato 
A her in vita e a far seco soggiomo: 
Un culto monticel dal manco lato 
Le difende il calor del mezo giorno. 
Quivi, come i begli occhi prima torse, 
D' un cavallier la giovane a' acccMrse. 

D' un cavallier, ch' all' ombra d' un boschetto, 
Nel margin verde e bianco e rosao e giallo 
Sedea pensoso, tacito e soletto 
Sopra quel chiaro e liquido cristallo. 
Lo scudo non lontan pende e 1' elmetto 
Dal faggio, ove legato era il cavallo : 
Et avea gli occhi moUi e 1 viso basso, 
E si mostrava ad dolor ato e lasso. 

s. 36— 393 CANTO II. 31 

Questo disir, ch' a tutti sta nel core, 
De' fatti altmi sempre cercar novella, 
Fece a quel cavaUier del suo dolore 
La cagion domandar da la donzella. 
Egli r aperse e tutta mostrd fuore, 
Dal cortese parlar mosso di quelia, 
£ dal sembiante altier, ch' al primo sguardo 
Gli sembro di guerrier molto gagliardo. 

G comincio : Signor, io conducea 
Pedoni e cavallieri, e venia in campo 
La dove Carlo Marsilio attendea. 
Perch' al scender del monte avesse inciampo ; 
£ una giovane bella meco avea, 
Del cui fervido amor nel petto avvampo : 
£ ritrovai presso a Rodonna armato 
Un, che frenava un gran destriero alato. 
Tosto che '1 ladro, o sia mortale, o sia 
Una de 1' infemaU anime orrende, 
Vede la bella e cara 4onna mia ; 
Come falcon, che per ferir discende, 
Cala e poggia in uno atimo, e tra via 
Getta le mani, e lei smarrita prende. 
Ancor non m' era accorto de 1' assalto, 
Che de la donna io senti* il grido in alto. 

C081 il. rapace nibio f urar suole 
II misero pulcin presso alia chioccia, 
Che di sua inadvertenza poi si duole, 
£ in van gli grida e in van dietro gli croccia. 
Io non posso seguir un uom che vole, 
Chiuso tra monti, a pi^ d* Un* erta roccia : 
Stanco ho il destrier, che muta a pena i passi, 
Ne r aspre vie de' fadcosi sassi. 

32 ORLANDO FURIOSO. [s. 40—43 

Ma, come quel cKe men curato avrei 
Vederrai trar di mezo il petto il core, 
Lasciai lor via seguir quegli altri miei 
Senza mia guida e senza alcun rettore : 
Per li scoscesi poggi e manco rei 
Presi la via che mi mostrava Amore, 
E dove mi parea che quel rapace 
Portassi il mio conforto e la mia pace. 

Sei giorni men' andai, matina e sera, 
Per baize e per pendici orride e strane, 
Dove non via, dove sender non era. 
Dove n^ segno di vestigie umane : 
Poi giunse in una valle inculta e fiera, 
Di ripe cinta e spaventose tane, 
Che nel mezo s' un sasso avea un castello 
Forte e ben posto, a maraviglia bello. 

Da lungi par che come fiamma lustri, 
Nd sia di terra cotta, ne di marmi. 
Come piu^m* avvicino ai muri illustri, 
L' opra piu bella e piu mirabil parmi. 
£ seppi poi, come i demoni industri, 
Da suffumigi tratti e sacri carmi, 
Tutto d' acciaio avean cinto il bel loco, 
Temprato all' onda et alio Stigio foco. 

Di si forbito acciar luce ogni torre, 
Che non vi puo ne ruggine ne macchia ; 
Tutto il paese giorno e notte scorre, 
£ poi la dentro il rio ladron s' immacchia. 
Cosa non ha ripar che voglia torre : 
Sol dietro invan se li bestemia e gracchia. 
Quivi la donna, anzi il mio cor mi tiene, 
Che di mai ricovrar lascio ogni 8pene« 

». 44 »T] CANTO n. 

Ah lasso I cbe po«s* k> pin ebe nanre 
La rocca lungi, ore il mio faen m' i duBM ? 
Come la volpe, cbe 1 figUo gridan 
Nel nido odA de 1' aquiU di gioM, 
S' aggira iDtomo, e aoa sa cbe si &re, 
Poi che r ali Don ha da gir la snao. 
Erto k quel uski si, tale e fl caatdlo, 
Che non vi pno salir chi aoa e aag^o. 
Mentte io tardava qnivi, eeeo veoire 
Duo cavallier, ch' avean per gnida on Vaao, 
Che la speransa aggiunsero al desire ; 
Ma beh fu la q»eranza e 3 desir vaoo. 
Ambi erano guerriei di sMcmo ardire ; 
Era Gradasso 1' un. Re Sericano ; 
Era r altro Bnggier, giovene fbrle, 
Pregiato assai ne 1' Afiicana corte, 

Vengon (mi diase 3 \ano) per &i pmora 
Di lor virtu col sir di qnd casteDo, 
Cbe per via strana, inusitata e noova 
Cavalca armato il qnadrupede angeDo. 
Deb, Signor (diss! io lor), pieia vJ muova 
Del duro caso mio spietato e kOo ! 
Quaodo (come bo ^leranza) voi vinctate, 
Vi pr^o la mia donna mi rendiate. 

E ccHne mi fu t4rita, lor narrai. 
Con lacrime afienaando 3 dolor mio ; 
Quel (lor merci) mi proferiro assai, 
£ giA calaro 3 poggio alpestre e rio. 
Di lontan la battagUa io riguardai, 
Pr^aodo per la lor vittoria Dia. 
Era sotto il caslel laato di piano, 
QuBOto in due vtdte si pud trar con mano. 


54 ORLANDO PURIOSO. [s. 48-51 

Poi che Air giunti a pid de V alta rocca^ 
L' lino e r altro Yoka coml»atter prima : 
Pur a Gradasso, o fosse sorte, tocca, 
O pur che non ne fe' Ruggier piii stinia. 
Quel Serican si pone il como a booca: 
Rimbomba il 8a«k>, e la fortesaa in cima* 
Ecco apparire il cavalliero annato 
Fuor de la porta, e su 1 oavallo alato* 

Comincid a poco a poco indi a levarse. 
Come snol fiur la per^rina grue, 
Che corre prima, e poi vediamo alaane 
Alia terra yicina un bracdo o due; 
£, quando tutte sono all' aria spane, 
Velocissime mostra Y ale sue* 
S! ad alto il Negromante batte V ale^ 
Ch' a tanta alteaza a pena aquila sale. 

Quando gli panre poi, Yoke il destriero, 
Che chiuse i vanni e venne a terra a piombo. 
Come casca dal ciel falcon maniero^ 
Che levar veggia 1' anitra o il Colombo. 
Con la lancia arrestata il cavalliero 
L' aria fendendo vien d' orribil rombo ; 
Gradasso a pena del calar s' avYede, 
Che se lo sente addosso e che lo fiede. 

Sopra Gradasso il Mago V asta roppe ; 
Feri Gradasso il vento e 1' aria vana : 
Per questo il volator non interroppe 
n batter 1' ak ; e quindi s' allontana. 
II grave scontro fk chinar le groppe 
Sul verde prato alia gagliarda al&na: 
Gradasso avea una al&na la piii beUa 
E la miglior che mai portaase aella. 

s. 53-^55] CANTO IL S5 

Sin alle steUe il vcdator trascone ; 
Indi guroBSK e tonid in fretta al basgo, 
£ percosse Ruggi^r, che non s' accorae, 
Ruggier, che tutto iotento em a Gradasso. 
Ruggier del grave oolpo si diatorse, 
£ '1 suo destrier piil rinculd d' on passo; 
£, quando si voltp per lui ferire. 
Da se lontano il vide al ciel salire. 

Or su Gradasso, or 3u Ruggier peroote 
Ne la fronte, nel pettp e bo la schiena; 
£ le botte dl quei laseia ogQor vdte, 
Perchd k M prestOi die si vede a pena. 
Girando va eon spaalose rote ; 
£, quando all' uno acceiuia» all' altro mena: 
AH' uno e all' altro si gli occhi abbarbaglia, 
Che non ponno veder donde gli assaglia. 

Fra duo guerrieri in terra et uiio in delo 
La battaglia duro tin a quella ora 
Che, spiegando pel mondo oscuro velo, 
Tutte le belle cose diseolora. 
Fu quel ch' io dico, e non v* aggiungo un pelo; 
lo 1 vidi, il so ; nd m' assicuro ancpra 
Di dirlo altrui ; ch^ questa niaraviglia 
Al falso pio eh' al ver si rassimigUa. 

D' un bel drappo di seta avea coperto 
Lo scudo in hraccio fl cavallier celestei 
Come avesse, non so, tanto soflferto 
Di tenerlo nasoosto in quella veste ; 
Ch' inmantinente che lo mostra apertOy 
Forza h, ch' il niira» abbarbagliato reste, 
E cada come corpo morto cade, 
E venga al Negromante in potestade* 


Splende 1o icudo a guisa di piropo, 
E luce altra non i tanto lucente ; 
Cadere in terra alio Bfdendor fti d' uopo 
Cod gli occhi abbadnati, e senza mente. 
Perdei da lungi ancb' io li senai, e, dopo 
Gnu apazio, mi riebbi finalmente ; 
N6 piu i gnerrier nS piu vidi quel Nano, 
Ma vfito it campo, e scuro il monte e il piano. 

Fenssi, per queato, cbe 1* incantatare 
Avesse amendui cdlti a un tiatto insieioe, 
E tolto per virtu de Io splendore 
La libertade a loro, e a me la apeme ; 
Coti a quel loco, cbe diiudea il mio core, 
Dirai, partendo, le parole estretne. 
Or giudicate s' altra pena ria, 
Cbe causi Amor, puo pareggiar la mia. 

Ritomo il cavallier nel primo duolo, 
Fatta cbe n' ebbe la cagiou palese. 
Queato era il conte Pinabel, figliuolo 
D* Anselmo d' Altaripa, Magansese ; 
Cbet tra sua geote scelerata, solo 
I.eale esser non volse ni corteae, 
Ma ne li visii abominandi e brutti 
Non pur gli altri adtiguo, ma paaad tutti. 

La bella Donna, con diverso aapetto, 
Stette ascoltando il Maganzese cbeta ; 
Chh, come prima di Rubier fu detto, 
Nel viso si mostrd piii cbe mai lieta: 
Ma quando sent! poi, ch* era in diatretto, 
Turbossi tutta d' amorosa pieta ; 
N6 per una o due volte cont«itone 
Che ritomato a replicar le fosse. 

s. 60 — 63] CANTO II. 37 

E, poi ch* al fin le parve esserne chiara, 

Gli disse : Cavallier, datti riposo ; 

Che ben puo la mia giunta esserti cara, 

Parerd questo giorno avventuroso. 

Andiam pur tosto a queUa stanza avara, 

Che SI ricco tesor ci tiene aacoso ; 

N^ spesa sara in van questa fatica, 

Se Fortuna non m* h troppo nemica. 
Rispose il cavallier : Tu vol ch' io passi 

Di nuovo i monti, e mostriti la via ? 

A me molto non e perdere i passi, 

Perduta avendo ogni altra cosa mia ; 
Ma tu, per baize e ruinosi sassi, 
Cercbi entrare in pregione : e cosi sia. 
Non bai di cbe dolerti di me poi 
Cb* io tel predico, e tu pur gir vi voi. 

Cos! dice egli ; e toma al suo destriero, 
£ di quella animosa si fa guida, 
Che si mette a perigho per Ruggiero, 
Che la pigli quel Mago o che la ancida. 
In questo, ecco alle spalle il messaggiero, 
Ch' aspetta ! aspetta! a tuttavoce grida; 
n messaggier da chi il Circasso intese, 
Cbe costei fu ch' all' erba Io distese. 

A Bradamante il messaggier novella 
Di Mompolier e di Narbona porta, 
Ch' alzato li stendardi di Castella 
Avean, con tutto il lito d* Acquamorta ; 
E cbe Marsilia, non v' essendo quella 
Che la dovea guardar, mal si conforta, 
E consiglio e soccorso le domanda 
Per questo messo, e sele raccomanda. 

38 ORLANDO rURIOSO. [i. 6^^1 

QaetU dttide, e intomo a molte iniglia 
Cid die fira Varo e Rodano al mar siede, 
ATea r Iraperator dato alia fig^ia 
Del Duca Amoiiy in di' avea speme e fede ; 
Perd die 1 rao valor con marayi^ia 
Rignardar muA^ qnaikdo arm^giar la Tede* 
Or^ com' io dioo, a dotnandar ahito 
Quel messo da Marailia era vennto. 

Tra al e no la Giovane sm^pesa, 
Di voler ritomar daMta un pooo: 
Qnind Y onore e il debko le pesa, 
Quindi Y inoalsa 1' amoroso Ibco. 
Fermasi al fin di aegnitar Y impresa, 
£ trar Ruggier de Y incaniato loco ; 
£y quando sua virtu non possa tanto» 
Almen restaigli prigiooiera acanto. 

£ fece iscnsa tal, che quel messaggio 
Parve contento rimanere e cbeto. 
Indi giro la briglia al svo vuggio, 
Con Pinabel, die non ne parve lieto ; 
Ch^ seppe esser costei di qael lig^naggio^ 
Che tanto faa m edio in publico e in secveto : 
£ gia 8* awisa le future angosoe^ 
Se lui per M^;anzese ella conoaoe. 

Tra casa di Maganza e di QiianaaoBte 
£ra odio antico e iaimidzia intensa ; 
£ piu volte s' avean rotta la firontCy 
£ sparso di lor sangne oopia immensa: 
£ pero nel suo <;or Y iniquo Conte 
Tradir V incaiQta Giovane si pensa^ 
O, come prima commodo ^ accada» 
Lasciarla sola, e trovar altra strada« 

s. 68 — 71] C^NTO II. 3p 

C tanto gli occupo la &ntasia 
n nativo odio, il dubbio e la paura^ 
Ch' inawedutamente usci di via^ 
C ritroYossi in una selva oscura, 
Che nel mezo avea un monte, che finia 
X«a nuda chna in una pjetra dura ; 
Bl la figb'a del Duca di Dordona 
Gli ^ sempre dietro, e mai npn )' abandona. 

Come si vide il Maganzese al bosco, 
Pensd torsi la Donna da le spalle* 
Disse : Prima che 1 ciel tomi piu fosco, 
Verso uno albergo h meglio farsi il calle : 
Oltra quel monte (s* io lo rioonosco) 

Siede un ricoo castel giu ne la valle. 

Tu qui m' aspetta ; che dal nudo scoglio 

Certificar con gli occhi me ne voglio. 
Cosi dicendo, alia cima supenia 

Del solitario monte il destrier cacda, 

Mirando piur s' alcuna via discema. 

Come lei possa tor da la sua traccia. 

Ecco nel sasso truova una cayema^ 

Che si profonda piu di trenta braccia. 

TagUato a picchi et a scarpelli il sasso 

Scende giu al dritto^ et ha una porta al basso. 
Nel fondo avea una porta ampla e capace, 

Ch' in maggior stanza largo adito dava ; 

E fuor n' usda splendor, come di face 

Ch' ardesse in mezo alia montana cava. 

Mentre quivi il fellon suspeso tace, 

La Donna, che da lungi il seguitava 

(Perchd perdeme 1' orme si temea) 

Alia spelonca gli sopragiungea. 

40 ORLANDO FURIOSO. [s. 72-^75 

Poi cbe 81 vide traditore uscire 
Quel, ch' avea prima disegnato, in vano, 
O da 86 torla o di farla morire, 
Nuovo argumento imaginossi e strano. 
Le si fe* incontra, e 8u la fe' salire 
La dove il monte era forato e vano, 
E le disse, ch' avea visto nel fbndo 
Una donzella di viso giocondo, 

Ch* a' bei sembianti et alia ricca vesta 
Esser parea di non ignobil grado ; 
Ma, quanto piu potea turbata e mesta, 
Mostrava esservi chiusa suo mal grado : 
E, per saper la condizion di questa, 
Ch' avea gia cominciato a entrar nel guado ; 
E cbe era uscito de Y interna grotta 
Un, che dentro a furor Y avea ridotta. 

Bradamante, che come era animosa, 
Cosi mal cauta, a Pinabel di^ fede ; 
E d' aiutar la donna, disiosa, 
Si pensa come por cola giu il piede. 
Ecco d' un olmo alia cima frondosa 
Volgendo gli occhi, un lungo ramo vede; 
E con la spada quel subito tronca, 
E lo declina giu ne la spelonca. 

Dove e tagliato, in man lo raccomanda 
A Pinabello, e poscia a quel s' apprende : 
Prima giu i piedi ne la tana manda, 
E su le braccia tutta si suspende. 
Sorride Pinabello, e le domanda 
Come ella salti ; e le man apre e stende, 
Dicendole : Qui -fosser teco insieme 
Tutti li tuoi, ch' io ne spegnessi il seme. 

s. 76J CANTO III. 41 

Non come volse Pinabello avvenne 
I>e 1' innocente Gioyane la sorte ; 
Perche, giu diroccando, a ferir venne 
Prima nel fondo il ramo saldo e forte ; 
Ben si spezzd ; ma tanto la sostemie, 
Che 1 suo &LYor la libero da morte. 
Giacque stordita la Donzella alquanto, 
Come io vi seguiro ne Y altro Canto. 

CANTO TERZO. [s. 1—2 

Chi mi dara la voce e le parole 
Convenienti a si nobil suggetto ? 
Chi r ale al verso prestera, cbe vole 
Tanto, ch' arrivi all* alto mio concetto ? 
Molto maggior di quel furor che suole, 
Ben or convien che mi riscaldi il petto ; 
Che questa parte al mio Signor si debbe, 
Che canta gli avi, onde V origine ebbe. 

Di cui fra tutti li Signori illustri, 
Dal ciel sortiti a govemar la terra, 
Non vedi, o Febo, che '1 gran mondo lustri 
Piu gloriosa stirpe o in pace, o in guerra ; 
Ne che sua nobiltade abbia piu lustri 
Servata, e servara (s' in me non erra 
Quel profetico lume che m' inspiri) 
Fin che d' intomo al polo il ciel s' aggiri. 



£» TolendoDe a pien dicer gli onoriy 
Kflogna ncm la mia, ma quella oetra 
Con die tu« dopo i Gigantei furori, 
Rendesti grazia al Regnator de Y etra. 
S' instrumenti ayro niai da te migtiori, 
Atti a sculpire in con degna pietra. 
In queste belle imagini disegno 
Porre ogni mia fiittca, agoi mio ingegno. 

Levando in tanto queste prime nidi 
Scaglie n' andro con lo scarpello inetto : 
Forse ch* ancor con piu solerti studi 
Poi ridurro qnesto lavor perfetto. 
Ma ritomiamo a quello, a cui n^ scudi 
Potran, nd usbergbi assicurare il petto ; 
Parlo di Pinabello di Maganza, 
Che d' uccider la Donna ebbe speranza. 

II traditor penso cbe la Donzella 
Fosse ne Y alto precipizio morta; 
£, con pallida faccia, lascio quella 
Trista e per lui contaminata porta^ 
£ tomo presto a rimontar in sella : 
£, come quel ch' avea Y anima torta. 
Per giunger colpa a colpa e £dlo a fallo, 
Di Bradamante ne mend il cavallo. 

Lascian costui, cbe mentre all' altrui vita 
Ordisce inganno, il suo morir procura ; 
£ tomiamo alia Donna, cbe, tradita, 
Quasi ebbe a un tempo e morte e sepoltura. 
Poi ch* ella si levb tutta stordita, 
Ch' avea percosso in su la pietra dura, 
Dentro la porta ando, ch' adito dava 
Ne la seconda assai piu larga cava- 

,. 7 — 10] CANTO III. 4S 

I^a stansa, quadra e spaaiosa, pare 
Una. devoCa e venerabil chieaa, 
Clie su c<^nne alabastrine e rare 
Cob bella architettura era suspesa. 
Surgea nel meso un ben locato altare, 
Cli' avea dinansi una lampada accesa ; 
C quella di splendente e chiaro fbco 
Rendea gran lume all' uno e all* altro loco. 
Di devota uniilta la Donna toGca» 

Come si vide in loco sacro e pio, 

Incomincio col core e caa la bocca, 

Inginoccbiata, a mandar priegbi a Dio. 

Un picciol uscio in tanto stride e crocca, 

Cb' era all' incontro, onde una donna uscio 

Discinta e scalza, e sciolte avea le chiomei 

Cbe la Donzella saluto per nome, 
£ disse : O generosa Bradamante^ 

Non ginnta qui senza'voler divino, 

Di te piu giomi m* ba predetto inante 

II profetioo spirto di Merlino, 

Cbe Tisitar le sue reliquie sante 

Dovevi, per insolito camino : 

£ qui son stata accio cb' lo ti riveli 

Quel, c' ban di te gia statuito i cidi. 
Questa k Y antiqua e memorabil grotta, 

Cb' edified Merlino, il savio Mago 

Che forse ricovdaro odi ta? otta. 

Dove ingannollo la Donna del lago. 

n sepolcro k qui giu, dove corrotta 

Giace la came sua, dove egH vago 

Di sodisfare a lei cbe glil suase. 

Vivo corcosdy e marto ci rkaase. 

44 ORLANDO FURIOSO. [s. 11-14 

Col corpo mono il vivo spirto alberga, 
Sin ch* oda il suon de V angelica tromba, 
Che dal ciel lo bandisca, o che ve Y erga, 
Secondo che aark corvd, o colomba. 
Vive la voce ; e come chiara emerga, 
Udir potrai da la marmorea tomba ; 
Che le pasaate e le future cose, 
A chi gli domand5, sempre riapose. 

Pill giorni son ch' in questo cimiterio 
Venni di remotissimo paese, 
Perch^ circa il mio studio alto misterio 
Mi facesse Merlin meglio palese : 
£, perchd ebbi vederti desiderio, 
Poi ci son stata, oltre il disegno, un mese ; 
Che Merlin, che '1 ver sempre mi predisse, 
Termine al venir tuo questo di fisse. 

Stassi d' Amon la sbigottita figlia 
Tacita e fissa al ragionar di questa ; 
£t ha si pieno il cor di maravigUa, 
Che non sa s' ella dorme, o s' ella e desta : 
£ con rimesse e vergognose ciglia 
(Come quella che tutta era modesta) 
Rispose : Di che merito son io, 
Ch' antiveggian profeti il venir mio ? 

£, lieta de V insolita avventura, 
Dietro alia Maga subito fu mossa, 
Che la condusse a queUa sepoltura 
Che chiudea di Merlin 1' anima e 1' ossa. 
£ra quella area d' una pietra dura, 
Lucida e tersa, e come fiamma rossa ; 
Tal ch' alia stanza, ben che di Sol priva, 
Dava splendore il lume che n' usciva. 

s. 15 — 18] CANTO III. 45 

O che natura sia d' alcuni marmi 
Che muovin Y ombre a guisa di faoelle, 
O forza pur di sufTumigi e carmi 
E segni impressi all' osservate stelle 
(Come piu questo verisimil parmi) ; 
Discopria lo splendor piu cose belle 
1& di scultura e di color, ch' intomo 
II venerabil luogo aveano adomo. 

A pena ha Bradamante da la soglia 
Levato il pi^ ne la secreta cella, 
Che '1 vivo spirto da la morta spoglia 
Con chiarissima voce le faveUa : 
Favorisca Fortuna ogni tua voglia, 
O casta e nobilissima Donzella, 
Del cui ventre uscira il seme fecondo, 
Che onorar deve Italia e tutto il mondo. 

la antiquo sangue che venne da Troia, 
Per li duo miglior rivi in te commisto, 
Produrr^ V omamento, il fior, la gioia 
D' ogni lignaggio ch' abbi il Sol mai visto 
Tra r Indo e *1 Tago e '1 Nilo e la Danoia, 
Tra quanto ^ 'n mezo Antartico e Calisto. 
Ne la progenie tua con sommi onori 
Saran Marchesi, Duci e Imperatori. 

I Capitani e i Cavallier robusti 
Quindi usciran, che col ferro e col senno 
Ricuperar tutti gli onor vetusti 
De r arme invitte alia sua Italia denno. 
Quindi terran lo scettro i Signor giusti, 
Che, come il savio Augusto e Numa fenno, 
Sotto il benigno e buon governo loro 
Ritorneran la prima eta de V oro. 

46 ORLANDO VURI080. [s. 1»— 2S 

Accid danque il voter dd ciel si metta 
In efietto per te, che di Ru^ero 
T* ha per moglier fin da principio etetta. 
Segue animosamente il tuo sendero : 
Chd cosa non sara cbe a' intrometta. 
Da poterd tur1>ar qnesto penaieroy 
Si che non mandi al primo assalto in terra 
Quel rio ladroD, eh' ogni too hen ti serra. 

Tacque Merlino, avendo cost detto, 
Elt agio all' opre de la Maga diede, 
Ch' a Bradamante dimostrar Y aspetto 
Si preparava di ciascun suo erede* 
Avea de spird un gpran numero etetto, 
Non 8o 86 da Y inferno o da qual sede, 
E tutd quelli in un luogo raccold 
Sotto abid diversi e varii void. 

Poi la Donzella a se richiama in chiesa, 
La dove prima avea drato un cerchio 
Che la potea capir tutta distesa, 
£t avea un palmo ancora di superchio. 
E, perche da li spird non sia offesa, 
Le fa d' un gran pentacolo coperchio ; 
E le dice, che taccia e sda a mirarla ; 
Poi scioghe il lihro, e coi demoni parla. 

Eccovi fuor de la prima spelonca, 
Che gente intorno al sacro cerchio ingrossa ; 
Ma, come vuole entrar, la via T ^ tronca, 
Come lo cinga intorno muro e fossa. 
In quella stanza, ove la bella conca 
In se chiudea del gran Profeta Y ossa, 
Entravan 1' omhre, poi ch' avean tre volte 
Fatto d' intorno lor debite volte. 

s. 23 — 26] CANTO IH. 47 

Se i Domi e i gesti di ciascim to' dirti' 

(Dicea 1' incantratice a Bradamante) 

Di quesd ch' or per gl* incantati spirtt. 

Prima che nati sien, ci sono ayante^ 

Non so veder quando abbia da espedirti ; 

Chd non basta una notte a oose tante ; 

Si ch* io te ne Yerrd sc^liendo alcuno, 

Secondo il tempo, e che mk oportuno. 
Vedi quel primo, che ti rai^imiglia 

Ne' bei sembianti e nel giocondo aspetto : 

Capo in Italia fia di tua fiuniglia, 
Del seme di Ru^ero m te concetto. 
Veder del sangue di Ponder Yermiglia 
Per mano di costui la terra, aspetto, 

*Et vendicato il tradimento e il torto 
Contra quei che gli avranno il padre morto. 

Per opra di costui sara deserto 
n Re de' Longobardi Desiderio : 
D' Este e di Calaon per questo merto 
11 bel domino avrsi dal sommo Imperio. 
Quel che gli ^ dietro, e il tiio nipote Uberto, 
Onor de 1' arme e del paese Esperio; 
Per costui contra Barbari difiesa 
Piu d' una volta fia la santa Chiesa. 

Vedi qui Alberto, invittq capitano, 
Ch* omera di trofei tand delubri : 
Ugo il figlio k con lui, che di Milano 
Fara Y acquisto, e spieghera i Colubri. 
Azzo h quell' altro, a cui restera in mano 
Dopo il fratello il regno de gY Inisubri. 
Ecco Albertazzo, il cui savio consiglio 
Torrii d' Italia Beringario e il figlio ; 

48 ORLANDO FURIOSO. [8.37—30 

E sara degno, a cui Cesare Otone 
Alda sua figlia in matrimonio aggiunga. 
Vedi un altro Ugo : oh bella successione 
Che dal patrio valor non si dislunga ! 
Costui sara, che per giusta cagione 
A i superhi Roman 1* orgoglio emunga, 
Che 1 terzo Otone e il Pontefice tolga 
De le man loro, e '1 grave assedio sciolga. 

Vedi Folco, che par ch' al suo germano, 
Cid che in Italia avea, tutto abbi dato ; 
E vada a possedere indi lontano 
In mezo agli Alamanni un gran Ducato ; 
E dia alia casa di Sansogna mano, 
Che caduta sara tutta da un lato ; 
E, per la linea de la madre, erede. 
Con la progenie sua la terra in piede. 

Questo ch* or a nui viene, h il secondo Azzo, 
Di cortesia piu che di guerre amico, 
Tra dui figli, Bertoldo et Albertazzo. 
Vinto da Y un sara il secondo Enrico ; 
E del sangue Tedesco orribil guazzo 
Parma vedrsi per tutto il campo aprico : 
De r altro la Contessa gloriosa, 
Saggia e casta Matilde, sara Bposa. 

Virtu il fara di tal connubio degno ; 
Ch' a quella eta non poca laude estimo 
Quasi di meza Italia in dote il regno, 
E la nipote aver d* Enrico primo. 
Ecco' di quel Bertoldo il caro pegno, 
Rinaldo tuo, ch' avra V onor opimo 
D' aver la Chiesa de le man riscossa 
De r empio Federico Barbarossa. 

s. 31 — 34] CANTO III. *9 

Ccco un altro Azzo, et e quel che Verona 
Avra in poter col suo bel tenitorio ; 
£ sara detto Marchese d' Ancona 
I>al quarto Otone e dal secondo Onorio. 
Liungo sara, s' io mostro ogni persona 
I>el sangue tuo, ch' avra del Consistorio 
II condone, e s' io narro ogni impresa 
Vinta da lor per la Romana Chiesa. 

Obizo vedi e Foleo, altri Azzi, altri Ughi, 

Ambi gli Enrichi, il figlio al padre a canto; 

I>uo Guelfi, di quai V uno Umbria suggiughi, 

C vesta di Spoleti il Ducal manto. 

Gcco, che 1 sangue e le gran piaghe asciughi 

D' Italia afflitta, e volga in riso il pianto : 

Di costui parlo (e mostrolle Azzo quinto) 

Onde Ezellin fia rotto, preso, esdnto. 
Ezellino, immanissimo tiranno, 

Che fia creduto figlio del Demonio, 

Fara, troncando i sudditi, tal danno, 

£ distruggendo il bel paese Ausonio, 

Che pietosi apo lui stati saranno 

Mario, Silla, Neron, Caio et Antonio. 

E Federico Imperator Secondo 

Fia, per questo Azzo, rotto e messo al fondo« 
Terra costui con piu felice scettro 

La bella terra che siede sul fiume. 

Dove chiamd con lacrimoso plettro 

Febo il figliuol ch' avea mal retto il lume, 

Quando fu pianto il &buloso elettro, 

E Cigno si vest! di bianche piume ; 

E questa di mille oblighi mercede 

Gli donera V Apostolica sede. 


50 ORLANDO PURIOSO. [s. 3B^38 

Dove lascio il fratel Aldrobandino ? 
Che (per dar al Pontefice soocorso 
Contra Oton quarto e il campo Ghibellino 
Che Both presso al Campidoglio corso, 
Et avra preso ogni luogo yicino, 
£ posto a gli Umbri e alii Piceni il morsoy 
N^ potendo prestargli aiuto aenza 
Molto tesor, ne chiedeni a Fioreoza ; 

£, non avendo gioia o miglior pegni^ 
Per sicurta daralle il frate in mano) 
Spieghera i suoi vittoriosi segni, 
£ rompersi V esercito Germano : 
In seggio riporra la Chiesa, e degni 
Dara supplicii ai Conti di Celano ; 
£t al servizio del semmo Pastore 
Finira gli anni suoi nel piu bel iiore>: 

£t Azzo, il suo fratel, lasclera erede 
Del dominio d' Ancona e di Pisauro, 
D' ogni citta che da Troento siede 
Tra il mare e V Ax>enin fin all' Isauro, 
£ di grandezza d' animo e dl fede, 
£ di virtu, miglior che gemme et auro ; 
Che dona e toUe ognV altro ben Fortuna; 
Sol in virtu non ha possanza alcuna. 

Vedi Rinaldo^^in cui non minor raggio 
Splendera di valor, pur che non- sia 
A tanta essaltazioa del bel lignaggio 
Morte o Fortuna invidiosa eria. 
Udirne il duol fin. qui da Napoli aggio, 
Dove del padre allor statico fia. 
Or Obizo ne vien, che giovinetto 
Dopo r avo sara Principe eletto. 

s. 3» — 423 CANTO III. 51 

Al bel domiilio accrescera costui 
Reggio giocondo, e Modona ferbce. 
Tal sara il suo vidor, che Signor lui 
DomanderaBBo i popuH a ami voce. 
Vedi Azzo sesto, im de' figliuoli sui, 
Con£Edoiiier de la Orisdaoa crdce ; 
Avr^ il Ducato d' Aadria coil la figlia 
Del Secondo Re Gai'lo di Siciglia. 

Vedi in un bello et aQuehevol groppo 
De li Principi illustri 1' eeoettenxa, 
Obizo, Aldrobandin, Niecdd Zcfjpipo^ 
Alberto d' amor pieno e di eleiiieiiz& 
lo tacerd, per ncm tendrli troppo, 

Come al bel r^^o aggiuBgeraa Fateziza, 

C con ma^^ior fermevza Adriai che valse 

Da se nomar V indomite a<>4ue saLse ; 
Come la Tte^ra, il eui {Hrodur di rose 

Le di^ piacevol nbrae in-Greehe voci, 

£ la citta ch' in niezo'alle'piscooe 

Paludi, del Po tem^mtabe le foci, 

Dove abitan le gekiti dimse 

Ch' el mar si- turbi e «ieno i yes^ atroci. 

Taccio d' Arge&ta, di Lugo, e di mille 

Altre castellan pepulos^^iUe. 
Ve' Nicoldv-chfe tenero £iineiullo 

II popul crea Signor de la sua t^ra ; 

£ di Tideo £1 il pensier vano e nullo, 

Che contra lui le civil tirme afferra. 

Sara di questo il pueril trai^tuUo 

Sudar nel ferro e travagliarai in guerra ; 

£ da lo stiidio del tempo primiero 

II fior riuseira d' ogni guerriero. 


VkA de' Buoi ribelli uscire a vSto 
Ogni disegno, e lor tornare in danno ; 
Et ogni stratagema arrd si noto, 
Cbe atak duro il poter fargli iaganiio. 
Tardi di questo s' awedra il Terzo Oto, 
E di Reggio e di Parma aspro tiranno ; 
Cbe da costui spogliato a un tempo fia 
E del dominio e de la viu ria. 

Avra II bel Regno poi sempre augumento, 
Senza torcer mai pid dal camin dritto ; 
Ne ad alcuno faril mu nocumento. 
Da cui prima non sia d' ingiuria afflitto : 
Et d per queato il gran Motor contMito 
Che non gli sia alcun termine prescritto ; 
Ma duri prosperando in tneglio sempre, 
Fin cbe si volga il ciel ne le sue tempre. 

Vedi Leonello, e vedi il primo Duce, 
Fama de la sua et^, 1' inclito Borao, 
Che u'ede in pace, e piu trionfo adduce 
Di quanti in altrui terre abbino corsa. 
Chiudera Marte ove non v^gia luce, 
E atringera al Furor le mani al dorso. 
Di queato Signor splendido ogni intento 
Sar&, che '1 popul buo viva contento. 

Ercole or vien, cb' al suo vicin rinfaccia 
Col pid mezzo arso, e con quei debol passi, 
Come a Budrio col petto e con la &ccia 
II campo Tolto in fuga gli fermassi ; 
Non percb^ in premio poi gnerra gli facets, 
N^, per cacciarlo, fin nel Barco passi. 
Questo 6 il Signor, di cui non so esplicamw 
Se fia roaggior la gloria o in pace o in anne. 

s. 47 — SO] CANTO III. 

ferran Pugliesi, Calabri e Lucani 
De* gesti di costni lunga memoria, 
Ijil dove aTT& dal Re de* Catalani 
Di pugna aingular la prima gloria; 
E nome tra gV invitti capitani 
S' acquistera con piu d' una vittoria : 
Avr& pel sua virtu la Signoria, 
Piu di trenta anni a lui debita pria> 

E quanto jhiI areir obligo si poasa 
A principe, sua Terra avr4 a coatui; 
Kon perchg fia de le paludi moasa 
Tra campi fertilissimi da lui ; 
Non perch^ la fara con muro e fossa 
Meglio capace a' cittadini sui, 
E r omara di templi e di palagi, 
Di piazze, di teatri e di mille agi ; 

Non perch^ da gli artigli de l' audace 
AL'gero Leoa terrft difesa ; 
Non peichd, quando la Gallica face 
Per tutto BTTa la bella Italia access. 
Si stara sola col sno stato in pace, 
E dal timore e da i tributi iUesa : 
Non si per queeti et altri benefici 
Saran sue genti ad Ercol debitrici; 

Quanto che daril lor 1' inclita prolei 
II giusto Alfonso, e Ippolito benigoo, 
Che saran quai 1' antiqua fama suole 
Narrar de' figli del Tindareo cigno, 
Ch' altemamente si privan del Sole 
Per trarl' un 1' altro de 1' aer maligno. 
Sar^ ciascuno d' essi pronto e forte 
L' altro salvar con sua perpetua morte. 

54 ORLANDO FtTIUOSO. [3. 51-^4 

II grande amor di questa bella coppia 
Renderil il popul sno via pxh mcuro, 
Che 86, per opra di Vulcan, di do^ia 
Cinta di ferro aVesse intorno 11 mnro. 
Alfonso e quel, che cot 6^er accoppia 
Si la bont^, ch* al secolo futuro 
La gente credersi che sia jdal cielo 
Tornata Astrea dove pud il caldo e iLgielo. 

A grande uopo gH fla V essor {)rudeQte, 
E di valore assimigliarsi al padre ; 
Ch^ si ritroverii eon pooa gente^ 
Da un lato aver le Veneaiane squadr«, 
Colei da V altro, chcpiti giottamente 
Non so se devra dir inatrigna o ma^e ; 
Ma, se pur madre, alui poco pid^pia, 
Che Medea a i figli o <Progne stata sia. 

£ quante volte uscira giornp onotte 
Col suo popul fedel fuor de la Terra, 
Tante sconfitte e memorabll r6t;te 
Dara a* nimici o per acqua'o pertMta. 
Le genti di Rom&gna mal ^ondotfie 
Contra i vicini e lor gia aniid, in gutfrra 
Se n' avvedranno, ihsanguihando il '^{ic^lo 
Che serra il Po, ^anterno e^Zaimiolo. 

Nei medesiiii confini aneo sapralio 
Del gran Pastore il menseitiario I^^pano, 
Che gli avra dopo con poeb iiitervallo 
La Bastia tolta, e morto il Castellai^o, 
Quando V avfa gia preso ; e per tal^fkilo 
Non fia, dal minor fante al capitano, 
Che del racquisto e del presidio ucdUo 
A Roma riportar possa 1* ^vvii$o. 

8. 55—583 CANTO ill. 55 

Costtti sarsy col aenno e con la lancia, 
Ch' avra 1' oD<:Mr» nei eampi di Rooiagnay 
D' aver date all* eaercito di Francia 
La gran vittoria contra lulio c Spagna. 
Nuoteranno i deatrier fin alia pancia 
Nel sangue uinan per tuttaja caimpagna, 
Ch' a sepelire il popul :veira maneo 
TedesGOy Ispano, Gr^eeo, Italo e Psanco. 
Quel ch' in pontificale abiio imprime 
Del purpureo capella«acra chioma, 
£ il liberal, magnahimo, sublime, 
Oran Cardinal de la Chiesa di Roma, 
Ippolito, ch' a prose, a yersi, a rime 
Dara materia eterna in ogni idioma ; 
Lia cui fiorita eta vuol il cieliusto 
Ch'abbia un Maaron, come un altro ebbe Augusto. 

Adornera la sua progenie bella, 
Come oma il Sol la machinadel mondo 
Molto piu de la Luna e d' ogni Stella ; 
' Ch' ogn' altro lume a lui sempre e secondo. 
Costui, con pocfai a piedi e ^meno in sella, 
Veggio uscir mesto, e poi tornar giocondo; 
Che quindici galee raena captive, 
Oltra mill' altri legni, alle sue rive. 

Vedi poi 1' uno e V altro Sigismondo : 
Vedi d' Alfonso i cinque figh cari, 
Alia cui fama oatar, che di se il mondo 
Non empia, i monti non potran n^ i mari : 
Gener del Re di Francia, Ercol Secondo 
£ r un ; quest' altro (accio tutti gl' impari) 
Ippolito hf che non con minor raggio, 
Che '1 zio, risplendera nel suo lignaggio; 


Francesco, il terzo ; Alfonsi gli altri dui 
Ambi son detti. Or, come io dissi prima, 
S' ho da mostrarti ogni tno ramo, il cai 
Valor la stirpe sua tanto snblima, 
Bisognera che si rischiari e abbui 
Piu volte prima il ciel, ch' io te li esprima : 
E sari tempo ormai, quando ti piaccia, 
Ch' io dia licenzia all' ombre, e ch' io mi taccia. 

Cos) con volunta de la Donzella 
La dotta incantatrice il libro chiuse. 
Tutti gli spirti allora ne la cella 
Spariro in fretta, ove eran V ossa chiuse. 
Qui Bradamante, poi che la faveUa 
Le fu concessa usar, la bocca schiuse, 
£ domandd : Chi son li dua si tristi, 
Che tra Ippolito e Alfonso abbiamo visti ? 

Veniano sospirando, e gli occhi bassi 
Parean tener, d' ogni baldanza privi; 
E gir lontan da loro io vedea i passi 
Dei frati si, che ne pareano schivi. 
Parve ch' a tal domanda si cangiassi 
La Maga in viso, e fe' de gli occhi rivi; 
E grido : Ah sfortunati, a quanta pena 
Lungo instigar d' uomini rei vi mena! 

O bona prole, o degna d' Ercol buono, 
Non vinca il lor fallir vostra bontade : 
Di vostro sangue i miseri pur sono : 
Qui ceda la iustizia alla.pietade. 
Indi soggiunse, con piu basso suono : 
Di cio dirti piu inaiizi non accade. 
Statti col dolcie in bocca, e non ti doglia 
Ch' amareggiar al fin non te la voglia. 

s. 63 64r| CANTO in. 57 

Xosto che spund in ciel la prima luccy 
Piglierai meco la piu dritta yia 
Ch' al lucente castel d' acciai' conduce, 
I>ove Ruggier yive in altrui balia. 
lo tanto ti sard compagna e duce, 
Che tu sia fuor de 1' aspra selva ria: 
T' insegner6, poi che sar^n sul mare, 
Si "ben la via, che non potresti errare. 

Quivi 1' audace Giovane rimase 
Xutta la notte, e gran pezzo ne spese 
A parlar con Merlin, che le snase 
Rendersi tosto al sue Ruggier cortese. 
Lascio dipoi le sotterranee case, 
Che di nuovo splendor V aria s' accese, 
Per un camin gran spazio oscuro e cieco, 
Avendo la spirtal femina seed. 

£ riusciro in un burrone ascoso 
Tra monti inaccessibili alle genti ; 
E tutto 1 di senza pigliar riposo 
Saliron baize, e traversar torrenti. 
E perche men V andar fosse noioso, 
Di piacevoli e bei ragionamenti, 
Di quel che fii piu conferir soave, 
L' aspro camin fecean parer men grave : 
D' i quali era per6 la maggior parte, 
Ch' a Bradamante vien la dotta Maga 
Mostrando con che astuzia e con qual arte 
Proceder dee, se di Ruggiero h vaga. 
Se tu fossi (dicea) Pallade o Marte, 
E conducessi gente alia tua paga 
Piu che non ha il Re Carlo e il Re Agramante, 
Non dureresti contra il Negromante; 


28 ORLANDO FURIOSO. [s. 67—70 

Ch^, oltre che d' aeciar murata sia 
La r6cca inespugnabiley-e tant' alta ; 
Oltre che 1 suo destrier «i &ccia via 
Per mezo 1' aria, ove galoppa e salta ; 
Ha lo scudo mortal, che, come pria 
Si scopre, il auo splendor si gli occhi assalta. 
La vista tolle, e tanto occupa i sensi, 
Che come morto rimaner conviensi. 

£ se forse ti pensi che ti vaglia 
Combattendo tener serrati gli ocohi, 
Come potrai saper ne la battaglia, 
Quando ti schivi, o Y avversario>tocehi? 
Ma, per fuggire il liune ch* abbarbaglia, 
£ gli altri incanti di colui far soiocchi, 
Ti mostrierd un rimedio, una via presta ; 
Ne altra in tutto 1 mondo ^, se non quests. 

II Re Agramante d' Africa uno annello, 
Che fu rubato in India a una Regina, 
Ha dato a un suo Baron detto BruneUo, 
Che poche miglia inanzi ne camina ; 
Di tal virtu, che, chi nel dito ha quello, 
Contra il mal de gl' jncasiti ha medicina. 
Sa di furti e d' inganni Brunei, quanto 
Colui, che tien Ruggier, sappia d' incanto. 

Questo Brunei si pratico e si astuto, 
Come io ti dico, e dal suo Re mandato, 
Acci5 che, col suo ingegno e con V aiuto 
Di questo annello, in tal cose provato, 
Di quella rocca dove k xitenuto, 
Traggia Ruggier, che cosi s' h vantato, 
£t ha cosi promesso al suo Signore, 
A cui Ruggiero e piu d' ognaltro a core. 

s. 71 U:\ CAKTO IIL 59 

'M.SL perch^ jl tuo Ruggiaro a te sol abbia, 
S non al Re Agcamante, ad obligarsi 
ChkJG tratto sia de 1' ipcantata gabbia, 
17' insegnero il rimedio obC'de' usavsi. 
1?ii te n' andsai tse c^ limgo la aabbia 
I>el mar^ cli'<d.09aiiiai pvesso^a dimostrarsi: 
n terzo giomo iii.i]n4dbergo>teGO 
A^rrivera coatui c' ba raimel^Beco. 

La sua statuva, aodd iu-lo^oonosea, 
Non e sei pakni, et ba il «apo jriccrato ; 
Xie cbiome ha oere, et ba la pelle fosca ; 
'Pallido il viso, .oltse il dover basbuto ; 
Gli occhi gonfiad, e guardatura losea ; 
Scbiacciato ilaasa; k ne le oiglia icsuto : 
Jj abito, aedo cb'io lo di^funga intero, 
£ stretto.e eorto^.e sembsa di ^MMrriero. 

Cop.easo lui t' acQadera s<^getto 
Di ragionar di.quelli inoanti strani : 
Mostra d' ayer.(eoaie tu.avra' in eififetto) 
Disio cbe 1 Mago jsia teco alle mani ; 
Ma non monstrar cbe ti sia stato detto 
Di quel auo annel, cbe fa gP inoanti vani. 
Egli t' ofiferira.mostrar la via 
Fin alia rdcca, e favti compagnia. 

Tu gli va dietro : e, come t' avvicini 
A quella rdcca si, cb' ella si scopra, 
Dagli la morte ; n^ pieta t' incbini 
Cbe tu non metta il mio consiglio in opra. 
Nd far ch' egli il pensier tuo s* indovini, 
E cb' abbia tempo, cbe V annel lo copra; 
' Percb^ ti spariria da gli occbi, tosto 
Ch' in bocca il sacro annel s' avesse posto. 

60 ORLANDO FURIOSO. [s. 75—77 

Co6i parlando, giunsero sul mare, 
Dove presso a Bordea mette Garonna. 
Quivi, non senza alquantolagrimarey 
Si diparti Tuna da 1' altra donna. 
La figliuola d'Amon, che, per slegare 
Di prigione il suo amante, non assonha, 
Camino tanto, che venne una sera 
Ad uno albergo, ove Brunei prim' era. 

Conosce eUa Brunei, come lo vede, 
Di cui la forma avea sculpita in mente. 
Onde ne viene, ove ne va gli chiede : 
.Quel le risponde, e d' ogai cosa mente. 
La Donna, gia prewista, non gli cede 
In dir menzogne, e simula ugualmente 
E patria e stirpe e setta e nbme e sesso ; 
£ gli volta alle man pur gli occhi spesso. 

Gli va gli occhi alle man spesso voltando, 
In dubbio sempre.esser da lui rubata ; 
N^ lo lascia venir troppo accostando, 
Di sua condizion bene informata. 
Stavano insieme in questa guisa, quando 
L' orecchia da un rumor lor fu intruonata. 
Poi vi dir5, Signor, che ne fu causa, 
Ch' avrd fatto al cantar debita pausa. 




QuAKTUNQUE il simular sia le piu Tolte 
Ripreso, e dia di mala mente indici, 
Si truova pur in molte cose e molte 
Aver fatti evidenti benefici, 
C danni e biasmi e morti aver gia tolte : 
Chh non conyersiam sempre con gli amici 
In questa assai piu oscura che serena 
Vita mortal, tutta d' invidia piena. 

Se dopo lunga prova, a gran fatica 
Trovar si pud chi ti sia amico vero, 
Et a chi senza alcun sospetto dica 
E discoperto mostri il tuo pensiero ; 
Che de' far di Ruggier la bella arnica 
Con quel Brunei non puro e non sincero, 
Ma tutto simulato e tutto finto, 
Come la Maga le Y avea dipinto ? 

Simula anch' ella ; e cosi far conviene 
Con esso lui di finzioni padre ; 
E, come io dissi, spesso ella gli tiene 
Gli occhi alle man, ch' eran rapaci e ladre. 
Ecco all' orecchie un gran rumor lor viene : 
Disse la Donna : O gloriosa Madre, 
Re del ciel, che cosa sara questa ? 
E dove era il rumor si trovo presta. 

62 ORLAKDO FURIOSO. [s. 4—7 

E vede V oste e tutta la fiimiglia, 
E chi a finestre e chi fbor ne la via, 
Tener levad al del gli ocdii e le ciglia, 
Come r EcdiBse o la Ck>meta sia. 
Vede la Dcmiia un' alta maraviglia 
Che di l^gier creduta non saria ; 
Vede passar un gran destriero alato, 
Che porta in aria un cavaliero armato. 

Grandi eran T ale e di color diverso, 
E vi sedea nel meiio un cavalliero, 
Di ferro armato luminoao e terso, 
E ver Ponente avea dritto il BcOlaero, 
Calossi, e fu tra le- monti^e immerso ; 
E, come dioea V oste (e dicea il vero), 
Quell' era un N^romsmte, e &eea spesso 
Quel varco, or piu da liingi, or pu da presso. 

Volando, tal'or s' alza ne le steUe^ 
E poi quasi tal'or la terra rade ; 
E ne porta con lui tutte le belle 
Donne che trova per quelle contrade*: 
Talmente che le misere donzdk) 
Ch' abbino o aver si credanobeltade 
(Come affato costui tutte' le invol^), 
Non escon &or, si che le veggia il Sole. 

Egli sul Pireneo tiene uncastello 
(Narrava 1* oste) fatto per. incanto, 
Tutto d' acciaio) e si lucentee belief^ 
Ch' altro al mondo non h inirabil tankto. 
Gia molti cavaUier sono iti a^qtaeUo, 
E nessun del ritorlio si da vailto : 
Si ch' io pensoy Signore^ e temo 'forte, 
O che sian presi, o sian condotti a morte. 

s. S 1 1] CANTO IV. 68 

Tjsl Donna il tutto ascolta^ e le ne giora, 
Credendo far, come fara per certo» 
Con 1' annello mirabile, tal pTOva« 
Che ne fia il Mago e il suo castel deserto ; 
ISt dice a V oste : Or un de' tuoi mi trova» 
Che piu di me sia del yiaggio esperta ; 
Ch' io non posso durar : tanto ho il cor vago 
Di far battaglia contra a questo Mago. 

Non ti manchersl g^ida (le rispose 
Brunello allora), e ne verro teco io. 
Meco ho la strada in scritto, et altre cose 
Che ti faran piaoer il venir mio : 
Volse dir de 1' aanel, ma non Y espose, 
N^ chiari piu, per non pagame il fio. 
Grato mi fia (disse ella) il venir tuo : 
Volendo dir ch' indi V annel fia sno. 

Quel ch' era utile a dir, disse ; e quel taoque, 
Che nuocer le potea col Saracino. 
Avea r oste un destrier ch' a costei piacque, 
Ch' era buon da battaglia e da camino : 
ComperoUo, e partissi come nacque 
Del bel giorno seguente il matutino. 
Prese la via p^r una stretta valle, 
Con Brunello ora inanzi ora alle spalle* 

Di monte in monte e d' uno in altro bosco 
Giunseno ove 1' altezza di Pirene 
. Puo dimostrar (se non e 1' aer fosco) 
E Francia e Spagna, e due diverse arene ; 
Come Apennin scopre il mar Schiavo e il Tosco 
Dal giogo onde a Camaldoli si viene. 
Quindi per aspro e faticoso calle 
Si discendea ne la profonda valle* 

64 ORLANDO FURIOSO. [s. 12—15 

Vi Borge in mezo un sasso, che la ciina 
D' on bel muro d' acciar tutta si fascia ; 
E quella tanto in verso il ciel sublima, 
Che, quanto ha intomo, inferior si lascia. 
Non faccia, chi non vola, andarvi stima ; 
Ch^ spesa indamo vi saria ogni ambascia. 
Brunei disse : Ecco dove prigionieri 
n Mago tien le donne e i cavallieri. 

Da quattro canti era tagliato, e tale 
Che parea dritto a fil de la sinopia. 
Da nessun lato n^ sender n^ scale 
V eran, che di salir ^cesser copia : 
E ben appar che d' animal ch' abbia ale, 
Sia quella stanza nido e tana propia. 
Quivi la donna esser conosce Y ora 
Di tor r annello, e fax che Brunei mora. 

Ma le par atto vile a insanguinarsi 
D* un uom senza arme e di si ignobil sorte; 
Che ben potra posseditrice farsi 
Del ricco annello, e lui non porre a morte. 
Brunei non avea mente a riguardarsi ; 
Si ch' ella il prese, e lo legd ben forte 
Ad uno abete, ch' alta avea la cima ; 
Ma di dito 1' annel gli trasse prima. 

Nd per lacrime, gemiti o lamehti 
Che facesse Brunei, lo volse sciorre. 
Smonto de la montagna a passi lenti, 
Tanto che fu nel pian sotto la torre. 
E perche alia battaglia s' appresenti 
II Negromante, al como suo ricorre ; 
E, dopo il suon, con minacciose grida 
Lo chiama al campo, et alia pugna 1 sfida. 

s. 16—19] CAHTO IV. 65 

Non stette molto a uscir fuor de la porta 
L' Incantator, ch' udi '1 suono e la voce. 
L' alato corridor per V aria il porta 
Contra costei, che sembra uomo feroce. 
La Donna da principio si confbrta ; 
Che vede che colui poco le nuoce : 
Non porta lancia» ne spada, ne mazza, 
Ch' a forar V abbia o romper la corazza. 

Da la sinistra sol lo scudo avea, 
Tutto coperto di seta vennigha ; 
Ne la man destra un libro, onde facea 
Nascer, leggendo, 1* alta maraviglia ; 
Che la lancia talor correr parea, 
£ fatto avea a piu d' un batter le ciglia : 
Tal' or parea ferir con mazza o stocco, 

C lontano era, e non avea alcun tocco. 
Non k finto il destrier, ma naturale, 

Ch' una giumenta genero d' un Grifo : 

Simile al padre avea la piuma e V ale, 

Li piedi anteriori, il capo e il grifo ; 

In tutte r altre membra parea quale 

£ra la madre, e chiamasi Ippogrifo, 

Che ne i monti Rifei vengon, ma rari, 

Molto di la dagli aghiacciati mari. 
Quivi per forza lo tird d' incanto ; 

£, poi che Y ebbe, ad altro non attese, 

£ con studio e fatica opero tanto, 

Ch' a sella e briglia il cavalco in un mese ; 

Cosi ch' in terra e in aria e in ogni canto 

Lo &cea volteggiar senza contese. 

Non finzion d' incanto, come il resto. 

Ma vero e natural si vedea questo. 


66 ORLANDO FUEIOSO. [s. 20^23 

Del Mago ogn* altra cosa era figmento 
Che comparir facea pel rosso il giallo : 
Ma con la Donna non fu di momento ; 
Chd, per r annel, non pud vedere in fallo. 
Piu colpi tuttavia disserra al vento, 
£ quinci e quindi spinge il suo cavallo ; 
£ si dibatte e si travaglia tutta. 
Come era, inanzi che venisse, instrutta. 

£, poi che esercitata si fu alquanto 
Sopra il destrier, smontar volse anco a piede, 
Per poter meglio al fin venir di quanto 
La cauta Maga instruaon le diede. 
II Mago vien per fiir-V estremo incanto ; 
Che del fatto ripar ne sa ne crede : 
Scuopre lo scudo, e certo si.prosume 
Farla cader con V incsLntato lume. 

Potea cos! scoprirlo al primo tratto, 
Senza tenere i cavaUieri abada, 
Ma gli piacea veder qualche bel tratto 
Di correr Y asta, o di girar la spada: 
Come si vede ch' all' astuto gatto 
Scherzar col topo alcuna volta aggrada ; 
£, poi che quel piacer gli viene a noia, 
Dargli di morso, e al fin volet che muoia. 

Dico, che *\ Mago al gatto, e gli altri al topo 
S' assimigliar ne le battaglie dianzi ; 
Ma non s' assimigliar gia cosi, dopo 
Che con V annel si fe' la Donna inanzi. 
Attenta e fis^a stava a quel ch* era uopo, 
Accio che nulla seco il Mago avanzi ; 
£, come vide che lo scudp ap^rse, 
Chiuse gli occhi e lasdo quivi caderse. 

s. 24—27] CANTO IV. 67 

'Non che il fulgor del lucido mefallo, 
Come soleva agli altri, a lei nocesse ; 
l^a cosi fece accio che dal cavallo 
Contra sd il vano incantator scend«sse : 
N^e parte ando del suo disegno in &II0 ; 
Che, tosto ch' ella il capo in terra messe, 
Accelerando il volator le penne, 
Con larghe ruote in terra a por si venne. 
Lascia all' arcion lo scudo, che gia posto 

Ayea ne la coperta, e a pie discende 
Verso la Donna, che, come reposto 
Liupo alia macchia il capriolo, attende. 

Senza piu indugio ella si leva, tosto 

Che r ha vicino, e ben stretto lo prende. 

Avea lasciato quel misero in terra 

II libro, che facea tutta la guerra : 
E con una catena ne correa, 

Che solea portar cinta a simil uso, 

Perchd non men legar coki credea, 

Che per adietro altri legare era uso. 

La Donna in terra posto gicL V avea ; 

Se quel non si difese, io ben V escuso ; 

Che troppo era la cosa di£ferente 

Tra un debol vecchio, e lei tanto possente. 
Disegnando levargli ella la testa, 

Alza la man vittoriosa in fretta ; 

Ma, poi che '1 viso mira, il colpo arresta, 

Quasi sdegnando si bassa vendetta. 

Un venerabil vecchio in faccia mesta 

Vede esser quel ch' ella ha giunto idl^.stretta, 

Che mostra, al viso crespo e al pelo bianco, 

Etii di settanta anni, o poco manco. 

68 ORLANDO FURIOSO. [8.28—31 

Tommi la vita, Giovene, per Dio, 
Dicea il vecchio pien d' ira e di dispetto ; 
Ma quella a torla avea si il cor resdo, 
Come quel di lasciarla avria diletto. 
La Donna di sapere ebbe disio 
Chi foss^il Negromante, et a che efietto 
Edificasse in quel luogo selvaggio 
La rocca, e faccia a tutto il mondo oltraggio. 

Ne per maligna intenzione, abi lasso ! 
(Disse piangendo il vecchio incantatore) 
Feci la bella r6cca in cima al sasso, 
Ne per avidita son rubatore ; 
Ma per ritrar sol dall' estremo passo 
Un cavalier gentil, mi mosse amore, 
Che, come il ciel mi mostra, in tempo breve 
Morir Cristiano a tradimento deve. 

Non vede il Sol tra questo e il polo Austrino 
Un giovene si bello e si prestante : 
Ruggiero ha nome, il qual da piccolino 
Da me nutrito fu, ch* io sono Atlante. 
Disio d* onore e suo fiero destino 
L' ban tratto in Francia dietro al Re Agramante; 
£t io, che V amai sempre piu che figlio, 
Lo cerco trar di Francia e di periglio. 

La bella rocca solo edificai 
Per tenervi Ruggier sicuramente, 
Che preso fu da me, come sperai 
Che fossi oggi tu preso similmente ; 
£ donne e cavallier, che tu vedrai, 
Poi ci ho ridotti, et altra nobil gente ; 
Accio che, quando a voglia sua non esca, 
Avendo compagnia, men gli rincresca. 

s. 32—35] CANTO IV. 69 

Pur ch' uscir di Ih su non si domandei 
13 ' ognaltro gaudio lor cura mi tocca; 
d\h quanto aveme da tutte le bande 
Si puo del mondoy e tutto in quella rdcca : 
Suoni, canti, vestir, giuochi, vivande, 
Quanto puo cor pensar, pud chieder boeca. 
Sen seminato avea, ben cogliea il firiitto ; 
'Ms, ta sei giunto a disturbarmi il tutto. 

Deb, se non hai del viso il cor men bello, 
l*^on impedir il mio consiglio onesto ! 
Piglia lo scudo (ch' io tel dono) e quello 
IDestrier, che va per V aria cosi presto ; 
£ non t* impacciar oltra nel castello, 
O tranne uno o duo amici, e lascia il resto ; 
O tranne tutti gli altri, e piii non cbero, 
Se non che tu mi lasci il mio Ruggiero. 

E se disposto sei volermel tdrre, 
Deb prima al men che tu '1 rimeni in Francia, 
Piacciati questa afflitta anima sciorre 
De la sua scorza ormai putrida e rancia ! 
Rispose la Donzella : Lui vo' porre 
In liberta : tu, se sai, gracchia e ciancia. 
Nd mi ofierir di dar lo scudo in dono, 
O quel destrier, che miei, non piii tuoi sono : 

N^, s' anco stesse a te di tdrre e darli, 
Mi parrebbe che '1 cambio convenisse. 
Tu di' che Ruggier tieni per vietarli 
II male influsso di sue stelle fisse. 
O che non puoi saperlo, o non schivarli, 
Sappiendol, cio che '1 ciel di lui prescrisse : 
Ma se '1 mal tuo, ch' hai si vicin, non vedi, 
Peggio r altrui, c* ha da venir, prevedi. 

70 ORLANDO FURIOSO. [s. 36 — 39 

Non pregar ch* io t' uccida ; ch* i tuoi preghi 
Sariano indamo ; e, se pur vuoi la morte, 
Ancor che tutto il mondo dar la nieghi, 
Da se la pud a^^er sempre animo forte. 
Ma, pria che V alma da la came sleghi, 
A tutti i tuoi prigioni apri le porte. 
Cosi dice la DoDna, e tuttavia 
II Mago preso incontra al sasso invia. 

Legato de la sua propria catena 
N' andava Atlante, e la Donzella appresso ; 
Che, cosi ancor, sd ne fida-va apena, 
Benchd in vista parea tutto rimesso. 
Non mold passi dietro selo mena, 
Ch' a pie del monte han ritrovato il fesso, 
£ li scaglioni onde si monta in giro, 
Fin ch' alia porta del castel salirb. 

Di su la soglia Atlante un sasso toUe 
Di caratteri e straoi segni insculto. 
Sotto vasi vi son, ^e chiamano olle, 
Che fuman sempre, e dentro han foco occulto. 
L' incantator le spezza ; e a un tratto U coUe 
Riman deserto, inospite et inculto ; 
Ne muro appar n^ torre in alcun lato. 
Come se mai icastel non vi sia stato. 

Shrigossi dalla Donoa il Mago allora. 
Come fa spesso il toordo da la ragaa ; 
£ con lui sparve il suo castello a ,un' ora 
£ lascio in liherta quella oompagna. * 
Le donne e i cavallier si trovar fuoora 
De le superbe stanze allacampagna: 
£ furon di lor molte a chi ne dolse ; 
Ch^ tal frandiezza uii gran piacer lor tolse. 

8. 40 — 433 CANTO IV. 71 

Quivi e Gradasso, quivi e Sacripante, 
Quivi e Prasildo, il nobil cavalliero 
Che con Binaldo venne di Levante, 
£ seco Iroldo, il par d' amici vero. 
Al fin trovo la bella Bradamante 
Quivi il desiderato suo Ruggiero, 
Che, poi che n' ebbe certa conoscenza, 
Le fe' buona e gratissima accoglienza ; 

Come a colei che piu che gli occhi sui, 
Piu che 1 suo cor, piu che la propria vita 
Ruggiero amo, dal di ch' essa per lui 
Si trasse V elmo, onde ne fu ferita. 
Lungo sarebbe a dir come, e da cui, 

E quanto ne la selva aspra e r<»mta 

Si cercar poi la notte e il giomo chiaro : 

Ne, se non qui, mai piu si ritrovaro. 
Or che quivi la vede, e sa ben, ch' ella 

£ stata sola la sua redentrice, 

Di tanto gaudio ha pieno il cor, che appella 

S^ fortunato et unico felice. 

Scesero il monte, e dismontaro in quella 

Valle, ove fu la Donna vincitrice, 

E dove r Ippogrifo trovaro anco, 

Ch' avea lo scudo, ma coperto, al fianco. 
La Donna vaper prenderlo nel freno : 

E quel r aspetta fin che se gli accosta : 

Poi spiega 1' ale per 1' aer sereno, 

E si ripon non lungi a meza costa. 

Ella lo segue ; e quel n^ piii ne meno 

Si leva in aria, e non troppo si scosta : 

Come & la comacchia in secca arena, 

Che dietro il cane or qua or la si mena. 

72 ORLANDO FURI080. [s. 44^-47 

Ruggier, Gradasso, Sacripante, e tutti 
Quei cavaUier, che scesi erano imsieme, 
Chi di HUf chi di giii, si son ridutti 
Dove che torni il volatore han speine. 
Quel, poi che gli altri invano ebbe condutti 
Piu volte e sopra le cime supreme 
£ ne gli umidi fondi tra quei sassi, 
Presso a Ruggiero al fin ritenne i passi. 

£ questa opera fu del vecchio Atlante, 
Di cui non cessa la pietosa vogHa 
Di trar Ruggier del graii periglio instante : 
Di cid sol pensa, e di cid solo ha doglia, 
Pero gli manda or V Ippogrifb avante, 
Perch^ d' £uropa con questa arte il toglia* 
Ruggier lo piglia, e seco pensa trarlo ; 
Ma quel s' arretra, e non vuol seguitarlo. 

Or di Frontin quell' animoso smonta, 
(Frontino era nomato il suo destriero) 
£ sopra quel che va per V aria, monta, 
£ con li spron gli adizza il core altiero. 
Quel corre alquanto, et indi i piedi ponta, 
£ sale in verso il ciel, via piii leggiero 
Che '1 girifalco, a cui lieva il capello 
n mastro a tempo, e fa veder 1' augello. 

La bella Donna, che si in alto vede 
£ con tanto periglio il suo Ruggiero, 
Resta attonita in modo, che non riede 
Per lungo spazio al sentimento vero. 
Ci5 che gia inteso avea di Ganimede, 
Ch' al ciel fu assunto dal patemo impero, 
Dubita assai che non accada a quello, 
Non men gen til di Ganimede e bello. 

s. 48 51] CANTO IV. 73 

Con gli occhi fissi al ciel lo segue, quanto 
Basta il veder ; ma, poi che si dilegua 
Si, clie la vista non pud correr tanto, 
Liascia che sempre Y animo lo segua. 
Tuttavia con sospir, gemito e pianto 
Non ba, nh vuol aver pace nh triegua. 
Poi clie Ruggier di vista sh le tolse, • 
Al buon destrier Frontin gli occhi rivolse : 
G si delihero di non lasciarlo, 
• Che fosse in preda a chi venisse prima; 
Ma di condurlo seco, e di poi darlo 
Al suo Signor, ch' anco veder pur stima. 
Poggia r augel, ne pud Ruggier frenarlo : 
Di sotto rimaner vede oghi cima 
£t ahbassarsi in guisa, che non scorge 
Dove h piano terren nd dove sorge. 

Poi che si ad alto vien, ch' un picciol punto 
Lto puo stimar chi da la terra il mira, 
Prende la via verso ove cade a pimto 
II Sol, quando col Granchio si raggira : 
E per r aria ne va come legno unto 
A cui nel mar propizio vento spira. 
Lascianlo andar, chd farsl buon camino, 
E torniamo a Rinaldo paladino. 

Rinaldo V altro e Y altro giorno scorse, 
Spinto dal vento, un gran spazio di mare, 
Quando a Ponente e quando contra Y Orse, 
Che notte e di non cessa mai soffiare. 
Sopra la Scozia ultiroamente sorse. 
Dove la selva Calidonia appare, 
Che spesso fra gli antiqui ombrosi cerri 
S* ode sonar di bellicosi ferri. 

74 ORLANDO FURIOSO. [s. 58—^5 

Vaimo per quella i cavaHieri erranti, 
Inditi in anne, di tatta Bretagna, 
E de' proasimi Im^lii e de' distant!, 
Di Franda, di Norvegia e de Lamagna. 
Cbi non ha gnun TaloTy nan Yada inand ; 
Ch^ doYe cerca c»or, morte guadagna. 
Grran ooae in easa gia fece Tiistano, 
LancQotto, Galaaao, Artn e Galvano, 

£t altri cavaDieri e de la nnova 
£ de la Yecchia Tavola fionosi : 
Restano anoor di pi^ d' una lor pmova 
Li monmnenti e li troliei pomposi. 
L' arme Rinaldo e il suo Baiardo tmova, 
E tosto si fit por ne i liti ombrosi, 
£t al nocchier oomanda che si spicche 
E lo vada aspettar a Benucdie. 

Senza scudiero e senza compagnia 
Va il cavallier per quella selva immensa, 
Faoendo or una et or un' altra via. 
Dove piu aver strane aTrenture pensa. 
Capitd il primo giomo a una Badia, 
Che buona parte dd suo aver dispensa 
In onorar nel suo oenobio adomo 
Le donne e i cavallier che vanno attoino. 

Bella accoglienza i monachi e V Abbate 
F^ro a Rinaldo, il qual domando loro 
(Non prima gisk, che con vivande grate 
Avesse avuto il ventre amplo ristoro) 
Come da i cavallier sien ritrovate 
Spesso avventure per quel tenitoro, 
Dove si possa in qualche fiitto eggregio 
L* uom dimostrar, se merta biasmo o pregio. 

»- 56—59] CANTO IV. 75 

Risposongli, ch' errando in quelli boschi, 
nTrovar potria strane avrenture e molte : 
!Nia, come i luoghi, i fatti ancor son foschi ; 
Ohe non se n' ha nodzia le piu volte, 
derca (diceano) andar dove conoschi 
Che r opre tue non restino sepolte, 
Accio dietro al periglio e alia &tica 
Segua la fama, e il debito ne dica. 

E, se del tuo valor cerchi far prova, 
T' e preparata la piu degna impresa 
Che ne V antiqua etade o ne la nova 
Giamai da cavallier sia stata presa. 
La figlia del Re nostro or se ritrova 
Bisognosa d' aiuto e di difesa 
Contra un Baron, che Lurcanio si chiama, 
Che tor le cerca e la vita e la fama. 

Questo Lurcanio al padre V ha accusata 
(Forse per odio piu che per ragione) 
Averla a meza notte ritrovata 
Trarr* un suo amante a se sopra un verrone. 
Per le leggi del Regno condannata 
Al fuoco fia, se non truova campione, 
Che fra un mese, oggimai presso a finire, 
L' iniquo accusator faccia mentire. 

L' aspra legge di Scozia, empia e severa 
Vuol, ch' ogni donna, e di ciascuna sorte, 
Ch' ad uom si giunga e non gli sia mogliera, 
S' accusata ne viene, abbia la morte. 
Nd riparar si pud ch' ella non pera, 
Quando per lei non venga un guerrier forte, 
Che tolga la difesa, e che sostegna, 
Che sia innocente e di morire indegna. 

76 ORLANDO FURIOSO. [s. 60->63 

n Re, dolente per Ginevra bella, 

(Chd cosi nominata h la sua figlia) 

Ha publicato per cittit e caatella, 

Che s' alcun la difiesa di lei piglia, 

E che V estingua la calumnia fella 

(Pur cbe sia nato di nobil famiglia), 

L' avr^ per moglie, et uno state, quale 

Fia convenevol dote a donna tale. 
Ma, se fra un inese, alcun per lei non viene, 

O, venendo, non vince, sara uccisa. 

Simile impresa meglio ti conviene, 

Ch' andar pei boschi errando .a questa guisa. 

Oltre cb' onor e fama te n' awiene, 

Ch' in etemo da te non fia divisa, 

Guadagni il fior di quante belle donne 

Da r Indo sono all* Atlantee colonne ; 
£ una ricchezza appresso, et imo stata 

Che sempre fac ti puo viver contento ; 

E la grazia del Re, se suscitato 

Per te gli fia il suo onor, ch' d quasi spento. 

Poi per cavalleria tu se' ubligato 

A vendicar di tanto tradimento 
Costei, che per commune opinione 
Di vera pudicizia ^ un paragone. 

Penso Rinaldo alquanto, e poi rispose : 
Una donzella dunque de' morire 
Perchd lascio sfogar ne V amorose 
Sue braccia al suo amator tanto desire ? 
Sia maladetto chi tal legge pose, 
E maladetto chi la puo patire ; 
Debitamente muore una crudele, 
Non chi da vita al suo amator fedele. 

s. 64—67] * CANTO IV. 77 

Sia vero o &]so che Ginevra tolto 
S' abbia il suo amante, io non riguardo a questo : 
D' averlo fatto la loderei molto, 
Quando non fosse stato manifesto. 
Ho in sua diffesa ogni pensier rivolto : 
Datemi pur un che mi guidi presto, 
£ dove sia Y accusator mi mene ; 
Ch' io spero in Die Ginevra trar di pene. 

Non vo' gia dir ch' ella non V abbia £atto ; 
Ch^9 nol sappiendo, il falso dir potrei : 
Diro ben, che non de' per simil atto 
Punizion cadere alcuna in lei ; 
E diro, che fii ingiusto o che fu matto 
Chi fece prima li statuti rei ; 
£, come iniqui, rivocar si denno, 
E nuova legge far con miglior senno. 

S* mi medesimo ardor, s* mi disir pare 
Inchina e sforza V imo e V altro sesso 
A quel soave fin d' amor, che pare 
All' ignorante vulgo un grave eccesso; 
Perch^ si de' punir donna o biasmare, 
Che con uno o piii d' uno abbia commesso 
Quel, che V uom fa con quante n' ha appetito, 
£ lodato ne va, non che impunito ? 

Son fatti in questa legge disuguale 
Veramente alle donne espressi torti ; 
E spero in Dio mostrar che gli e gran male 
Che tanto lungamente si comporti. 
Rinaldo ebbe il consenso universale, 
Che fur li antiqui ingiusti e male accorti, 
Che consentiro a cosi iniqua legge, 
£ mal fa il Re, che pud, ne la corregge« 

78 ORLANDO FURIOSO. [s. 68— 71 

Poi che la luce Candida e vermiglia 
De r altro giomo aperse Y emispero, 
Riiuddo r arme e il suo Baiardo piglia, 
£ di quella Badia toUe un scudiero, 
Che con lui viene a molte l^he e migHa, 
Sempre nel bosoo ornbUmente fiero, 
Verso la Terra ove la lite nuova 
De la Donzella de' yenir in pruova. 

Avean, cercando abbreviar cainino, 
Lasciata pel aentier la maggior via ; 
Quando un gran pianto udir sonar vicino» 
Che la foresta d' (^nintomo empia. 
Baiardo spinse Y un, V altro ronzino 
Verso una valle, onde quel grido usda ; 
£ fira dui mascalzoni una donzella 
Vider, che di l<Hitan parea assai bella ; 

Ma lacrimosa e addolorata quanto 
Donna o donzella, o mai persona fosse. 
Le sono dui col ferro nudo a canto, 
Per farle fiir Y erbe di sangue rosse. 
£lla, con preghi, differendo alquanto 
Giva morir, sin che pieta si mosse. 
Venne Rinaldo ; e, come s^ n' accorse, 
Con alti gridi e gran minaccie accorse. 

Voltaro i malandrin tosto le spalle, 
Che 1 soccorso lontan vider venire ; 
£ se appiatt4r ne la profonda valle. 
n Paladin non li curd seguire : 
Venne a la donna ; e, qual gran colpa dalle 
Tanta punizion, cerca d' udire ; 
£, per tempo avanzar, fa aUo scudiero 
Levarla in groppa, e toma al suo sentiero. 

s. 723 CANTO V. 79 

£, cavalcando, poi meglio la guata, 
Molto esser bella e di maniere accorte, 
Ancor clie fosse tutta spaventata 
Per la paura eh' ebbe de la morte. 
Poi cb' ella fu di nuovo domandata 
Chi r avea tratta a si infelice sorte, 
Incomincid, con umil voce, a dire 
Quel, cb' io vo' all' altro Canto differire. 

CANTO QUINTO. [«. 1— t 

TuTTi gli altri animai che sono in terra, 

O che vivon quieti e stanno in pace, 

O, se vengono o rissa e si fan guerra, 

Alia femina il maschio non la face. 

L' orsa con V orso al bosco sicura erra; 

La leonessa appresso il leon giace ; 

Col lupo vive la lupa sicura, 

Ne la iuvenca ha del torel paura. 
Ch' abominevol peste, che Megera 

£ venuta a turbar gli umani petti ? 
Che si sente il marito e la mogliera 
Sempre garrir d' ingiuriosi detti, 
Stracciar la faccia e far livida e nera, 
Bagnar di pianto i -gemali letti ; 
£ non di pianto sol, ma alcuna volta 
Di sangue gli ha bagnati V ira stolta. 

80 ORLANDO FURIOSO. [s. 3-« 

Panni non sol gran mal, ma che V uom &cci? 
Contra natura, e sia di Dio ribello, 
Che 8* induce a percuotere la &ccia 
Di bella donna, o romperle un capello : 
Ma chi le da veneno, o chi le caccia 
L' alma del corpo, con laccio o cokello, 
Ch' uomo sia quel non credero in etemo, 
Ma in vista umana un spirto de Y inferno. 

Cotali esser doveano i duo ladroni, 
Che Rinaldo caccid da la donzella 
Da lor condotta in quei scuri valloni, 
Perche non sd n' udisse piii novella, 
lo lasciai ch' eUa render le cagioni 
S' apparechiava di sua sorte fella 
Al Paladin, che le fu buono amico : 
Or, s^uendo 1' istoria, cosi dico. 
La Donna incomincio : Tu intendend 

La maggior crudeltade e la piii espressa, 
Ch' in Tebe o in Argo, o ch' in Micene mai, 

O in loco piu crudel fosse commess^a. 

£, se rotando il Sole i cari rai, 

Qui men ch' all' altre re^on s' appressa, 

Credo ch' a noi mal volentieri arrivi, 

Perche veder si crudel gente schivk 
Ch' agli nemid gli uomini sien crudi. 

In ogDi eta se n' e veduto esempio ; 

Ma dar la morte a chi procuri e studi 

II tuo ben sempre, e troppo ingiusto et empio. 

£, accio che meglio il vero io ti denudi, 

Perche costor volessero far scempio 

De gli anni verdi miei, contra ragione, 

Ti diro da principio ogni cagione. 

s. 7 — 10] CANTO V. 81 

Voglio che sappi, Signor mio, ch' essendo 
Tenera ancora, alii servigi venni 
I>e la figlia del Re, conxui crescendo, 
Buon luogo in corte et onorato tenni. 
Crudele Amore, al mio stato invidendo, 
Fe* che seguace, ahi lassa ! gli divenni : 
Fe' d' ogni cavallier, d' ogni dohzello - 
Parermi il Duca d' Albania piii bello. 

Perchd egli mostrd amanni piii che molto, 

lo ad amar lui con tutto il cor mi mossi. 

Ben s' ode il ragioiiar, si vede il volto ; 

Ma dentro il petto mal giudicar pdssi. 

Credendo, amando, non cessai che tolto 

Li* ebbi nel letto ; e non guardai ch' io fossi 

I>i tutte le Real camere in quella, 

Che piu secreta avea Grinevra bella; 
Dove tenea le sue cose piii care, 

C dove le piu volte ella dormia. 

Si pud di quella in s' un verrone entrare, 

Che fuor del muro al discoperto uscia : 

Id facea il mio amator quivi montare, 

£ la scala di corde, onde salia, 

10 stessa dal verron giii gli mandai, 
Qual volta di^co aver lo desiai : 

Ch^ tante volte ve lo fei venire, 
Quanto Ginevra me ne diede Y agio, 
Che solea mutar letto, or per fuggire 

11 tempo ardente, or il brumal malvagio. 
Non fu veduto d' alcun mai salire ; 
Perd che quella parte del pali^o 
Risponde verso alcune case rotte, 
Dove nessun mai passa, o giorho o notte. 

OBL. FUR. I. o 

82 ORLAKDO TORIOSO. [8.11---14 

per molti giorni » men 
Tra noi secreto Y amoFoso gioco: 
Sempre crelibe V amoze ; « bi xn* accesiy 
Che tutta dentzo io mi fientia di loco : 
£ cieca ne fui si, ch' io boh compresi 
Ch' egli fingeva molto, « amava poeo; 
Ancor che li sno' inganni diacoperti 
Baser doveanmi a xmlle aegni cerd. 

Dopo aldUL di si laostzd nuovo amante 
De la belia Oinevra. Io xum so i^puitto 
S' allora cominciasse, or pur inante 
De r amor mio, n' avesai^ fl oor gi^ puoto. 
Vedi, s' ia me venuto ieca arrogaate, 
S' impeario Ael mio joofr 9* avevja ^issuato ; 
Che mi scoperse, e noa <ebhe nosaose 
Chiedermi ai|ito ia qurato nwovo amc^wu 

Ben mi dicea ch' uguak al mio non «ra, 
Nd yero amor quel eh' jegU Avea a ooa^ei:; 
Ma, simuhodo iesaeme aeeeso, ^pera 
Celebrame i fegitimi imeaei. 
Dal Re otteperla fia oosa leggieria« 
Qual'or vi sia la vploatii M L^i ; 
Chd di sangue e di atato in tutto il regvo 
Non era, dopo il Re, di lu' il piii d0gno. 

Mi persiiade, se per opra luia 
Potesse al suo Siguor g^nero farai 
(Ch^ veder posso /che se n' ala^ria 
A quanto presso al Re possa uomo alflarsftX 
Che me n' avrja buon merto, e xwq fiwriA 
Mai tanto beneficiQ per fifiordairsi 1 
£ ch' alia moglie e ch' ad ognaltro ioante 
Mi porrebbe egli ia sempre es^erzui aioxatfi* 

«. 15 — IS] CANTO v. as 

loy ch' eza tatUa satn&igli intenU, 
N^ seppi o volsi 'GOBtradirgli mai, 
£ sol quel giomi lo m vidi eontenU» 
Ch' averlo con^iacmto mi trovai ; 
Piglio r occafflbn die is' apprese&U 
Di parlar d' esso e di lodarlo assai ; 
Bt ogni indusUria adoprc^ ogoi fatica. 
Per far del mio amator Ginevra amica. 

Feci col core e con V eSetto twtto 
Quel che &x si poteva, e saUo Idio ; 
N^ con Ginevra mai potei &x frutto^ 
Ch' io le ponessi in gra^ il Duca mio : 

E questOy ch^ ad amar ella avea indutto 
Tutto il pensiero e tuUo il auo disio 

Un gentil cavalUery bello e corteBe» 

Venuto in Scozia di lontan paeae ; 
Che con un suo fhitel ben giovinetto 

Venne d' Italia a Mare in questa corte: 

Si fe' ne V arme poi tanto perfettOf 

Che la Bretagna non avea il piu forte. 

n Re r amava, e ne mostro V efibtto ; 

Che gli dono di non picdola sorte 

Castella e ville e iuricU^oniy 

E lo fe' grande al par de i gran baronL 
Grato era al Re^ piu grato era alia figlia 

Quel cavallier chiamato AriodantCy 

Per esser valoroso a maraviglia-; 

Ma piu, ch' ella aapea che V era amaiute. 

N^ Vesuvioy nd il monte di SieigUa* 

N^ Troia avvampo mai di fiamniQ tante« 

Quante ella conoscea ch^ per suo amore 

Ariodante ardea per tutto il core. 

84 ORLANDO FURIOSO. [s. 19-22 

L' amar che dunque ella facea colui 
Con cor sincero e con perfetta fede, 
Fe' che pel Duca male udita fui ; 
Nd mai riaposta da sperar mi diede : 
Anziy quanto io pregava piu per lui 
E gli studiava d' impetrar mercede, 
Ella, biaamandol sempre e dispr^ando, 
Se gli venia piii sempre inimicando. 

Io confortai V amator mio sovente, 
Che volease lasciar la vana impresa ; 
Nd si sperasse mai volger la mente 
Di costeiy troppo ad altro amore intesa: 
E gli feci conoscer chiaramente, 
Come era si d' Ariodante accesa, 
Che quanta acqua h nel mar piccola dramma 
Non spegneria de la sua immensa fiamma. 

Questo da me piu volte Polinesso 
(Ch^ cosi nome ha il Duca) avendo udito, 
E ben compreso e visto per se stesso, 
Che molto male era il suo amor gradico ; 
Non pur di tanto amor si Ai rimesso, 
Ma di vedersi un altro preferito, 
Come superbo, cosi mai sofferse, 
Che tutto in ira e in odio si converse. 

£ tra Ginevra e Y amator suo pensa 
Tanta discordia e tanta lite porre, 
E fiirvi inimicizia cos! intensa, 
Che mai piii non si possino comporre ; 
E por Ginevra in ignominia immensa, 
Donde non s' abbia o viva o morta a torre : 
N^ de r iniquo suo disegno meco 
Volse o con altri ragionar, che seco. 

s. 23 26] CANTO V. 85 

Fatto il pensier : Dalinda mia, mi dice 
(Clie cosi son nomata), saper dei 
Che, come suol tornar da la radice 
Ar'bor che tronchi e quattro volte e sei ; 
Cosi la pertinacia mia infelice, 
Bencb^ sia tronca da i successi rei, 
r>i germogliar non resta ; ch^ venire 
Pur vorria a fii) di questo suo desire. 

C non lo bramo tanto per diletto, 
Quanto perchd vorrei.vincer la pruova; 
G, non possendo farlo con efietto» 
S' io lo fo imaginando, anco mi giova. 
Voglio, qual volta tu mi dai ricetto, 
Quando allora Ginevra si ritruova 
Nuda nel letto, che pigli ogni vesta 
Ch' ella posta abbia, e tutta te ne vesta. 

Come ella s' orna e come il crin dispone 
Studia imitarU, e cerca, il piu che sai, 
Di parer dessa ; e poi sopra il verrone 
A mandar giu la scala ne verrai. 
Io verro a te con imaginazione 
Che quella sii, di cui tu i panni avrai : 
E cosi spero, me stesso ingannando, 
Venir in breve il mio desir sciemandoc 

Cosi disse egli. Io che divisa e sevra 
E lungi era da me, non posi mente 
Che questo, in che pregando egli persevra, 
Era una fraude pur troppo evidente; 
E dal verron, coi panni di Ginevra, 
Mandai la scala. onde sali sovente ; 
E non m' accorsi prima de l\ inganno, 
Che n' era gia tutto accaduto il danno. 

86 ORLANDO FURIOSO. [S.27--30 

Fatto in ({uel tenpa eon AriodflRte 
n Duca avea queste parole o ts^ 
(Chd grand] amici erano stati kiante 
Che per GKnevra si fesson riyali)? 
Mi marayiglio (incominci^ il mio amante) 
Ch' avendoti io fra tntti 1» mie^ uguali 
Sempre avuto in rispetto e sempre amato^ 
Ch' io sia da te si- mal rinnmerato. 

Io son ben certo che cc»npFend» e sai 
Di Oinevra e di me 1' ttitiqua amore ; 
E per sposa legitime oggimai 
Per impetrarki s<m dal mio Signore: 
Perch^ mi turbi to? perchd pur vai 
Senza frutto in costei ponendail eore?^ 
Io ben a te rispetto avrei, per Dio, 
S' io nel tuo grado fossii e tn nel mio. 

£t io (riepose AriodaRte a lui)^ 
Di te mi maraviglio maggiormente ; 
Chd di lei prima inaraoivto fni, 
Che tu r avessi vista- soUun^te : 
£ so che sai quanto h Y amor tra mii, 
Ch' esser non pud di quel che sia» piik ardente ; 
E sol d' essermfr raoglie intende e brama : 
E so che certo sai oh* ella non t' ama* 

Perchd non haitudunque a me il rispetto 
Per r amicizia nostra, che domande 
Ch' a te av^ debba, e ch' ioiV avre' in.effielfeo, 
Se tu fossi con leidi- me pi^. graade-?- 
Nd men di te par. moglie ay^a aspetto, 
Se ben tu sei piu ricco in queste bande : 
Io non son meno al.Re, ohe tu sia» grato ; 
Ma piu di tedala sua figlia amato. 

8. 34—^40 . CANTO ¥. 87 

Oh (disse il Doea a kii) grande h coteattf- 
Crrore »Ae €luti3L Mle Amef coiiduttof 
Tu credi esser piu BthAtO'; ia cved» quesk^ 

Medesnw: m» sh pud' yedere al frutus 

Tu fammi cid ^ hafi* aeeo^f mmaiestof - 

Et to il secreto mk> t' apriird^ tul€& ; 

£ quel di iioi»^ d»e iliane6 aver si veggia, 

Ceda a chi ^iacty. e d' altvo^ n pvev^gia^ 
£ sara pmsto, se ttv tuoi oh' io giori 

Di non dir cosa mai che mi liveli : 

Cosi voglio ch' aaoor tu m' assicusi, 

Che quel, ch' lO'trdiro^aeiiipre tni celiv 

Venner dunquai'dr tosordo^aUi scdngittri, 

£ posero le mait 8U gli Evangeti t 

£ poi che di tacer fede si diero^ 

Ariodante incomiiiei&^ primiero ; 

£ disse per la'giustoe per lo driUo^t 

Come tra s^ e Ginemr era la oosa ; 

Ch' eUa>giira^«ft g;iiurati> e a^booca cf in aeriUoy* 

Che mai non stoia aA akrir ch! a^hii spoaa ; 

£ se dal Re le venla eonltaditto^ 
GH promettea dk sen^pne esfler ritesa 

Da tutti gli altri manta^ ^i; 
E viver sola im tutti. i gioitthsudi: 

£ ch' esM ara»iiiiflpeianaal^'pelYalore 
Ch' avea mostrafcoi in anae-a piu d' vat n^goei 
Et era periAottravrailaudey a onoitey 
A heneficio dd. Re e deLsuo re^Of 
Di crescer tanta in^gslutia al siMi Sigaoiie, 
Che sarehba dsflui stitnato» dibgiyb 
Che la figliuola sua per niai^e avesae, 
Poi che piacer a leLcew, inlaideaie. 

88 ORLANDO PURIOSO. [«. iS-tl 

Poi dine : A queato termine bod io, 
N^ credo gift cV alcun mi venga appreuo ; 
N^ cerco piu di questa, nh desio 
De V amor d' eaaa aver segno piil espresso ; 
Md pi^ vorrei, se non quanto da Dio 
Per connubio legitimo i! cmceBso : 
E saiia in vano il domaudar piu inanzi ; 
Che di bonti lo come ogn' altra avaozi. 

Poi ch' ebbe il veto Ariodante espoeto 
De la mercS ch' aspetta a sua &ticai 
Polinesso, che gift s' avea propoato 
Di &r GttteTra al suo amatoi nemica, 
Comindd : Sei da me molto discosto, 
E to' cbe di tua bocca anco tu 1 dica ; 
E, del mio ben veduta la radice, 
Cbe confessi me solo eiwer feKce. 

Finge ella teoo, n^ t' ama nd pKzaa : 
Chi d pasce di speme e di parole : 
Oltn questo, il tuo amor aempre a scioccheua, 
Qnando meca ragiona, imputar suole. 
Io ben d' esserle caio altra certezaa 
Veduta n' ho, cbe di promesse e fole ; 
E tel dird sotto la f% in secreto, 
Ben che iarei piii il debito a Btar cheto. 

Kon passa mese, che tre, quatro e aei 
E tal'or diece notti io non mi truoTi 
Nudo abbracciato in quel piacer con lei, 
Ch' all' amoroso ardor par che s} giovi : 
Si che tu puoi veder s' a' piacer miei 
Son d' aguagliai le ciance che tu pruovi. 
Ceditni dunque, e d' altro ti provedi, 
Poi che si inferior di me ti vedi. 


s. 39 42J CANTO V. 89 

N'on ti vo' creder questo (gli rispose 
Ariodante), e certo so che nienti ; 
G composto fra te t' hai queste cose, 
Acci5 che da V impresa io mi spaventi : 
IVla, perch^ a lei son troppo ingiuriose, 
Questo c* hai detto, sostener convienti ; 
Ch^ non bugiardo sol, ma vogUo ancora, 
Che tu sei traditor mostrarti or ora. 

Suggimise il Duca : Non sarebbe onesto 
Che noi voless^ la battaglia tdrre 
X>i quel che t' ofierisco manifesto, 
Quando ti piaccia, inanzi a gli occhi porre. 
Resta smarrito Ariodante a questo, 
£ per r ossa un tremor freddo gli scorre ; 
£y se creduto ben gli avesse a pieno, 
Venia sua vita allora allora mei^o. 

Con cor trafitto e con pallida &ccia, 
C con voce tremante e bocca amara 
Rispose : Quando sia che tu mi faccia 
Veder questa avventura tua si rara, 
Prometto di costei lasciar la traccia, 
A te si liberale, a me si avara : 
Ma cb' io tel voglia creder, non far sdma, 
S' io non Io veggio con questi occhi prima. 

Quando ne sara il tempo, awisarotti, 
Suggiunse Polinesso ; e dipartisse. 
Non credo che pass&r piu di due notti, 
Ch' ordine fu che '1 Duca a me venisse. 
Per scoccar dunque Llacci che condotti 
Avea si cheti, andd al rivale, e disse, 
Che s' ascondesse la notte seguente 
Tra quelle case ove non sta mai gente : 

961 ORLAKDO POttlOSO. [■. 4S--46 

E dimottidgti an hu>gO: ft dirnapetto 
Di quel verrone, ove soles ss^rt; 
Ariodante ayes prefl» Mqpctfid 
Che lo cercaeev fiir qaivi vanrffr 
Come in un Iwogindwre avewedetto 
Di por gli agmlr) e fenFel» nonre 
Sotto quesia fiasian^ die Tmolflioatraii^ 
Quel di Ginevra^ ch^ imfoeaibil poi^ 

Di voknn venir ffase partitD) 
Ma in guisa cHe di lui non aia men fmt» ; 
Perchd, accadendo^d» fone maaSSto, 
Si truovi d^ die non tema di morte. 
Un suo fratello w^emitaggia et aedito, 
n piii fannso in aimc de la oorte, 
Detto Lurcanio 4 Cj airea pm cor oon etmo^ 
Che se dieci altri arawe avuta appresso. 

Seco chiamoBO) « vabe die prandeise 
L' anne ; e la notte Ionian^ con Ini r 
Non che '1 secreto sno-gia gli dicesBe ; 
N^ r avria detto. ad esso ni ad aknii«. 
Da se lontano un tsar di pietsa il mesae: 
Se mi senti chiamar, yam (diase) a nui ; 
Ma, se non.senti) pdma di' io di diiaini, 
Non ti pasdr di qui, fioate^ se^m' amL 

Va pur, non dubitar. (diaM il inatello): 
£ cosl venne AriodaDtn5dhetOf 
£ si celo nd solitacio ostdio^ 
Ch' era d' ineonlro d nda veocron sBczBtoi. 
Vien d' dtra parte il:frandfldentB*e fdlo^ 
Che d' in&mar. Gineirra.6itt sx; licto ; 
£ fa il segno, trBinoisolito.inante). 
A me, che de V inganno era ignorante*. 

cMsfo y. at 

Ct io cam vcste eandida e fstgiaUi 
Pex xxiezo aliste' d' oi», ed' ogmntonio^ 
S con rete pur df or, tntta adombrata 
I>i l>ei fiocchi remdgVt, al cspo intomo ; 
C^^^g^^ c^c sol fu da Ginevra twate, 
l^on d' alcimf altra) udito & segno, tonio 
SopTa il verraB^ di' ia modo €ia locato, 
Clie mi scopria dinanzi e d' ogni lato. 
Xiurcanio in ifaestOimem> dubitando. 
Clie '1 fratello a pericolo non yada, 
Oy come e pur commmi. disio^ cercande 
Di spiar sempre cid die ad altri aocada : 
Li' era pian pian yenuto seguitando, 
Tenendo Y ombre- e la pii^ oscoraistrada : 
C a men di dieci> passi a Ini. discosto, 
Nel medesimobostel s' eva ripesto^ 

Non sappendo io di questo eosa alcttna, 
Venni al vemm ne V abifo e kodetto ; 
SI come gia venutaera piu d* una 
E piu di due fiate abuono efiettoi 
Le veste si vedean- chiare alia Luna ; 
N6 dissimile essendo ancb' io d* aspetto^ 
N^ di persona da Ginevra molto. 
Fece parere un pet tm altro il volto : 

E tanto pin, eh' era gran spazio in meza 
Fra dove io venni e quelle inculte case. 
Ai dui fratelli, che stavano al wro, 
II Duca agevolmente persiiase 
Quel ch' era felso. Or pensa in cbe ribreza 
Ariodante, in cbe doior rimase. 
Vien Poline«KH e aBa seala s' appoggia^ 
Che giu manda'gli ; e monta in su la loggia. 

92 ORLANDO FURI050. [s. 51— .54 

A prima givnta io gli getto le bracda 
Al collo ; ch' 10 non penso esser vedDta : 
Lo bacio in bocca e per tutta la feccia, 
Come &r soglio ad qgni sua yenuta. 
Egli piii de V luato si procaccia 
D' accarezzarmi, e la sua fraude aiuta. 
Quell' altro al no spettaoolo condutto, 
Misero! sta.lontano, e vede il tutto. 

Cade in tanto dolor, che si dispone 
^AJlora allora di voler morire ; 
E il pome de la spada in terra pone, 
Chd su la punta si volea ferire. 
Lurcanioy che con grande ammirazione 
Avea veduto il Duca a me salire. 
Ma non gA conosduto cbi si ifosse, 
Scorgendo V atto del fratel, si mosse ; 

EgU vieto che con la propria mano 
Non si passasse in quel furore il petto. 
S' era piu tardo o poco piu lontano, 
Non giugnea a tempo, e non &ceya effetto. 
Ah misero fratel, fratiello insano 
(Gridd), perc' bai perduto V intelletto, 
Ch' una femina a morte trar ti debbia ? . 
Ch' ir possan tutte come al vento nebbia, 

Cerca fiir morir lei, ch^ morir merta ; 
E serva a piu tuo onor tu la tua morte. 
Fu d' amar lei, quando non t' era aperta 
La fraude sua : or ^ da odiar ben forte ; 
Poi che con gli occhi tuoi tu vedi certa 
Quanto sia meretrice, e di che sorte. 
Serba quest' arme, che vdlti in te stesso, 
A far dinanzi al Re tal &l]o espresso. 

B. 55—58] CANTO V. 93 

Quando si vede Ariodante giunto 
Sopra il firatel, la dura impresa lascia ; 
"Ma, la sua intenzion da quel ch' assunto 
Avea gia di morir, poco s' accascia. 
Quindi si lieva ; e porta, non che punto, 
'MsL trapassato il cor d' estrema ambascia : 
Pur finge col fratel, che quel furore 
Non abbia piii, che dianzi avea, nel core. 

II seguente matin, senza far motto 
Al suo fratello o ad altri, in via si messe, 
Da la mortal disperazion condotto ; 
N^ di lui per piu di fu chi sapesse. 
Fuor che *l Duca e il fratello, ogn' altro inddtto 
Era chi mosso al dipartir Y avesse. 
Ne la casa del Re di lui diversi ' 
Ragionamenti, e in tutta Scozia fersi. 

In capo d' otto o di piu giorni in corte 
Venne inanzi a Ginevra un viandante, 
£ novelle arreco di mala sorte : 
Che s' era in mar summerso Ariodante 
Di volontaria sua libera morte, 
Non per colpa di Borea o di Levante. 
D' un sasso che sul mar spbrgea molt' alto, 
Avea, col capo in giu, preso un gran salto. 

Colui dicea ; Pria che venisse a questo, 
A me, che a caso riscontro per via, 
Disse : Vien meco, accid che manifesto 
Per te a Ginevra il mio successo sia ; 
E dille poi, che la cagion del resto 
Che tu vedrai di me, ch' or ora fia, 
£ stato sol perc' ho troppo veduto : 
Felice, se senza occhi io fossi suto ! 

94 ORLANDO FURIOSO. [b. 59u^2 

Eramo a case aapra Cf^baaao, 
Che verso Irlaada Afgamto «poiige m ttare. 
Cos! diceadOf 4i cima d' 4iii saaa^ 
LoTyidi a capo in giu sott' aoqua mJire. 
lo lo lasoiai ael nmxe^ «t <a gna paaao 
Ti son veauto kt naova a portare, 
Ginevra, sbigottita « ki vko smorta, 
Rimase a ifueDo aanaagio meza auMite. 

Oh Dio, che disac e feec poi tehe sola 
Si ritrovd ael suo fidaio letto ! 
Percosse il seno, e si atiaccid la stola* 
£ fece all* auceo crin danno e dispetto ; 
Ripetendo aoveate la parob 
Ch' Ariodante avea m estreano idetto : 
Che la cagion del mio caso empio e tristo 
Tutta venla per airer tiriC^ppo visto. 

II rumor ocorse di coatiii per totto* 
Che per dolor •' area dato la aaorte. 
Di questo il Re noa iienae il viso Bact«tta» 
Nd cavalliar* as donaa da la aortew 
Di tutti il suo fratd aa»atid f&i luita^ 
£ si sommeraeaal dolor si lorte, 
Ch' ad eaaempb di lui, aoatm s^ stesso 
Volto i|naai la man« per irgli apprasap : 

E moba y<oilta npateada aeeo, . 
Che fu Ginevysa £he '1 fratel glj astanae, 
E che non £ul ae non qwdl' atto fcieco 
Che di lei vida, eh' a JDork lo spinse ; 
Di voler vendicarseaa ai eaeco 
Venne, e s! T ira a u il dokur lo riasei 
Che di perder la grasia TvUpesa, 
Et aver V odio dal Re a del paese : 

^ 63-*--66] CANTO v. 96 

E inanzi al Be* ^piaado era piu di geojb^ 
La sala pifniay dene Yenoe^ e dkae : 
Sappi, Signor, 4die <U le^ar la sai^te 
Al mio firatel« u ch' a in<Hrir ne gissey 
Stata e la figUa tua aolo noceote ; 
Ch' a lui tanto dolor 1' alma traffissa 
D' aver veduia lei poco pudica, 
Che piu che vita -ebbe la morte arnica. 

Erane anqtan^i e perch^ le sue voglie 
I>isoneste mm fur, sol vo' coprir^. 
Per virtu mml:arla» aver per mc^ie 
Da te sperava, e per fedei servire: 
Ma, mentre il lasso ad odorar le fi)glie 
Stava lontano, altrui vide salire^ 
Salir su 1' arbor riserbatOi e tutto 
Essergli tolto il dis'iato fruttp. 

E seguitd^ icofne t^U avea veduto 
Yenir Gineyra sul veirone^ -e 091109 
Mando la scala pnde era a Jei ve^n^Uo 
Un drudp f^, di cbi figli wa sa il npioe ; 
Che s* avea, pe^ mj9& ^fmr 4^<^QOseiuto, 
Cambiatj i f^ifim ^ oasfiose le chioiqe. 
Suggiunse, che con 1' armeiegU volea 
Frovar, tutto easer v^r cip che dioea* 

Tu puoi pevuiar se '1 padre addotpraitp 

Riman, quwdp acpiwar aeni;e la figUa ; 
Si perch^ ode dl lei quel phe pensatp 
Mai non avrel^e* ^e $' ha ffpm .iQarayiglifl i 
Si perche sa che fy, oecPSsil^LtQ 
(Se la difesa qlpTO gverri^ wn pigfia* 
II qual Lurcmup poiisa fer me^tirp), 
Di condanns^ $ di &4b, iBPrire, 


96 ORLANDO FURIOSO. [s. 67-70 

10 non credo, Signor, cbe d sia nuova 
La legge nostra che condanna a morte 
Ogni donna e donzeUa cbe si pruova 

Di se far copia altrui ch* al suo consorte. 
Morta ne vien, s* in un mese non truova 
In sua difesa un cavallier si forte, 
Che contra il falso accusator sostegna 
Che sia innocente e di morire indegna. 

Ha fiitto il Re bandir per liberarla 
(Ch^ pur gli par ch' a torto sia accusata), 
Che yuol per moglie, e con gran dotej darla 
A chi tonk V infamia che V k data. 
Che per lei comparisca non si paria 
Guerriero ancora, anzi 1* un V altro guata ; 
Ch^ quel Lurcanio in arme e cosi fiero, 
Che par che di lui tema ogni guerriero. 

Atteso ha V empia sorte, che Zerbino, 
Fratel di lei, nel regno non si truove ; 
Che va gia molti mesi peregrino, 
Mostrando di se in arme inclite pruove : 
Ch^ quando si trovasse piu vicino 
Quel cavallier gagliardo, o in luogo dove 
Potesse aver a tempo la novella, 
Non mancheria d' aiuto alia sorella. 

11 Re, ch' in tanto cerca di sapere 
Per altra pruova, che per arme, ancora, 
Se sono queste accuse o false o vere, 
Se dritto o torto h che sua figlia mora ; 
Ha fatto prender certe cameriere 

Che lo dovrian saper, se vero fora : 
Ond' io previdi, che, se presa era io, 
Troppo periglio era del Duca, e mio. 

8. 71 — 74] CANTO V. 97 

G la notte medesima mi trassi 
Fuor de la corte, e al Duca mi condussi ; 
C gli feci veder quanto importassi 
Al capo d' amendua, se presa io fussi. 
Liodommi, e disse ch' io non dubitassi : 
A suoi conford poi venir m' indussi 
Ad una sua fortezza, ch' k qui presso, 
In compagnia di dui, che mi diede esso. 
Hai sentito, Signor, con quanti eifetti 
De r amor mio fei Polinesso certo ; 
¥1 s' era debitor, per tai rispetti, 
r>' avermi cara o no, tu 1 vedi aperto. 
Or senti il guidardon ch' io ricevetti : 
Vedi la gran nlerc^ del mio gran merto : 
Vedi se deve, per amare assai, 
Donna sperar d' essere amata mai ; 

Che questo ingrato, perfido e crudele, 
De la mia fede ha preso dubbio al fine : 
Venuto k in sospizion ch' io non rivele 
Al lungo andar le fraudi sue volpine. 
Ha finto, accio che m' allontahe e cele 
Fin che 1' ira e il furor del Re decline, 
Voler mandarmi ad un suo luogo forte ; 
£ mi volea mandar dritto alia morte : 

Ch^ di secreto ha commesso alia guida, 
Che, come m' abbia in queste selve tratta, 
Per degno premio di mia f^, m' uccida : 
Cosi r intenzion gli venia fatta, 
Se tu non eri appresso alle mie grida. 
Ve' come Amor ben, chi lui segue, tratta ! 
Cosi narro Dalinda al Paladino, 
Seguendo tuttavolta il lor camino ; 


98 ORLANDO FURIOSO. [s.75— 78 

A cui fu sopra ogn* avventura grata 
Questa, d' aver trovata la donzella, 
Che gli avea tutta V istoria narrata 
De 1* innocenzia di Ginevra bella. 
£ 86 sperato avea, quando accusata 
Ancor fosse a ragion, d' aiutar quella; 
Con via ma^or baldanza or viene in proYa, 
Poi che evidente la calunnia tniova. 

£ verso la citta di Santo Andrea, 
Dove erail R6 con tutta la famiglia, 
£ la battaglia singular dovea 
£sser de la querela de la figlia, 
Ando Rinaldo quanto andar potea, 
Fin che vicino giunse a poche miglia ; 
Alia citta vicino giunse, dove 
T|rov6 un scudier ch* avea piu fresche nuove : 

Ch' un Cavalliere fstrano era venuto, 
Ch' a dif^kler Crinevra s' avea tolto, 
Con non u^ate. insegne, e sconosciuto, 
Perd che sempre ascoso andava molto ; 
£ che, dopo che v' era, ancor veduto 
Non gli avea alctino al discop^rto il volto ; 
£ che 1 proprio scudier, che gli servia, 
Dicea, giurando : lo non so dir chi sia. 

Non cavalcaro molto, ch' alle mura 
Si trovar de la Terra, e in su la porta. 
Dalinda andar piu inanzi avea paura ; 
Pur va, poi che Rinaldo la conforta. 
La porta ^ chiusa ; et a chi n' avea cura 
Rinaldo domando : Questo ch' 'importa ? 
E fugli detto : Perch^ '1 popul ttttt6 
A veder la battaglia era ridutto. 

». 79 82] CANTO V. 99 

Che tra Lurcanio e un cavallier istrano 
Si fa ne 1' altro capo de la Terra, 
Ove era un prato spazioso e piano ; 
£ clie gia cominciata hanno la guerra. 
Aperto fvL al Signor di Montealbano ; 
G tosto il portinar dietro gli serra. 
Per la y6ta citta Rinaldo passa ; 
IMEa la Donzella al primo albergo lassa : 

£ dice ; che sicura ivi si stia 
Fin. che ritomi a lei, che sara tosto ; . 
£ verso n campo poi ratto s' invla, 
r>ove li dui guerrier dato e risposto 
Molto s' aveanoy e davan tutta via. 
Stava Lurcanio di mal cor disposto 
Contra Ginevra ; e V altro in sua difesa 
Ben sostenea la £Eivorita impresa. 

Sei cavallier con lor ne lo steccato 
£rano a piedi, aimati di eorazza, 
Col Duca d'Albania, ch' era nHmtato 
S' un possente corsier di buona razza. 
Come a Gran contestabile, a lui dato 
La guardia fu del campo e de la piazza : 
£ di veder Ginevra in gran periglio 
Avea il cor lieto, et orgoglioso il ciglio. 
Rinaldo s^ ne va tra gente e gente : 
Fassi £ur largo il buon destrier Baiardo : 
Chi la tempesta del suo venir sente, 
A dargU via non par zoppo nh tardo. 
Rinaldo vi compar sopra eminente^ 
£ ben rassembra il fior d'ogni gagliardo ; 
Poi si ferma all' incontro ove il Re siede: 
Ognun s' accosta per udir cfae chiede. 

100 ORLANDO FURIOSO. [s. 8a~86 

Rinaldo disse al Re : Magno Signore, 
Non lasciar la battaglia piu seguire ; 
Perch^ di questi dua qualunche more, 
Sappi ch* a torto tu '1 lasci morire. 
L' un crede aver ragione et e in errore, 
£ dice il falso e non sa di mentire ; 
Ma quel medesmo error, ehe 1 suo germano 
A morir trasse, a lui pon V arme in mano : 

L' altro non sa, se s' abbia dritto o torto ; 
Ma sol per gentilezza e per bontade 
In pericol si d posto d' esser morto, 
'Per non lasciar morir tanta beltade. 
lo la salute all' innocenzia porto : 
Porto il contrario a chi usa falsitade. 
Ma, per Dio, questa pugna prima parti ; 
Poi mi da audienza a quel ch' io vo' narrarti. 

Fu da r autorita d' un uom si degno. 
Come Rinaldo gli parea al sembiante. 
Si mosso il Re, cbe disse e fece segno, 
Che non andasse piu la pugna inante ; 
Al quale insieme et a i baron del regno, 
£ a i cavallieri e all' altre turbe tante 
Rinaldo fe' V inganno tutto espresso, 
Ch' avea ordito a Ginevra Polinesso. 

Indi s'ofierse di voler provare 
Coir arme, ch' era ver quel ch' avea detto. 
Chiamasi Polinesso ; et ei compare. 
Ma tutto conturbato ne V aspetto : 
Pur con audacia comincio a negare. 
Disse Rinaldo : Or noi vedrem Y effetto. 
L' uno -e V altro era armato, il campo fatto ; 
Si che senza indugiar vengono al fatto. 

s. 8T OO] CANTO V. 101 

Oil quanto ha il Re, quantoha il suo popul, caro 
Clie Ginevra a provar s* abbl innocente ! 
Tixtti lian spcranza che Dio mostri chiaro 
oil' impudica era detta ingiustamente. 
Orudel, superbo, e riputato avaro 
Fu Folinesso, iniquo e fraudolente ; 
Si clie ad alcun miracolo non fia, 
Olie r inganno da lui tramato sia. 

Sta Polinesso con la faccia mesta, 
Ool cor tremante e con pallida guancia; 
IS al terzo suon mette la lancia in resta. 
Cos! Rinaldo inverso lui si lancia, 
Cbe, disioso di finir la festa, 
l^ira a passargli il petto con lancia : 
'Ne discorde al disir segui V efietto ; 
Che meza V asta gli caccio nel petto. 

Fisso nel tronco lo transporta in terra 
liontan dal suo destrier piu di sei braccia. 
Rinaldo smonta subito, e gli afferra 
L' elmo, pria che si lievi, e gli lo slaccia : 
Ma quel, che non pud far piu troppa guerra, 
Gli domanda mercd con umil faccia, 
£ gli confessa, udendo il Re e la corte. 
La fraude sua, che V ha condutto a morte. 

Non fini il tutto, e in mezo la parola 
£ la voce e la vita V abandona. 
II Re, che liberata la figliuola 
Vede da morte e da fama non buona, 
Piu s'allegra, gioisce e raconsola, 
Che, s' avendo perduta la corona, 
Ripor s^ la vedesse allora allora : 
Si che Rinaldo unicamente onora. 

1012 ORLANDO PUEIOSO. [8.91— -92 

E| poi ch' al trar de V elmo conosciuto 
L' ebbe, perch' altre yolte V avea visto, 
Levd le mani a Dio, che d' un aiuto 
Come era quel, gli avea si ben provisto. 
Quell' altro cavallier, che, sconosciuto, 
Soccorso avea Ginevra al oaso tristo, 
£t armato per lei a' era oondutto, 
Stato da parte era a vedere il tutto. 

Dal Re pregato fti di dire il nome, 
O di lasciarsi al men veder scoperto, 
Accid da lui fosse premiato, come 
Di sua buona intenzion chiedeva il merto. 
Quel, dopo lunghi preghi, da le cbiome 
Si levo r elmo, e fe' palese e oerto 
Quel, che ne V altro Canto ho da seguire, 
Se grata vi nrkV istoria udire. 

CANTO SfiSTO. [8. 1 

MisEE chi mal oprando si confida 
Ch' ognor star debbia il maleficio occulto ; 
Che, quando ognaltro taccia, intorno grida 
L* aria, e la terra istessa in ch' k sepulto : 
£ Dio fa spesso che '1 peccato guida 
II peccator, poi ch' alcun di gli ha indulto, 
Che se medesmo, senza altrui richiesta, 
Innavvedutamente manifesta. 

s. 2 5J CANTO VI. 103 

Avea creduto il miser Polinesso 
rCot^almente il delitto suo coprire, 
X>alinda consapevole d' appresso 
X^e^andosi, che sola il potea dire : 
*£!, aggiungendo il secondo al primo eccesso, 
A.fiEretto il mal che potea difierire, 
S potea differire e schivar forse ; 
IVff a, s^ stesso spronando, a morir corse : 

£ perd^ amici a im tempo, e vita e Stato 
C onor, che fa molto piu grave danno. 
Dissi di sopra, xke fa assai pregato 
XI cavallier, ch' ancor chi sia non sanno. 
Al fin si trasse V elmo, e '1 viso amato 
Scoperse, che piu volte veduto hanno ; 
IB dimostro come era Ariodante, 
Per tutta Scozia lacrimato inante ; 
Ariodante, che Oinevra pianto 
Avea per morto, e *l firatel pianto avea, 
II Re, la corte, il popul tutto quanto : 
Di tal bonta, di tal valor splendea. 
Adunque il peregrin mentir di quanto 
Dianzi di lui narro, quivi apparea ; 
£ fu pur ver che dal sasso mkrino 
Gittarsi in mar lo vide a capo chino. 

Ma (come avviene a un disperato spesso, 
Che da lontan brama e disia la morte, 
£ r odia poi che se la vede appresso ; 
Tanto gli pare il passo acerbo e forte) 
Ariodante, poi ch' in mar fu messo. 
Si pent! di morire: e come forte, 
E come destro e piu d' ognaltro ardito, 
Si messe a nuoto e ritornossi al lito ; 

104 ORLANDO FURIOSO. [s. 6-9 

E dispregiando e nominando folle 
11 desir ch* ebbe di lasciar la vita, 
Si mease a caminar bagnato e moUe^ 
E capito all' ostel d' un Eremita. 
Quivi secretamente indiigiar voile 
Tanto, che la novella avesse udita, 
Se del case Ginevra s' allegrasse, 
O pur mesta e pietosa ne restasse. 

Intese prima, che, per gran dolore, 
Ella era stata a rischio di morire ; 
La fama ando di questo in*modo fuore, 
Che ne fu in tutta Y isola che dire : 
Contrario effetto a quel, che, per errore, 
Credea aver visto con suo gran martire. 
Intese poi, come Lurcanio avea 
Fatta Ginevra appresso il padre rea. 

Contra il fratel d' ira minor non arse, 
Che per Ginevra gia d* amore ardesse ; 
Chd troppo empio e crudele atto gli parse, 
Ancora che per lui fatto Y avesse. 
Sentendo poi, che per lei non comparse 
Cavallier, che difender la volesse 
(Ch^ Lurcanio si forte era e gagliardo, 
Ch* ognun d' andargli contra avea riguardo ; 

E chi n' avea notizia, il riputava 
Tanto discreto, e si saggio et accorto, 
Che, se non fosse ver quel che narrava, 
Non si porrebbe a rischio d' esser morto ; 
Per questo la piu parte dubitava 
Di non pigliar questa difesa a torto) ; 
Ariodante, dopo gran discorsi, 
Penso all' accusa del fratello opporsi» 

s. lO 13] CANTO VI. 10.5 

lasso ! io non potrei (seco dicea) 
Sen.t:iT per mia cagion perir costei : 
ITropiK) mia morte fora acerba e rea, 
Se ixianzi a me morir vedessi lei. 
'EtUa. e pur la mia donna e la mia dea ; 
Q^uesta e la luce pur de gli occhi miei : 
Oonvien ch' a dritto e a torto, per suo scampo, 
Pigli r impresa, e resti morti in campo. 

So ch' io m' appiglio al torto ; e al torto sia : 
S ne morro ; ne questo mi sconforta, 
Se non ch' io so, che, per la morte mia, 
Si bella donna ha da restar poi morta. 
XJn sol conforto nel morir mi fia, 
Cbe, se '1 suo Polinesso amor le porta, 
Chiaramente veder avr^ potuto, 
Che non s' e mosso ancor per darle aiuto; 

£ me, che tanto espressamente ha ofieso, 
Vedra, per lei salvare, a morir giunto. 
Di mio fratello insieme, il quale acceso 
Tanto foco ha* vendicherommi a un punto; 
Ch' io Io faro doler, poi che compreso 
H fine avra del suo crudele assunto : 
Creduto vendicar avra il germano, 
E gli avra dato morte di sua mano. 

Concluso ch' ebbe questo nel pensiero, 
Nuoye arme ritrovo, nuovo cavallo ; 
£ sopraveste nere e scudo nero 
Porto, fregiato a color verdegiallo. 
Per avventura si trovo un scudiero 
Ignoto in quel paese, e menato hallo : 
£, sconosciuto (come ho gia narrato), 
S' appresento contra il fratello armato. 


106 ORLANDO FURIOSO. [s. 14-17 

Narrato v' ho conne il fatto successe : 
Come fu conosduto Ariodante, 
Non minor gaudip d* ebbe il Re, ch' avesse 
De la figliuola liberata inante. 
Seco penso cbe mai non si potesse 
Trovar un piu fedele e vexo amante ; 
Che, dopo tanta ingiuriai la difesa 
Di lei, contra il fratel proprio, avea p^esa. 

£ per sua inclinaabn (ch' assai V amava) 
B per li pregbi di tutta la corte, 
£ di Rinaldo, che pid d' altri instava, 
De la bella figliuola il £i jconsorte. 
La Duchda d' Albania, cb'.al Re tomava 
Dopo che Polinesso ebbe la morte» 
In miglior tempo discader non puote, 
Poi che la dona alia sua figlia in dote 

Rinaldo per Dalinda impetrd ^azia, 
Che sd n' ando di tanto errore esente ; 
La qual per voto, e perch^ molto sazia 
£ra del mondo, a Dio vobe la mente* 
Monaca s' ando a render fin in Dazia, 
£ si levo di Scozia inmantinente. 
Ma tempo d omai di ritrovar Ruggiero, 
Che scorre il del su V animal leggiero. 

Benche Ruggier sia d' animo constantCi 
Ne cangiato abbia il solito colore, 
lo non gli voglio creder che tremante 
Non abbia dentro piii che foglia il core. 
Lasciato avea di gran spazio distante 
Tytta r £uropa, et era uscito fuore 
Per molto spazio il segno che prescritto 
Avea gia a' naviganti Rrcole invitto. 

— 21] CANTO VI. 107 

Q^viello Ippogrifo, graade e stnmo augello, 
X^o x>^^^ ^ ^^^ ^ prestezaa d' ale, . 
CY^e lascieria di lungo tratto qoello 
Celer ministro del fulmineo strale. 
"MoTi va per V luria altro animal si snello, 
Clie di velocita gli fosse uguale : 
Credo ch' a poaa il.tiioiio e la saetta 
ATenga in terra dal ciel conrinaggior fretta. 

Poi che r augel trascorso ebbe gran spazio 
Per linea dritta e s&aoBk mai piegarsi. 
Con larghe niote^ omai de Y aria sazio, 
Oomincio sopra.raa isola a calars!, 
l?are a quella ove, dopo lungo strasio 
Tar del suo amante e lungo a lui celarsi, 
La vergine Aretusa passo in vanoy 
Di sotto il mar per camin cieco e strano. 

Non vide n^ '1 piu bel n^ 1 piu giocondo 
Da tutta V aria» ove le penne steae ; 
N^9 se tutto cercato avesse il mondo, 
Vedria di questo il piu gentil paese, 
Ove, dopo un girarsi di gran tondo, 
Con Rubier seco, il grande augel discese. 
Culte pianure e delicati colli, 
Chiare acque, ombrose ripe e prati molli, 

Vaghi boscbetti di soavi allori, 
Di palme e d' amenissime mortelle, 
Cedri et aranci, cb' avean frutd e fiori, 
Contesd in varie forme e tutte belle, 
Facean riparo a i fervidi calori 
De' giomi esdvi, con lor spesse ombrelle ; / 
£ tra quei rami, con sicuri voli 
Cantando, sh ne giano i rosignuoli. 


108 ORLANDO FURIOSO. [s. 23-25 

Tra la purpttree rdse e i bianchi gigli, 
Che tepida aura fireschi ogn' ora serba, 
Sicuri si vedean lepri e conigli, 
E cervi con la fronte alta e superba, 
Senza temer ch' alcun gli uccida o pigb', 
Pascano o stiansi rominando V erba : 
Saltano i daini e i capri isnelli e destri, 
Cbe sono in copia in quei locbi campestri. 

Come 81 presso e 1* Ippogrifo a terra 
Ch' esser ne pud men periglioso il salto, 
Ruggier con fretta de Y arcion si sferra, 
£ si ritruova in su 1* erboso smalto. 
Tuttavia in man le redine si serra, 
Chd non vuol che '1 destrier piu vada in alto : 
Poi lo lega nel margine marine 
A un verde mirto, in mezo un lauro e un pino. 

E, quivi appresso, ove surgea una fonte 
Cinta di cedri e di feconde palme, 
Pose lo scudo, e Y elmo da la fronte 
Si trasse, e disarmossi ambe le palme : 
Et ora alia marina et ora al monte 
Volgea la faccia alF aure fresche et alroe^ 
Che r alte cime con mormorii lieti 
Fan tremolar de i fiiggi e de gli abeti« 

Bagna tal'or ne la chiara onda e fresca 
L' asciutte labra, e con le man diguazza, 
Accio che de le vene il calore. esca, 
Che gli ha acceso il portar de la corazza. 
N^ maraviglia k gia ch* ella gP incresca, 
Ch^ non k stato un far vedersi in piazza: 
Ma, senza mai posar, d' arme guernito, 
Tremila miglia, ogn' or correndo, era ito. 

.29] CANTO VI. 109 

^vi^i^i stando, il destrier, ch* avea lasciato 
\e piu dense frasche alia fresca ombra, 
£iiggir si rivolta, spaventato 
H>i xxon so che, che dentro al bosco adombra ; 
croUar si il mirto ove h legato, 
de le frondi intorno il pie gli ingombra : 
Oxollar fa il mirto, e fa cader la foglia ; 
'N^e succede pero, che s^ ne scioglia* 
Come ceppo tal*or, che le medolle 
Rare e vote abbia, e posto al fiioco sia, 
Poi che per gran calor quell' aria molle 
XCesta consunta ch' in mezo V empia, 
IDentro risuona, e con strepito bolle 
Tanto, che quel furor truovi la via ; 
Cosi murmura e stride e si coruccia 
Quel mirto ofieso, e al fine apre la buccia. 

Onde con mesta e flebil voce uscio 
Espedita e chiarissima &vel]a, 
£ disse : Se tu sei cortese e pio, 
Come dimostri alia presenza bella, 
Lieva questo animal da V arbor mio : 
Basti che '1 mio mal proprio mi flagella, 
Senza altra pena, senza altro dolore, 
Ch' a tormentarmi ancor venga di fuore. 

Al primo suon di quella voce torse 
Ruggiero il viso, e subito levosse ; 
£, poi ch' uscir da 1' arbore s' accorse, 
Stupefatto resto piu che mai fosse. 
A levame il destrier subito corse : 
E con le guancie di vergogna rosse : 
Qual che tu sii, perdonami (dicea) 
O spirto umano, o boschereccia Dea« 

1 10 ORLANDO FURIOSO. [s. 30-33 

II non aver saputo che s* asconda 
Sotto ruvida scorza umano spirto, 
M' ha lasciato turhar la bella fironda, 
E far inginria al tuo vivace mirto : 
Ma non restar perd, che b(mi risponda 
Chi tu ti sia, ch' in corpo orrido et irto, 
Con voce e razionale anima vivi ; 
Se da grandine il cid sempre ti schivi. 

£, s' ora o mai potrd questo dispetto 
Con alcun beneficio oompensarte, 
Per quella beUa donna ti prometto, 
Quella che di me ti^ la miglidr parte, 
Ch' io &rbj con parole e con efFetto, 
Ch' avrai giusta cagion di me lodarte. 
Come Ruggiero al suo parlar fin diede, 
Tremo quel mirto da la. cima al piede. 

Poi si vide sudar sn per la scorsa. 
Come legno dal bosco all'ora tratio, . 
Che del fuoco veiiir sente la fovza, 
Poscia ch' in vano ogiii ripar gli ha fittto ; 
£ comincio: Tua oortesia ml sforza 
A discoprirti in im medesmo tratto 
Ch' io fossi ^pntOBLr e chi omv^rao m' aggia 
In questo mirto in sa V ameaa spiaggia. 

II nome mio fu Astolfo; e Pahidino 
Era di Francia, assai teitiuto^ in giierra : 
D' Orlando e di Rinaldo &ra eugtno, 
La cui fama alcun tdrmine non serra : 
E si spettava a me tutto il domino, 
Dopo il mio padre Oton, de 1'- Isghilterra : 
Leggiadro e bel^i si, «he di me accesi 
Piu d' una donna ; e al fin me solo ofifesi. 

s. 34 37] CANTO VI. Ill 

X<.itomando io da quelle isole estreme, 
Olie da Levante il mar Indieo lava, 
X>o^e Rinaldo at alcun' altri insieme 
!N^eco fur chiusi in parte oscura e cava, 
^Et, onde liberate le supreme 
FoTze n* avean del Cavallier di Brava ; 
"Ver Fonente io venia lungo la sabbia - 
Olie del Settentrion sente la rabbia. 

E, come la via nostra e il duro e fello 
XDistin ci trasse, uscimmo una matina 
Sopra la bella spiaggia, ove un castello 
Siede sul mar, de la possente Alcina. 
Trovammo lei, ch' uscita era di quello, 
£ stava sola in ripa alia marina ; 
E senza rete e senza amo traea 
Tutti li pesci al lito, cbe volea. 
Veloci vi correvano i delfini, 
Vi venia a bocca s^ita il grosso tdnno ; 
I capidogli coi vecchi fnarini 
Vengon turbati dal lor pigro sonno ; 
Muli, salpe, salmoni e coracini 
Nuotano a schiere in piii fretta cbe ponno ; 
Fistrici, fisiteri, orcbe e balene 
Escon del mar con monstruose schiene. 

Veggiamo una balena, la maggiore 
Cbe mai per tutto il mar veduta fosse : 
Undeci pass! e piu dimostra fuore 
De r onde salse le spallaccie grosse. 
Cascbiamo tutti insieme in uno errore : 
Percb' era ferma e cbe mai non si scosse, 
Cb' ella sia una isoletta ci credemo ; 
Cosi distante ba Y un da V altro estremo. 

1 1 2 ORLANDO FUBIOSO. [s. 38^41 

Alcina i pesci uscir facea cle 1* acque 
Con semplici parole e puri incanti. 
Con la fata Morgana Alcina nacque, 
lo non so dir a' a un parto, o dopo, o inanti. 
Guardommi Alcina ; e subito le piacqae 
L' aspetto mio, come mostro ai sembianti : 
£ pensd con astuzia e con ingegno 
Tonni ai compagni ; e riusci ildisegno. 

Ci venne incontra con all^ra fiiccia. 
Con modi graziosi e riverenti ; 
£ disse : Cavallier, quando vi piaccia 
Far oggi meco i vostri allbggiamenti, 
lo vi faro veder, ne la mia caccia, 
Di tutti i pesd sorti diflferenti ; 
Chi scaglioso, cbi molle, e cbi col pelo ; 
£ saran piu cbe non ba stelle il cielo. 

£ volendo vedere una Sirena 
Cbe col suo dolce canto acbeta il mare, 
Passian di qui fin su quelV altra arena. 
Dove a quest' ora suol sempre tomare ; 
£ ci mostro quella maggior balena, 
Che, come io dissi, una isoletta pare, 
lo, cbe sempre fui troppo (e men' incresce) 
Volonteroso, andai sopra quel pesce. 

Rinaldo m' accennava, e similmente 
Dudon, cb' io non v' andassi ; e poco valse. 
La fata Alcina con faccia ridente, 
Lasciando gli altri dua, dietro mi salse. 
La balena, all' ufficio diligente, 
Nuotando se n' ando per 1' onde salse. 
Di mia scioccbezza tosto fui pentito ; 
Ma troppo mi trovai lungi dal lito. 

4.2 — 45] CANTO VI. 113 

X<.inaldo si caccid ne Y acqua a nuoto 
aiutarmi, e quasi si sommerse, 
X^erche levossi un furioso Noto, 
Olie d' ombra il cielo e '1 pelago coperse. 
Q,ij.el che di lui segui poi, non m' h noto. 
.A^lcina a confortarmi si converse ; 
S quel di tutto e la notte che venne, 
Sopra quel mostro in mezo il mar mi tenne : 

Fin che venimmo a questa isola bella, 
I>i cui gran parte Alcina ne possiede ; 
S r ha usurpata ad una sua sorella, 
Ohe '1 padre gia lascio del tutto erede, 
Perch^ sola legidma avea quella ; 
£ (come alcun hotizia me ne diede, 
Che pienamente instrutto era di questo) 
Sono quest' altre due nate d' incesto : 

E come sono inique e scelerate 
E piene d' ogni vizio infame e brutto ; 
Cosi quella, vivendo in castitate, 
Posto ha ne le yirtuti il suo cor tutto. 
Contra lei queste due son congiurate ; 
£ gia piu d* uno esercito hanno instrutto 
Per cacciarla de 1' isola, e in piu volte 
Piu di cento castella V hanho tolte : 

N^ ci terrebbe ormai spanna di terra 
Colei, che Logistilla ^ nominata, 
Se non che quinci un golfo il passo serra, 
£ quindi una montagna inabitata ; 
Si come tien la Scozia e V Inghilterra 
II monte e la riviera, separata : 
N^ pero Alcina nh Morgana resta, 
Che non le voglia tor cid che le resta. 


114 ORLANDO FURI080. Q8.46— 49 

Perch^ di vizii h questa coppia rea, 
Odia colei percb^ h pudica e santa. 
Ma* per tornar a quel ch* io ti dicea, 
E seguir poi com' io divenni pianta, 
Alcina in gran delizie mi tenea, 
E del mio amore ardeva tutta quanta ; 
Vh minor fiamma nel mio core accese 
II veder lei si bella e si cortese. 

Io mi godea le delicate membra: 
Pareami aver qui tutto il ben raccolto, 
Cbe fra i mortali in piu parti si smembra, 
A chi piu et a cbi meno, e a nessun molto ; 
N^ di Francia ne d' altro mi rimembra : 
Stavami sempre a contemplar quel volto : 
Ogni pensiero, ogni mio bel disegno 
In lei finia, nd passava okre ii segno. 

Io da lei altretanto era o piu ainato : 
Alcina piu non si curava d' altri : 
Ella ogn' altro suo anumte avea lasciato; 
Ch' inanzi a itie ben ce ne fur de gli aitri. 
Me consiglier, me' avea di e notte a lato ; 
E me fe' quel che comandava a gli altri : 
A me credeva, a me si riportava : 
N^ notte o di con altri mai parlava. 

Deb ! percbe vo le mie piaghe toccando, 
Senza speranza poi di medicina ? 
Percbe r avuto ben vo rimembrando, 
Quando io patisco estrema disciplina? 
Quando credea d' esser felice, e quando 
Credea cb' amar piu mi dovesse Alcina; 
n cor, cbe m' avea dato, si ritolse, 
E ad altro nuovo amor tutta si yolse. 

s. 50 — 53] CANTO VI. 115 

Oonobbi tardi il suo mobil ingegno, 
Ussfcto amare e disamare a un punto. 
'Non era stato oltre a duo mesi in regno, 
CH* un novo amante al loco mio fu assunto. 
X>a. se cacciommi la Fata con sdegno, 
S da la grazia sua m' ebbe disgninto: 
ISt seppi poi, che tiratti a simil porto 
A.Tea mill'-altri amanti, e tutti a torto. 
E perch^ essi non yadano pel mondo 
jyi lei narrando la vita lascira, 
Chi qua, chi la per lo terren fecondo 
111 muta, altri in abete, altri in oliva, 
Altri in palma, altri in cedro, altri (secondo 
Che vedi me) su questa verde riva ; 
Altri in liquido fonte, alcuni in fera, 
CiHne piu agrada a quella Fata altiera. 

Or tu, che sei per non usata via, 
Signor, venuto all' isola fatale, 
Accio ch' alcuno amante per te sia 
Converso in pietra o in onda, o fatto tale ; 
Avrai d' Alcina scettro e signoria, 
E sarai lieto sopra ogni mortale : 
Ma certo.sii di giunger tosto al passo 
D' entrar o in fera o in fonte o in legno o in sasso. 

lo te n' ho dato volentieri avviso : 
Non ch' io mi creda i^he debbia giovarte ; 
Pur meglio fia che non vadi improviso, 
E de' costumi suoi tu sappia parte : 
Che forse, come ^ differente il viso, 
£ differente ancor 1* ingegno e V arte. 
Tu saprai forse riparar al danno ; 
Quel che saputo mill' altri non hanno. 

116 ORLANDO FURIOSO. [s. 54--5^ 

Roggier, che conosciuto avea per fama, 
Ch' Astolfo aUa sua donaa cugin era. 
Si dolse assai, che in steril pianta e grama 
Mutato avesse la sembiansa vera ; 
£, per amor di quella che tanto ama, 
{Pur che saputo avesse in che maniera) 
Gli avria fatto servizio : ma aiutarlo 
In altro non potea, ch' in confortarlo. 

Lo fe' al meglio che ^eppe ; e domandolU 
Foil 86 via c' era, ch* al regno guidassi 
Di Logistilla, o per piano o per colli, 
Si che per quel d* Alcina non andassi. 
Che ben ve n' era un* altra, ritornolli 
L* arbore a dir, ma piena d' aspri sassi, 
S' andando un poco inanzi alia man destra, 
Salisse il poggio, in ver la cima alpestra. 

Ma che non pensi gia, che seguir possa 
n suo camin per quella strada troppo : 
Incontro avra di gente ardita, grossa 
£ fiera compagnia, con duro intoppo. 
Alcina ve li tien, per muro e fossa 
A chi volesse uscir fuor del suo groppo. 
Ruggier quel mirto ringrazio del tutto, 
Poi da lui si pard dotto et instrutto.' 

Venne al cavallo, e lo disciolse e prese 
Per le redine, e dietro se Ig trasse : 
Nd, come fece prima, piii V ascese, 
Perch^ mal grado suo non lo portasse. 
Seco pensava come nel paese 
Di Logistilla a salvamento andasse. 
Era disposto e fermo usar ogni opra, 
Che non gli avesse imperio Alcina sopra. 

1] CANTO VI. 117 

Penso di rimontar sul suo cavallo, 
£ per 1* aria spronarlo a nuovo corso ; 
IMa. dubito di far poi maggior fallo ; 
CHe tToppo mal quel gli ubidiva al morso* 
lo pa,sserd per forza, s* io non &llo 
CX>icea tra se), ma vano era il discorso. 
l^on fu duo miglia lungi alia marina^ 
Clie ]a bella citta vide d* Alcina. 

Xaontan si vide una muraglia lunga, 
Olie gira intorno, e gran paese serra : 
^ par cbe la sua altezza al ciel s' aggiunga^ 
C d' oro sia da V alta cima a terra. 
Alcun dal mio parer qui si dilunga, 
- £1 dice, cb' ell' e alcbimia ; e forse cb' erra^ 
St anco forse meglio di me intende : 
A me par oro, poi che si risplende. 

Come fu presso alle si riccbe mura,. 
Che '1 mondo altre non ba de la lor sorte, 
liascio la strada, cbe, per la pianura, 
Ampla e diritta andava alle gran porte : 
Et a man destra a quella piu sicura 
Ch' al monte gia, piegossi il guerrier forte : 
Ma tosto ritrovd V iniqua frotta, 
Dal cui furor gli fu turbata e rotta. 

Non fu veduta mai piu strana torma, 
Fill roonstruosi volti e peggio fatti ; 
Alcun' dal collo in giu d' uomini ban forma, 
Col viso altri di simie, altri di gatti ; 
Stampano alcun' con pie caprigni 1' orma ; 
Alcuni son centauri agili et atti ; 
Son gioveni impudenti, e veccbi stolti, 
Chi nudi, e cbi di strane pelli involti : 

118 ORLANDO FURIOSO. C8.63-«3 

Cbi sensa freno in s' un destrier galoppa, 
Chi lento va oon V asino o col bne ; 
Altri salisce ad un centauro in groppa ; 
Stmzzoli mold han sotto, aquile e grue : 
Ponsi altri a bocca il coino» altri la coppa, 
Cbi femina e cbi madcbio e cbi amendue ; 
Chi porta uncino e cbi scala di corda, 
Chi pal di ferro e cbi una lima sorda. 

Di questi il capitano si vedea 
Aver gonfiato il ventre, e 1 viso grasso ; 
n qual su una testuggine sedea, 
Che con gran tardita mutava il passo. 
Avea di qua e di 1& cbi lo reggea, 
Percb^ egli era ebro, e tehea il ciglio basso : 
Altri la fronte gli asciugava e il mento, 
Altri i panni scuotea per fargli vento. 

Un, cb' avea umana fonna i piedi e 1 ventre, 
E collo avea di cane, oreccbie e testa. 
Contra Ruggiero abaia, accid cV egli entre 
Ne la bella citt^ cb' a dletro resta. Cavallier: Nol fard, mentre 
Avr& forza la man di regger questa ; 
(£ gli mostra la spada, di cui volta 
Avea r aguzza pimta alia sua volta.) 

Quel monstro lui ferir vuol d' una lancia ; 
Ma Ruggier presto se gli avventa addosso : 
Una stoccata gli trasse alia panda, 
£ la fe' un palmo rioscir pel dosso. 
Lo scudo imbraccia^ e quA e la si lancia, 
Ma r inimico stuolo h trbppo grosso : 
L' un quinci il punge, e Y altro quindi afierra : 
Egli s* arrosta, e fa lor aspra guerra. 

8. 66—69] CANTO VI. 119 

X' iin sin a' dentin e V altro sin al petto 
PaTtendo va di qudla iniqua razza ; 
Ch' alia sua spada non s' oppone elmetto, 
N'e scudo, nh panziera, n^ corazza. 
IVIa da tutte le parti h oosi astretto, 
Olie bisogno saria, per trovar piazza 
S tener da se largo fl popul reo, 
I>' aver piii braccia e man, che Briareo. 

Se di scoprire avessa avutb avviso 
Lio scudo cbe gia fu del Negromante ; 
lo dico quel cb' abbarbagliava il viso, 
Quel ch* all* arcione avea lasciato Atlante ; 
Subito avria quel brutto stubl conquiso, 

C fattosel cader cieoo davante ; 

£ forse ben» cbe disprezzo quel modo, 

Percbe virtude usar volse e non frodo. 
Sia quel cbe pud, piu tosto vuol morire, 

Cbe rendersi prigione a si vtf gente. 

Eccoti intanto da la porta usc»6 

Del muroy cb' io dicea d' oro lue«nte, 

Due giovani, cb' a i gesd et al vestire 

Non eran da stimar naie umilmente, 

Nd da pastor nutrite con disagi, 

Ma fira delizie di Real palagi. 
L' una e Y altra sedea s' un liocorno, 

Candido piii cbe candido armelino ; 

L' una e Y altra era bella, e di si adomo 

Abito, e modo tanto pellegrino, 

Che a r uom, guardando e contemplando intomo, 

Bisognerebbe aver occbio divino 

Per far di lor giudizio : e tal saria 

Belta (s' avesse corpo) e Leggiadria. 

120 ORLANDO FURIOSO. [s. 70-73 

L' una e 1* altra n' ando dove nel prato 
Ruggiero e oppresso da lo stuol villano. 
Tutta la turba si levo da lato ; 
E quelle al cavallier porser la mano, 
Che, tinto in viso di color rosato, 
Le donne ringrazio de 1* atto unaano : 
E fu contento, compiacendo loro, 
Di ritornarsi a quella porta d' oro. 

L' adomamento, che s' aggira sopra 
La bella porta, e sporge un poco ayante. 
Parte non ha che tutta non si cuopra 
De le piu rare gemme di Levante. 
Da quattro parti si riposa sopra 
Grosse colonne d* integro diamante. 
O vero o falso ch' all' occhio risponda, 
Non e cosa piu bella o piu gioconda. 

Su per la soglia e fuor per le colonne 
Corron scherzando lascive donzelle, 
Che, se i rispetti debiti alle donne 
Servasser piu, sarian fbrse piu belle. 
Tutte yestite eran di verdi gonne, 
E coronate di frondi noyelle. 
Queste, con molte offerte e con buon viso, 
Ruggier fecero entrar nel paradiso : 

Ch^ si pud ben cosi homar quel loco, 
Ove mi credo che nascesse Amore. 
Non vi si sta se non in danza e in giuoco, 
E tutte in festa vi si spendon 1* ore : 
Pensier canuto nh molto ne poco 
Si pud quivi albergare in alcun core : 
Non entra quivi disagio ne inopia. 
Ma vi sta ogn'or col corno pien la Copia. 

5. 74: 771 CANTO VI. 121 

Q,iii, ^ove con serena e lieta fronte 
"Pax clx* ogn'or rida il grazioso Aprile, 

e donne son : qual presso a fbnte 
con dolce e dllettoso stile ; 
dual d' un arbore all* ombra, e qual d' un monte, 
O giiJioca o danza o fa cosa non vile : 
"El qiial, lungi da gli altri, a un suo fedele 
l>iscTiopre V amorose sue querele. 

Per le cime de i pini e de gli allori, 
l>e gli aid faggi e de gl' irsuti abeti 
Volan scherzando i pargoletti Amori ; 
X>i lor vittorie altri godendo lieta, 
AJLtri pigliando a saettare i cori 
lL>a mira quindi, altri tendendo reti ; 
Obi tempra dardi ad un ruscel piu basso, 
'E cbi gli aguzza ad un volubil sasso. 

Quivi a Ruggier un gran corsier fu dato 
Forte, gagliardo, e tutto di pel sauro, 
Ch' avea il bel guemimento ricamato 
Di preziose gemme e di fin' auro : 
£ fu lasciato in guardia quello alato, 
Quel cbe solea ubidire al veccbio Mauro, 
A un giovene, cbe dietro lo menassi 
Al buon Ruggier, con men frettosi passi. 

Quelle due belle giovani amorose, 
Cb' avean Ruggier da V empio stuol difeso. 
Da r empio stuol cbe dianzi sd gli oppose 
Su quel camin, cb* avea a man destra preso, 
Gli dissero : Signor, le virtiiose 
Opere vostre cbe g^h abbiamo inteso, 
Ne fan si ardite, cbe V aiuto vostro 
Vi chiederemo a beneficio nostro. 

1^2 ORLANDO PURIOSO. la. 78—81 

Noi trover^n tra via tosto una lama» 
Che fa due parti di questa pianura. 
Una crudel, che Erifilk si chiama, 
Difende il ponte, e sfor^a e inganna e fura 
Chiunque andar ne Y altra ripa brama ; 
Et ella h gigantessa di statura ; 
Li denti ha lunghi e velenoso il morfio» 
Acute r ugne, e graffia come un orso. 

Oltre che sempre ci turbi fl camino, 
Che libero saria, se non fosse ella, 
Spesso correndo per tutto il giardino, 
Va disturbando or questa cosa or quella. 
Sappiate che del populo assassino, 
Che vi assail fuor de la porta bella, • 
Molti suoi figli son, tutti seguaci, 
Empii, come ella, inospiti e rapaci. 

Ruggier rispose : Non ch' una hattaglia, 
Ma per voi sard pronto a farne cento. 
Di mia persona, in tutto quel che vaglia, 
Fatene voi secondo il vostro intento ; 
Ch^ la cagion ch' io vesto piastra e maglia, 
Non k per guadagnar terre, nd argento, 
Ma sol per farne beneficio altrui ; 
Tanto piu a belle donne, come vui. 

Le donne molte grazie riferiro 
Degne d' un cavallier, come quell' era: 
E, cosi ragionando, ne yenjro 
Dove videro il ponte e la riyiera; 
E di smeraldo omata e di zafiro 
Su r arme d' 6r, vider la donna altiera. 
Ma dir ne V altro Canto difierisco, 
Come Ruggier con lei si pose a risco. 

s. 1 3] CANTO VII. \ftS 


Chi va lontan da la sua patrk, vede 
Cose da quel che gia credea, lontane ; 
Che, narrandole poi, non s<^ gli crede^ 
£ stimato bugiardo ne rimane : 
Ch^ 1 sciocoo Yulgo non gli vuol dar fade, 
Se non le vede e tocca chiare e plane. 
Per questaio so ehe V inesperienza 
Fara al mio canto dar poca credenza. 

Poca o molta ch' io ci abbia, non bisogna 
Ch' io ponga mente al yulgo soiocco e ignaro. 
A Yoi so ben che non parra menzc^a, 
Che 1 luroe del discorso avete chiluro ; 
Et a voi soli o^i mio intento agogna 
Che '1 firutto sia di mie fadche caro. 
Io vi lasciai che '1 ponte « la riviera 
Vider, che 'n guardia avea Erifilla altiera. 

QueU' era armata del piu fin metallo, 
Ch' avean di piu color gennne distinto : 
Rubin vermiglio, crisolito giallo, 
Verde smeraldo, con flavo iadnto. 
Era montata, ma non a caVaHo; 
In vece avea di quello un lupo l^pinto : 
Spinto avea un lupo ove si passa il fiume» 
Con ricca sella fuor d' ogni costume. 

124 ORLANDO FURIOSO. [s. 4—7 

Non credo ch' un si grande Apulia n' abbia : 
Egli era grosso et alto piii d' un bue. 
Con fren spumar non le facea le labbia ; 
N^ so come lo rega a voglie sue. 
La sopravesta di color di sabbia 
Su r arme avea la maledetta lue : 
Era, fuor cbe 1 color, di quella sorte 
Cb' i Vescovi e i Prelati usano in Corte. 

Et avea ne lo scudo e sul cimiero 
Una gonfiata e velenosa botta. 
Le donne la mostraro al cavalliero, 
Di qua dal ponte per giostrar ridotta, 
£ fargli scomo, e rompergli il sentiero. 
Come ad alcuni usata era talotta. 
EUa a Ruggier, che tomi adietro, grida : 
Quel piglia un' asta, e la minaccia e sfida. 

Non men la Gigantessa ardita e presta 
Sprona il gran lupo, e ne Y arcion si serra, 
E pon la lancia a mezo il corso in resta, 
E fa tremar nel suo venir la tef ra. 
Ma pur sul prato al fiero incontro resta, 
Cbl sotto r elmo il buon Ruggier Y afierra, 
E de r arcion con tal ^or la caccia, 
Cbe la riporta indietro oltra sei braccia. 

E gia (tratta la spada cb' avea cinta) 
Venia a levarne la testa superba : 
E ben lo potea far; cb^, come estinta, 
ErifiUa giacea tra' fiori e 1' erba. 
Ma le donne griddr : Basti sia vinta, 
Senza pigliame altra vendetta acerba. 
Ripon, cortese cavallier, la spada ; 
Passiamo il ponte, e seguitian la strada. 

s-8— -11] CANTO VII. 125 

Alquanto malagevole et aspretta 
X^er mezo un bosco presero la via ; 
Che, oltra che sassosa fosse e stretta, 
Quasi su dritta alia collina gia. 
Ma, poi che furo ascesi in su la vetta, 
Usciro in spaziosa prateria. 
Dove piu bel palazzo e '1 piii giocondo 
Vider, che mai fosse veduto al mondo. 

La bella Alcina venne un pezzo inante 
Verso Ruggier fuor de le prime porte ; 
£ lo raccolse in signoril sembiante, 
In mezo bella et onorata corte. 
Da tutti gli altri tanto onore e tante 
Riverenzie fur fatte al guerrier forte, 
Che non ne potrian far piii, se tra loro 
Fosse Dio sceso dal supemo coro. 

Non tanto il bel palazzo era escellente, 
Perch^ vincesse ogn' altro di ricchezza, 
Quanto ch' avea la piu piacevol gente 
Che fosse al mondo, e di piu gentilezza. 
Poco era V un da Y altro differente 
£ di fiorita etade e di bellezza : 
Sola di tutti Alcina era piu bella, 
Si come ^ hello il Sol piii d' ogni stella. 

Di persona era tanto ben formata, 
Quanto me' finger san pittori industri ; 
Con bionda chioma lunga et annodata : 
Oro non ^ che piii risplenda e lustri. 
Spargeasi per la guancia dehcata 
Misto color di rdse e di ligustri : 
Di terso avorio era la fronte heta, 
Che lo spazio finia con giusta meta. 

126 ORLANDO FURIOSO. [s. 12-15 

Sotto duo negri e sotdlissimi archi 
Son duo negri occhi, anzi duo chiari Soli, 
Pietosi a riguardare, a mover pardii ; 
Intomo cui par ch'* Amor sdiersi e yoli, 
£ ch' indi tottala fiuretra scarchi, 
E che visibilmente i cori inyoli : 
Quindi il naso per mezo il viso scende, 
Che non truova V Invidia ove Y emende. 

Sotto quel sta, quasi fra due vallette ; 
La bocca epiursa di natio cinabro : 
Quivi due filze son di perle elette^ 
Che chiude et apre un bello e dolce labro: 
Quindi escon le oortesi parolette 
Da render molle ogni cor rozo e scabro : 
Quivi si forma quel suave riso, 
Ch' apre a sua posta in terra il paradiso. 

Bianca nieve h il bel collo^ e '1 petto latte : 
n coUo ^ tondo, il petto ccdrao e largo. 
Due pome acerbe, e pur d'avoriafatt^ 
Vengono e van, come onda al primo margb, 
Quando piacevole aura il mar combatte. 
Non potria V altre parti veder Argo : 
Ben si pud giudicar che corrisponde 
A quel ch' appar di fuor, quel che s' asconde. 

Mostran le braccia sua misura giusta ; 
£ la Candida man spesso si vede 
Lunghetta alquanto e di largh^zza angusta^ • 
Dove n^ nodo i^par, ne vena escede« 
Si vede al fin de la persona augusta 
II breve, asciuttoe ritondetto piede. 
Gli angelici sembianti nati in cielo 
Non si ponno celar sotto aloun velo. 

s- 16—19] CANTO VII. 127 

Avea in ogni sua parte un laccio teso, 
O parliy o rida, o canti, o passo inuova : 
Ne maraviglia k, se Ruggier n' e preso^ 
Poi che tanto benigna sd la truova. 
Quel che di lei gi4 avea dal Mirto inteso» 
Com' b perfida e ria, poco g^ giova ; 
Cb' inganno o tradimento non gli e awiso 
Che possa star con si soave riso. 

Anzi pur creder vuol, che da costei 
Fosse converso Astolfo in su V arena 
Per li suoi portamenti ingrati e rei, 
IB sia degno di questa e di piii pena : 
C tutto quel, ch' udito avea di lei, 
Stima esser falso, e che vendetta mena, 
C mena astio et invidia quel dolente 
A lei biasroare, e che del tutto mente. 
La bella donna, che cotanto amava, 
Novellaraente gli h dal cor partita; 
Ch^ per incanto Alcina gli lo lava 
!>' ogni antica amorosa sua ferita ; 
£ di se sola e del suo amor lo grava, 
C in quello essa riman sola sculpita: 
Si che scusar il-buon Ruggier si deve, 
Se si mostro quivi inconstante e lieve. 

A quella mensa eitare, arpe e lire, 
E diversi altri dilettevol suoni 
Faceano intorno F aria tintinire 
D' armonia dolce e di concenti buoni. 
Non vi mancava chi, cantando, dire 
D' Amor sapesse gaudii e passioni, 
O con invenzioni e poesie 
Rappresentasse grate fantasie. 

\2B ORLANDO FURIOSO. [s. 20--23 

Qual mensa trlonfante e suntuosa 
Di qualsivoglia successor di Nino, 
O qual mai tanto cdebre e £unosa 
Di Cleopatra al vincitor Latino, 
Potria a questa esser par, clie 1' amorosa 
Fata avea posta inanzi al Paladino ? 
Tal non cred' io, che s' apparecchi dove 
Ministra Ganimede al sommo Giove. 

Tolte che fur le mense e le vivande, 
Facean, sedendo in cerchio, un giuoco lieto : 
Che ne V orecchio V un Y altro doroande. 
Come piu piace lor, qualche secreto. 
n che a gli amanti fu commodo grande 
Di scoprir V amor lor senza divieto : 
E furon lor conclusioni estreme 
Di ritrovarsi quella notte insieme. 

Finir quel giuoco tosto, e molto inanzi 
Che non solea la dentro esser costume, 
Con torchi allora i paggi entrati inanzi, 
Le tenebre cacciar con molto lume. 
Tra bella compagnia dietro e dinanzi 
Ando Ruggiero a ritrovar le piume, 
In una adorna e fresca cameretta, 
Per la miglior di tutte V altre eletta. 

£, poi che di confetti e di buon vini 
Di nuovo fatti fur debiti inviti, 
E partir gli altri riverenti e chini, 
Et alle stanze lor tutti sono iti ; 
Ruggiero entro ne' profumati lini 
Che pareano di man d* Aracne usciti, 
Tenendo tuttavia Y orecchie attente, 
S' ancor venir la bella donna sente. 

B. 24—27] CANTO VII. 129 

Ad ogni piccol moto, ch' egli udiva, 
Sperando che fosse ella, il capo alzava : 
Sentir credeasi, e spesso non sentiva ; 
Poi, del suo errore accorto, sospirava. 
Talvolta uscia del letto, e V uscio apriva ; 
Guatava fuori, e nulla vi trovava : 
S maledi ben roille volte V ora 
Ohe facea al trapassar tanta dimora. 

Tra se dicea sbvente : Or si parte ella ; 
£ cominciava a noverare i passi, 
Ch' esser potean da la sua stanza, a quella 
Donde aspettando sta che Alcina passi. 
E questi et altri, prima che la bella 
Donna vi sia, vani disegni fassi. 
Teme di qualche impedimento spesso, 
Che tra il frutto e la man non gli sia messo. 

Alcina, poi ch' a' preziosi odori 
Dopo gran spazio pose alcuna meta, 
Venuto il tempo che piu non dimori, 
Ormai ch' in casa era ogni cosa cheta, 
De la camera sua sola usci fuori ; 
£ tacita n' ando per via secreta, 
Dove a Ruggiero avean timore e speme 
Gran pezzo intomo al cor pugnato insieme. 

Come si vide il successor d' Astolfo 
Sopra apparir quelle ridenti stelle, 
Come abbia ne le vene acceso zolfo, 
Non par che capir possa ne la pelle. 
Or sino a gli occhi ben nuota nel golfo 
De le delizie e de le cose belle : 
Salta del letto, e in braccio la raccoglie ; 
N^ pud tanto aspettar, ch' ella si spoglie ; 

ORL. ¥UR. I. K 

130 ORLANDO FURIOSO. [8.28—31 

Bench^ n^ gonna n^ faldiglia avesse, 
Ch^ venne avvolta in un leggier zendado, 
Che sopra una camicia ella si messe^ 
Bianca e suttil nel piii escellente grado. 
Come Ruggiero abbraccio lei, gli cesse 
n manto ; e restd il vel sutdle e rado, 
Che non copria dinanzi n^ di dietro, 
Piu che le rose o i gigli un chiaro vetro. 

Non cosi strettamente edera preme 
Pianta ove intomo abbarbicata s' abbia, 
Come si stringon li dui amanti insieme, 
Cogliendo de lo spirto in su le labbia 
Suave fior, qual non produce seme 
Indo o Sabeo ne V odorata sabbia. 
Del gran piacer ch' avean, lor dicer tocca, 
Ch^ spesso avean piu d' una lingua in bocca. 

Queste cose la dentro eran secrete, 
O, se pur non secrete, almen taciute ; 
Ch^ raro fu tener le labra chete 
Biasmo ad alcun, ma ben spesso virtute. 
Tutte proferte et accoglienze liete 
Fanno a Ruggier quelle persone astute; 
Ogn' un lo reverisce e s^ gli inchina, 
Che cos) vuol Y innamorata Alcina. 

Non k diletto alcun che di fuor reste, 
Che tutti son ne 1' amorosa stanza: 
E due e tre volte il di mutano veste, 
Fatte or ad una or ad un' altra usanza. 
Spesso in conviti, e sempre stanno in feste, 
In giostre, in lotte, in scene, in bagno, in danza: 
Or presso ai fonti, alF ombre de' poggietti, 
Leggon d' antiqui gli amorosi detti. 

32 3S:| CANTO VII. ISl 

per r ombrose valli e* lieti colli 
Vaimo cacciando le paurose lepri ; 
Or ooxi. sagaci cani, i fagian folli 
Ooxk st^repito useir fan di stoppie e vepri ; 
Or &' tordi lacciuoli, or reschi molli ' 
f endon tra gli odoriferi ginepri ; 
Or oon ami ineacati et or con reti 
']?uurl>ano a' pesci i grati lor secret!. 

Stava Ruggiiero in tanta gioia e festa, 
!M[entre Carlo in travaglio et Agramante, 
X>i cui r istoria io non Torrei per questa 
Porre in oblio, He lasdar Bradamante, 
OHe con travaglio e con pena molesta 
Pianse piu giorni il disiato amante, 
Oil' avea per strade disusate e nuoTe 
Veduto portar via, nd sapea doTe« 

Di costei prima chie de gli altri dico, 
Olie molti giorni andd cercando invano 
Pei boschi ombro6i e per lo campo aprico, 
Per ville, per cittii, per motite e piano ; 
"N^ mai pote fisljiet del caro amico, 
Che di tantb ititetrallo era lontano. 
Ne r oste Saraein spesiso venia, 
N^ mai del suo Rnggier ritrovd spia. 
Ogni di ne dotiianda a pid di cento, 
N^ alcmi le ne sa mai render ragioni. 
D' aUoggiamentd ra in alloggiamento, 
Cercandone e trabaccfae e padiglioni : 
£ lo pu6 far, ch^ senza impedimehto 
Passa tra cavallieri e tra pedoni, 
Merc^ air annel, che, fuor d' ogni uman uso, 
La fa sparir quando Y ^ in bocca chiuso. 


132 ORLANDO FURIOSO. [s. 36—39 

Nd pud ni creder vuol che morto sia ; 
Perchd di si grande uom 1' alta ruina 
Da r onde Idaspe udita si saria 
Fin dove il Sole a riposar declina. 
Non sa n^ dir ne imaginar che via 
Far possa o in cielo o in terra ; e pur meschina 
Lo va cercando, e per compagni mena 
Sospiri e pianti et ogni acerba pena. 

Penso al fin di tornare alia spelonca. 
Dove eran V ossa di Merlin profeta, 
£ gridar tanto intomo a quella conca, 
Che 1 freddo marroo si movesse a pieta ; 
Che, se vivea Ruggiero, o gli avea tronca 
L' alta necessita la vita lieta, 
Si sapria quindi ; e poi s' appiglierebbe 
A quel miglior consiglio che n' avrebbe. 

Con questa intenzion prese il camino 
Verso le selve prossime a Pontiero, 
Dove la vocal tomba di Merlino 
Era nascosa in loco alpestro e fiero. 
Ma quella Maga, che sempre vicino 
Tenuto a Bradamante avea il pensiero, 
Quella, dico io, che nella bella grotta 
L' avea de la sua stirpe instrutta e dotta ; 

Quella benigna e saggia incantatrice, 
La quale ha sempre cura di costei, 
Sappiendo ch* esser de' progenitrice 
D' uomini invitti, anzi di Semidei ; 
Ciascun d) vuol saper che fa, che dice, 
£ getta ciascun di sorte per lei. 
Di Ruggier liberato e poi perduto, 
£ dove in India ando, tutto ha saputo. 

S.40— 43] CANTO VII. 133 

Ben veduto V avea su quel cavallo, 
Che reggier non potea, ch' era sfrenato^ 
Scostarsi di lunghissimo intervallo 
Per sender periglioso e non usato: 
E ben sapea che stava in giuoco e in baUo 
£ in cibo e in ozio molle e delicato^ 
Ne piu roemoria avea del suo Signore, 
Ne de la donna sua, ne del suo onore. 

£ cosi il fior de H begli anni suoi 
In lunga inerzia aver potria consunto 
Si gentil cavallier, per dover poi 
Perdere il corpo e V anima in un punto : 
£ quell' odor, che sol riman di noi 
Poseia che *1 resto fragile ^ defunto, 
Che tra' 1' uom del sepulcro e in vita il serba, 
Gli saria stato o tronco o svelto in erba. 
Ma quella gentil Maga, che piu cura 
N' avea, ch' egli roedesmo di se stesso, 
Penso di trarlo per via alpestre e dura 
Alia vera virtii, mal grado d* esso : 
Come escellente medico, che cura 
Con ferro e fuoco e con veneno, spesso ; 
Che, se ben molto da principio bfiende, 
Poi giova al fine, e grazia s^ gli rende. 

Ella non gli era facile, e talmente 
Fattane cieca di superchio amore, 
Che, come facea Atlante, solamente 
A darli vita avesse posto il core. 
Quel piu tosto volea che lungamente 
Yivesse, e senza fama, e senza onore, 
Che, con tutta lalaude che siaal mondo, 
Mancasse un anno al suo viver giocondo^ 

184 ORLANDO PURIOSO. [8.44—47 

L' avea mandato all' iaola d' Alcioa* 
Perch^ obHaase V anne in quella coite: 
£, come Mago di aoinnia dottrina, 
Ch' usar sapea gV incand d' c^ni sorte, 
Area il cor stretto di quella Regina 
Ne r amor d' esso, d* un laccio si forte» 
Che non se ne era mai per poler sck^rre, 
S' inyechiasse Ruggier piu di Nestorre. 

Or tornando a colei, ch' era presaga 
Di quanto de' ayveniry dico, che tenne 
La dritta via dove V errante e vaga 
Figlia d' Amon seco a incoatrar si venne. 
Bradamante vedoodo la sua MagtL, 
Muta la pena, che prima sostenne, 
Tutta in speranza ; e quella V apre il vero^ 
Ch' ad Alcina e coadotto il suo Ruggiero. 

La Giovane riman presao che siorta» 
Quando ode che '1 suo amante e co3i fauoge ; 
£ piii, che nel suo amor periglio porta, 
Se gran rimedio e suhito non grunge : 
Ma la benigna Maga la conlbrta, 
£ presta pon Y impiastro ove il duol punge ; 
£ le promelte e giur% in pochi giomi 
Far, che Ruggiero a riveder lei tomi. 

Da che, Donna (dicea), V annello hai tecQ, 
Che val contra ogni magica fattura 
lo non ho dubbio alcua che» &' io 1' arreoo 
L^ dove Alcina ogni tuo ben ti fura, 
Ch' io non le rompa il sua disegno, e meco 
Non ti rimeni la tua dolee cujmu 
Me n' andrd qiie&ta sera aUa prim' Qra^ 
£ sard in India al naso^ da. V auxQZB^ 

s. 48—61] CANTO VII. 181 

"Ej seguitando, del modo narrolle 
Olie disegnato avea d' adoperarlo^ 
Per trar del regno effeminato e molle 
11 caro amante, e in Francia rimenarlo. 
Cradamante V annel del dito tolle : 
!N^^ solamente avria voluto darlo ; 
!Ma dato il core, e dato avria la vita, 
Pur che n' avesse il suo Ruggiero aita. 

Jje da annello, e s^ le raccomanda; 
!£ piu le raccomanda il suo Ruggiero, 
A cui per lei mille saluti manda : 
Foi prese ver Provenza altro sentiero. 
Andd r Incantatrice a un' altra banda ; 
£, per porre in efietto il suo pensiero, 
Un palafren fece apparir la sera, 
Ch' avea un pi^ rosso, e ogn' altra parte nera. 

Credo fusse un Alchino o un Farfarello 
Che da V inferno in quella forma trasse ; 
E scinta e scalza monto sopra a quello, 
A cliiome sciolte e orribilmente passe : 
Ma ben di dito si levd V annello, 
Perche gl' incanti suoi non le vietasse. 
Poi con tal fretta ando, che la matina 
Si ritrovo ne V isola d' Alcina. 

Quivi mirabilmente transmutosse : 
S* accrebbe piu d* un palmo di statura, 
E fe' le membra a proporzion piu grosse, 
E resto apunto di quella misura 
Che si penso che '1 Negromante fosse, 
Quel che nutri Ruggier con si gran cura : 
Yesti di lunga barba le mascelle, 
E fe' crespa la fironte e Taltra pelle. 

186 ORLANDO FURIOSO. fs- 52— «* 

Di fiiccia, di parole e di sembiante 
Si \o seppe imitar, che totalmente 
Potea parer V incantatore Atlante. 
Poi si nascose ; e tanto pose mente, 
Che da Ruggiero allontanar 1' amante 
Alcina vide un giorno finalmente : 
£ fu gran sorte ; ch^ di stare o d' ire 
Senza esso un' ora potea mal patire. 

Soletto lo trovd, come lo voUe, 
Che si godea il matin fresco e sereno, 
Lungo un bel rio che discorrea d' un colle 
Verso un laghetto limpido et ameno. 
II suo vestir delizioso e molle 
Tutto era d' ozio e di lascivia pieno, 
Che de sua man gli avea di seta e d' ora 
Tessuto Alcina con sottil lavoro. 

Di ricche gemme un splendido monile 
Gli discendea dal coUo in mezo il petto ; 
£ ne r uno e ne V altro gia virile 
Braccio girava un lucido cerchietto. 
Gli avea forato un fil d' oro sottile 
Amhe Y orecchie, in forma d' annelletto ; 
£ due gran perle pendevano quindi, 
Qua' mai non ebbon gli Arabi ne gV Indi. 

Umide avea V innanellate chiome 
De* piu suavi odor che sieno in prezzo : 
Tutto ne' gesti era amoroso, come 
Fosse in Yalenza a servir donne avvezzo : 
Non era in lui di sano altro che *\ nome; 
Corrotto tutto il resto, e piu che mezza 
Cosi Ruggier fu ritrovato, tanto 
Da r esser suo mutato per incanto. 

s- 56—59] CANTO VII. 137 

Ne la forma d' Atlante se gli affaccia 

Oolei, che la sembianza ne tenea, 

Oon quella grave e venerabil faccia, 

Olie Ruggier sempre riverir solea, 

Oon quelle occhio pien d' ira e di minaccia, 

Ohe si temuto gia fanciullo avea ; 

lI>]eendo : £ questo dunque il frutto, ch'io 

Xiungamente atteso ho del sudor mio ? 
Di medoUe gia d' orsi e di leoni 

Ti porsi io dunque li primi alimenti ; 

T* ho per caverne et orridi burroni 

Fanciullo avvezzo a strangolar serpenti, 
Pantere e tigri disarmar d' ungioni, 
£lt a vivi eingial trar spesso i denti, 
Accio che, dopo tanta disciplina, 
Tu sii V Adone o V Atide d* Alcina ? 

£ questo quel che V osservate stelle, 
Le sacre fibre e gli accoppiati punti, 
Kesponsi, auguri, sogni, e tutte quelle 
Sorti ove ho troppo i miei studi consunti^ 
Di te promesso sin da le mammelle 
M' avean, come quest' anni fusser giunti, 
Ch* in arme Y opre tue cosi preclare 
Esser dovean, che sarian senza pare ? 

Questo e ben veramente alto principio, 
Onde si puo sperar che tu sia presto 
A farti un Alessandro, un lulio, un Scipio ! 
Chi potea, ohimd ! di te mai creder questo, 
Che ti facessi d' Alcina mancipio ? 
£, perch^ ognun lo veggia manifesto, 
Al coUo et alle braccia hai la catena, 
Con che ella a voglia sua preso ti mena. 

138 ORLANDO FURIOSO. [s. 6<M»3 

Se non ti muovon le tue proprie laudi, 
E r opre escelse a chi t' ha il cielo eletto, 
La tua succession perch^ defiraudi 
Del ben, che miUe volte io t' ho predetto ? 
Deh ! perchd il ventre eternamente daudi, 
Dove il ciel vuol che sia per te concetto 
La gloriosa e aopr' mnana prole, 
Ch' esser de' al mondo piu chiara che 1 Sole ? 

Deh non vietar che le piu nobil alme, 
Che sian formate ne Y eteme idee, 
Di tempo in tempo abbian corporee salme 
Dal ceppo, che radice in te aver dee ! 
Deh non vietar mille trionfi e palme. 
Con che, dopo aspri danni C'piaghe ree, 
Tuoi figli, tuoi nipoti e successori 
Italia torneran ne i primi onori! 

Non ch' a piegarti a questo tante e tante 
Anime belle aver dovesson pondo, 
Che chiare, illustri, indite, invitte e sante 
Son per fiorir da V arbor tuo fecondo ; 
Ma ti dovria una coppia esser bastante, 
Ippolito e il fratel ; chd pochi il mondo 
Ha tali avuti ancor fin al ^ d' oggi, 
Per tutti i gradi onde a virtu si poggi. 

Io solea pill di questi dui narrarti, 
Ch' io non facea di tutti gli altri insieme ; 
SI perche essi terran le maggior parti, 
Che gli altri tuoi, ne le virtu supreme ; 
Si perche al dir di lor mi vedea darti 
Piu attenzion, che d' altri del tuo seme : 
Vedea goderti che si chiari Eroi 
Esser dovessen de i nipoti tuoi. ■ 

s. 64-^67] CANTO VII. 139 

Che ha costei» che t' hai fatto reginai 
Che non abbian miir altre meretrici ? 
Costei che di tant' altri h concubina ; 
Ch' al fin sai ben, s' ella 9uol far felici. 
Ma, perchd tu conosca chi sia Alcina, 
Levatone le iraudi e gli artifici, 
Tien questo aniudilo in dito, e torna ad ella, 
Ch' avveder ti potrai come sia bella. 

Ruggier si stava vergognoso e muto 
Mirando in terra, e mal sapea che dire ; 
A cui la Maga nel dito minuto 
Pose Y annello, e lo fe' risendre. 
Come Ruggiero in se fu riveauto, 
Di tanto scomo si vide assalire, 
Ch' esser vorria sotterra mille braccia, 
Ch' alcun veder non lo potesse in faccia. 
Ne la sua prima Surma, in uno instante, 
Cosi parlando^ la Maga rivenne ; 
N^ bisognava piu quella d' Atlante, 
Seguitone V effeUo perch^ venne. 
Per dirvi quel, ch' io non vi dissi inante, 
Costei Melissa niMOfiinata venne, 
Ch' or di^ a Ruggier di se notizia vera, 
£ dissegli a che efietto venuta era ; 

Mandata da colei, che d' amor piena 
Sempre il disia, nd piu pud stame senza. 
Per liberarlo da quella catena, 
Di che lo cinse magica violenza : 
£ preso avea d' Atlante di Garena 
La forma, pef trovar meglia credenza. 
Ma, poi ch' a sanit^ V ha omai ridutto, 
Gli vuole aprire e Sax che veggia il tutto. 

140 ORLANDO FURIOSO. [8.68—71 

Quella donna gentil, che t' ama tanto, 
Quella che del tuo amor degna sarebbe, 
A cui (se non ti scorda) tu sai quanto 
Tua libertai da lei servata, debbe, 
Questo annel, che ripara ad ogni incanto, 
Ti manda : e cosi il cor mandato avrebbe. 
S' avesse avuto il cor cosi virtute, 
Come r annello, atta alia tua salute* 

E seguito, narrandogli 1* amore, 
Che Bradamante gli ha portato e porta ; 
Di quella insieme comendo il valore, 
In quanto il vero e V afiezion comporta; 
£t uso modo e termine migliore, 
Che si convenga a messaggiera accorta ; 
£t in quell' odio Alcina a Ruggier pose, 
In che soglionsi aver 1* orribil cose. 

In odio gli la pose, ancor che tanto 
L' amasse dianzi : e non vi paia strano, 
Quando il suo amor per forza era d' incanto, 
Ch* essendovi 1' annel, rimase vano. 
Fece r annel palese ancor, che quanto 
Di beM Alcina avea, tutto era estrano ; 
Estrano avea e non suo, dal pie alia treccia : 
II bel ne sparve, e le resto la feccia. 
Come fanciullo, che maturo frutto 
Ripone, e poi si scorda ove ^ riposto, 
E dopo molti giomi h ricondutto 
La dove truova a caso il suo deposto ; 
Si maraviglia di vederlo tutto 
Putrido e guasto, e non come fu posto ; 
E dove amarlo e caro aver solia, 
L' odia, sprezza, n' ha schivo, e getta via : 

s. 72 — 75] CANTO VII. 141 

Cosi Ruggier, poichd Melissa fece 
Ch' a riveder se ne tor no la Fata 
Con quell* annello, inanzi a cui non lece, 
Quando s' ha in dito, usare opra incantata, 
Hitruova, contra ogni sua stima, in vece 
I>e la bella, che dianzi avea lasciata, 
Donna si laida, che la terra tutta 
N^e la piu vecehia avea, n^ la piu brutta. 

Pallido, crespo e macilente avea 
Alcina il viso, il crin raro e canuto : 
Sua statura a sei pal mi non giungea : 
Ogni dente di bocca era caduto, 
Che piu d' Ecuba e piu de la Cumea^ 
Ct avea piu d* ognaltra mai vivuto ; 
Ma si r arti usa al nostro tempo ignote, 
Che bella e giovanetta parer puote. 

Giovane e bella ella si fa con arte, 
Si che molti inganno come Ruggiero ; 
Ma r annel venne a interpretar le carte, 
Che gia molti anni avean celato il vero. 
Miracol non h dunque, se si parte 
De r animo a Ruggiero ogni pensiero, 
Ch' avea d* amare Alcina, or che la truova 
In guisa, che sua fraude non le giova. 
Ma, come V avviso Melissa, stette 
Senza mutare il solito sembiante. 
Fin che de V arme sue, piu di neglette. 
Si fu vestito dal capo alle piante. 
£, per non farle ad Alcina suspette, 
Finse provar s' in esse era aiutante : 
Finse provar se gli era fatto grosso 
Dope alcun di che non V ha avute indosso. 

142 ORLANDO PURIOSO. [s. 76— 79 

E Balisarda poi si niesse al fianco 
(Ch^ G081 nome la sua spada avea) ; 
E lo scudo mirabile tolse anco, 
Che non pur gli occfai abbarbagliar solea, 
Ma, Y anima fecea m Tenir manco, 
Che dal corpo esalata easer parea: 
Lo tolae ; e col zendado in che troyoDo, 
Che ttttto lo copria, s^ 1 masse al c<^lo. 
Venne alia stalla, e fece briglia e sella 
Porre a un destrier piu che la pece nero : 
Cos! Melissa 1' avea instrutto, ch' ella 
Sapea quanta nel eorso era leggiero. 
Chi lo coDosce, Rabican Y appella ; 
Et d quel proprio, che to\ cayaUiero, 
Del quale i yenti or presso al mar fan gioco, 
Port6 fpk la Balena in questo loco. 
Potea aver Y Ippogrifo similmente, 

Che presso a Rabicano era legato ; 

Ma gli avea detto la Maga : Abbi roente, 

Ch' egli e (come tii sai) troppo sfrenato. 

E gli diede intension ehe '1 dl seguente 

Gli lo trarrebbe fuor di quello Stato, 

La dove adagio poi sarebbe instrutto 

Come frenarlo, e farlo gir per tutto. 
N^ sospetto dar^, se non lo tolle, 

De la tacita fiiga ch' apparecchia. 

Fece Ruggier come Melissa voile, 

Ch' invisibile ogn' or gli era all' orecchia. 

Cosi, fingendo, del lascivo e molle 

Palazzo usci de la puttana vecchia ; 

E si venne accostando ad una porta, 

Donde ^ la via ch' a Logistilla il porta. 

s. 80] CANTO VIII. 143 

Assalto li guardiani all' improvviso, 
E si caccio tra lor col ferro in mano : 
£ qual lascio ferito, e quale ucciso ; 
£ corse fuor del ponte a mano a mano ; 
E, prima che n* avesse Alcina awiso, 
Di molto spazio fu Ruggier lontano. 
Diro ne V altro Canto, che via tenne ; 
Poi come a Logistilla sd ne venne. 

CANTO OTTAVO. [s. 1—2 

Oh quante sono incantatrici, oh quanti 
Incantator tra noi, che non si sanno ! 
Che con lor arti uomini e donne amanti 
Di se, cangiando i visi lor, fatto hanno. 
Non con spirti constretti tali incanti, 
Ne con osservazion di stelle fanno ; 

Ma con simulazion, menzogne e frodi 
Legano i cor d' indissoluhil nodi. 
Chi r anello d' AngeHca, o piu tosto 

Chi avesse quel de la ragion, potria 

Veder a tutti il viso che nascosto 

Da finzione e d' arte non saria. 

Tal ci par hello e huono, che, deposto 

II liscio, hrutto e rio forse parria. 

Fu gran ventura quella di Ruggiero. 

Ch' ebbe V annel, che gli scoperse il vero. 

144 ORLANDO FURIOSO. [s. 3-« 

Roggier (come io dicea) dissimulando, 
Su Rabican venne alia porta armato : 
Trovo 1e guardie sproYvedute, e cpiando 
Giunse tra lor, non tenne il brando a lato. 
Chi morto e chi a mal termine lasciando, 
Esce del ponte, e il rastrello ha spezzato : 
Prende al bosco la via; ma poco corre, 
Ch' ad un de' servi de la Fata occorre. 

II servo in pugno avea mi augel grifagno 
Che volar con piacer facea ogni giomo, 
Ora a campagna, ora a mi vicino stagno 
Dove era sempre da far preda intomo ; 
Avea da lato il can fido compagno : 
Cavalcava un ronzin non troppo adorno. 
Ben penso che Roggier dovea fuggire, 
Quando lo vide in tal fretta venire. 

Se gli fe' incontra; e, con sembiante altiero, 
Gli domando perche in tal fretta gisse. 
Risponder non gli volse il buon Ruggiero : 
Percio colui, piu certo che fuggisse, 
Di volerlo arrestar fece pensiero ; 
£, distendendo il braccio manco» disse : 
Che dirai tu, se subito ti fermo ? 
Se contra questo augel non avrai schermo ? 

Spinge r augello : e quel batte si V ale, 
Che non V avanza Rabican di corso. 
Del palafreno il cacciatof giu sale, 
£ tutto a un tempo gli ha levato il morso. 
Quel par da Y arco uno avventato strale, 
Di calci formidabile e di morso ; 
E *1 servo dietro si veloce viene, 
Che par ch' il vento, anzi che il fuoco il mene. 

S.7— 10] CANTO Vin. 145 

Non vuol parere il can d* esser piu tardo ; 
Ma segue Rabican con quella fretta, 
Con che le lepri suol seguire il pardo. 
Vergogna a Ruggier par, se non aspetta : 
Voltasi a quel che vien si a pi^ gagliarido, 
Nd gli vede arnie, fuor ch' una bacchetta, 
Quella con che ubidire al cane insegna : 
Ruggier di trar la spada si disdegna. 

Quel sh gli appressa» e forte lo percuote : 
Lo morde a un tempo il can nel piede manco. 
Lo sfrenato destrier la groppa scuote 
Tre volte e piii, ne falla il destro fianco. 
Gira V augello, e gli fa mille ruote, 
£ con r ugna sovente il ferisce anco : 
Si il destrier collo strido impaurisce, 
Ch' alia mano e alio spron poco ubidisce. 

Ruggiero al fin, constretto, il ferro caccia : 
£, perch^ tal molestia se ne vada, 
Or gli animali, or quel villan minaccia 
Col taglio e con la punta de la spada. 
Quella importuna turba piu Y impacda : 
Presa ha chi qua chi la tutta la strada. 
Vede Ruggiero il disonore e iidanno 
Che gli awerr^, se piu tardar lo fanno. 
Sa ch' ogni poco piu ch' ivi rimane, 
Alcina avr^ col populo alle spalle. 
Di trombe, di tamburi e di campane 
Gria s' ode alto rumore in ogni valle. 
Contra un servo senza arme, e contra un cane 
Gli par ch' a usar la spada troppo falle : 
Meglio e piu breve k dunque, che gli scopra 
Lo scudo, che d' Atlante era stato opra. 


146 ORLANDO FURIOSO. [a. 11— U 

Leyd il 4rappo venniglio, in che coperto 
Giji molti giorni lo scudo si tenne. 
Fece r effetto mille volte esperto 
II Ittme, ove a ferir ne gli occhi venne. 
Resta da.i.sensi il cacciatpr.denertQ ; 
Cade il caoe e il ropzin, cad0n.le peime, 
Che in aria sostener V augel non ponno ; 
Lieto Ruggier li lascia in .preda al sonno. 

Alcina,.ch* avea intanto avuto awiso 
Di Ruggier, che sforsato ayea la porta 
£ de la guardia buon num^ro ucciso» 
Fu, vinta dal dolor, per rj^jstfu* morta. 
Squarciossi i panni e si percosse il viso, 
£ sciocca noniiQos)9i.0.indl' accoi^ta; 
£ fece dar all' arme imiQitiitineiite, 
£ intomo a ji^e raqgor ^utta s\ia^ente. 

£ fa due parti, e niap4^ V un$i 
Per queUa strada.ove Ruggier qaqiina ; 
Al porto r altra.svibitQ.r^gupa 
In barca, et Mncir fy Qe la .iparnia : 
Sotte le vele f^pe;rte il taaf: fi* jimbruna. 
Con questi Ta .la dUperata Alcina, 
Che '1 desiderio di .Ruggier si rode, 
Che lascia sua citta se.n^a c\istode, 

Non lascia alcuno a guardia del palagio: 
II che a Melissa, che staya alia posta 
Per liberar di que) regno malvagjo 
La gente, ch' in piiseria v' era posta, 
Diede cQmmodita, diede grai^de agio 
Di gir cereando ogni cp^ a sua posta, 
Imagini abbr|aci9r, suggelli tdr;;e, 
£ Nodi e Rombj je T^urbuni j^^ciprre. 

8. 15—18] CANTO Vin. 147 

Indi pei campi 'accelerando i poasi, 
Gli antiqui amanti, ch' erano in gran torma 
Conversi in fonti, in fere, in legtii, in saerdi, 
Fe' ritornar ne la lor prima fbrma. 
£ quel, poi ch' allargati'furo i'passi, 
Tutti del buon Ruggier BC^uiron 1* orma : 
A LiogistiDa si salvaro ; et indi 
Tornaro a Sciti, a Persi, a Greci, ad Indi. 

Lii rimandd Melissa in lor paesi, 
Con obligo di m&i non esser sciolto. 
Fu inanzi a gli altri il Duea de gV Inglesi 
Ad esser ritomato in uman volto ; 
Ch^ '1 parentado in questo, e'li Cdrtesi 
Prieghi del bon Ruggier gli giovl^r molto : 
Oltre i prieghi, Ruggier le di^ 1' aiiliello, 
Accid meglio potesse aiutar quello. 

A prieghi dunque di Ruggier, rifatto 
Fu 1 Paladin ne 1ft sua prima fkceia. 
Nulla pare a Melissa d* aver fatto, 
Quando ricovrar Y arme non gli faccia, 
£ quella laiicia d' dr, ch' al primo tratto 
Quand ne tocca de la sella caccia : 
De r Argalia, poi fu d' Astolfo lancia ; 
£ molto onor fe' a V uno e a V altro in Fradcia. 

Trovo Melissa questa lancia d* oro, 
Ch' Alcina avea reposta i\e\ pftlagio, 
£ tutte r arme che del Diica foro, 
£ gli Air tolte ne V ostel malvisigio. 
Monto il destrier del Negibmante Moro, 
£ fe' montar Astolfo in groppa adagio ; 
£ quindi a Logistilhi si condusse 
D' un' ora primft che Ruggier vi fhsse. 

148 ORLAWDO FURIOSO. [s. 19—22 

Tra duri sassi e folte spine gia 
Ruggiero in tanto in yer la Fata saggia, 
Di balzo in balzo, e d* una in altra via 
Aspra* solinga, inospita e selvaggia ; 
Tanto ch* a gran &tica riuscia 
Su la ferrida nona in una spiaggia 
Tra '1 mare e '1 monte, al mezodi scoperta, 
Arsiccia, nuda, sterile e deserta. 

Percuote il Sole ardente il vicin coUe ; 
£, del calor che si riflette adietro. 
In modo V aria e V arena ne belle, 
Che saria troppo a fax liquido il vetro. 
Stassi cheto ogni augello all' ombra moUe : 
Bol la cicala col noioso metro 
Fra i densi rami del fronzuto stelo 
Le valli e i monti assorda, e il mare e il cielo. 

Quivi il caldo, la sete, e la fatica, 
Ch* era di gir per quella via arenosa, 
Facean, lungo la spiaggia erma et aprica, 
A Ruggier compagnia grave e noiosa« 
Ma perchd non convien che sempre io dica, 
Nd ch' io vi occupi sempre in una cosa, 
Io lascero Ruggiero in questo caldo, 
E gir6 in Scozia a ritrovar Rinaldo. 

Era Rinaldo molto ben veduto 
Dal Re, da la figliuola e dal paese. 
Poi la cagion che quivi era venuto, 
Piu adagio il Paladin fece palese : 
Ch' in nome del suo Re chiedeva aiuto 
£ dal regno di Scozia e da 1' Inglese ; 
Et a i prieghi suggiunse anco di Carlo 
Giustissime cagion di dover farlo. 

8. 23^26] CANTO VIIL 149 

Dal Re, senza indugiar, gli fu risposto, 
Che di quanto sua fbrzft s' estendea, 
Per utile et onor sempre disposto 
Di Carlo e de Y Imperio esser volea ; 
£ che fra pochi di gli ftyrebbe posto 
Piu cavallieri in punto» che potea ; 
£9 se non ch' esso era oggimai pur vecchio, 
Capitano verria del suo apparecchio : 

N^ tal rispetto ancor gli parria .degno 
Di farlo rimaner, se non avesse 
II figlio, che di forzai e piu d' ingegno 
Dignissimo era, a ch' il governo desse, 
Ben che non si trovasse allor nel regno ; 
Ma che sperava che venir dovesse 
Mentre ch' insieme aduneria lo stuolo ; 
£ ch' adunato il troveria il figliuolo. 

Cosi mand6 per tutta la sua terra 
Suoi tesorieri, a far cavalli e gente : 
Navi apparecchia e munizion da guerra, 
Vettovaglia e danar maturamente. 
Venne intanto Rinaldo in Inghilterra : 
£ 1 Re, nel suo partir, cortesemente 
Insino a Beroicche accompagnollo ; 
£ visto pianger fu quando lasciollo* 

Spirando il vento prospero alia poppa, 
Monta Rinaldo, et a Dio dice a tutti : 
La fune indi al viaggio il nocchier sgroppa ; 
Tanto che giunge ove ne i salsi flutti 
n bel Tamigi amareggiando intoppa. 
Col gran flusso del mar quindi condutti 
I nayiganti per camin sicuro 
A vela e remi insino a Londra furo. 

1 50 ORLAHDO PURIQBO. [s. 27—30 

Rinaldo javea da Carlo e dal Re Otpne^ 
Che con Carlo in Parigi era assediato, 
Al Principe di Vallia commissione 
Per contrassegni e leCtere portato, 
Che cio che potea far la regione 
Di fiinti e di caralli in ogni lato, 
Tutto debba a Calesio traghitarlo ; 
Si che aiutar si possa Francia e Carlo. 

n Principe ch' io dico« ch' era, in vece 
D* Oton, rimaso nel aeg^o Reale, 
A Rinaldo d* Amon tanto onor fece, 
Che non V avrebbe al suo Re fatto uguale : 
Indi alle sue domande satisfece ; 
Perchd a tutta la gente marziale 
£ di Bretagna e de T isole intomo, 
Di ritrovarsi al mar prefisse il giomo. 

Signor, far mi conyien come, fa il buono 
Sonator, sopra il suo instrumento arguto, 
Che spesso muta corda, e varia suoqq, 
Ricercando ora il grave, ora V acuto. 
Mentre a dir di. Rinaldo attento spno, 
D' Angelica gentil m' e soyrenuto. 
Di che lasciai, ch' era da lui fuggita, 
£ ch' ayea riscoptl^atp uno £remita. 

Alquantp la sua istoria io vo' seguire. 
Dissi, che domandava con gran cura, 
Come potesse alia marina gire ; 
Che di Rinaldo ^vea tanta pau^a, 
Che, non passando il mar, cr^dea morire, 
N^ in tutta Ru^ppa si tenea sicurjEt: 
Ma r £remita a bada la tenea, 
Perch^ di star con lei piacere ayea. 

8- 31—342 CANTO Vlir. 151 

Quella rafa bellez2a il cor gli accese, 
£ gli scaldd le frigide medoUe : 
l^a, poi ch6 vide che poco gli attese, 
C ch' oltra soggi<>rnat seco non voile, 
I>i cento punte V asin^Uo oiFese, 
!^^e di sua tardit^ pero lo tolle : 
C poco va di passo, e men' di trotto ; 
Nd stender gli si vuol la bestia sotto. 

E perchd molto diiungata s' era, 
C, poco piu, n' avria perduta V orma ; 
Kicorse il frate alia spelonca nera, 
E di demdni \iscir fece una tbrma : j 
E ne sceglie unb di tutta la schiera,' 
E del bisogno suo prima T informa; 
Poi lo fa entrare adosso al corridore, 
Che via gli porta con la donna il core. 
E qual sagace can nel monte usato 
A volpi o lepri dar spesso la caccia, 
Che, se la fera andar vede da un lato, 
Ne va da un altro, epar sprezzi la traccia, 
Al varco poilo senteno arrivato, 
Che r ha gi^ inbocca,' e V apre il fianca e straccia' i 
Tal r Eremita per diversa strada 
Aggiugner^ la Donna, ovunque vada. 

Che sia il disegno suo, benio comprendo : 
E dirollo anco a Toi,' ma in altro loc6. 
Angelica, di cio nuUatemehdo, ' 
Cavalcava a giomate, ormblto or poco«' 
Nel cavallo il demdn si gla coprendo, 
Come si cuopre alcuna volta il foco, 
Che con si grave incendio poscia awampa, 
Che non si estingue, e a pena' sh tie scampa. 

152 ORLANDO FURIOSO. [s. 35—38 

Poi cbe la Donna preso ebbe il sendero 
I>ietro il gran mar che li Guasconi lava» 
Tenendo appresso all' onde il suo destriero. 
Dove r ttmor la via piu ferma dava ; 
Quel le fu tratto dal demonio fiero 
Ne r acqua si, che dentro vi nuotava. 
Non 8a che far la timida donzella, 
Se non tenersi ferma in su la sella. 

Per tirar brigUa, oon gli puo dar volta : 
Piii e piii sempre qiiel si caccia in alto. 
EUa tenea la vesta in su raccolta 
Per non bagnarla, e traeai piedi in alto. 
Per le spalle la chioma iva disciolta, 
E r aura le fiicea lascivo assialto. 
Stavano cheti tutti i maggior venti, 
Forse a tanta belt^ col mare attenti. 

Ella volgea i begli occhi a terra in vano, 
Che bagnavan di pianto il viso e 1 seno ; 
£ vedea il lito andar sempre lontano, 
£ decrescer piii sempre e venir meno. 
n destrier, che nuotava a destra mano, 
Dopo un gran giro la porto al terreno 
Tra scuri sassi e spaventose grotte, 
Gik cominciando ad oscurar la notte. 

Quando si vide sola in quel deserto, 
Che a riguardarlo sol mettea paura, 
Ne r ora che nel mar Febo coperto 
L' aria e la terra avea lasciata oscura ; 
Fermossi in atto, ch' avria fatto incerto 
Chiunque avesse vista sua figura, 
S' ella era donna sensitiva e vera, 
O sasso colorito in tal maniera. 

B. 89—42] CANTO Vni. 153 

Stupida e fissa nella incerta sabbia, 
Coi capelli disciolti e rabuffati, 
Con le man giunte, e con V immote labbia, 
I languid! occhi al ciel tehea levati ; 
Come accusando il gran Motor, che V abbia 
Xutti inclinati nel suo danno i fati. 
Immota e come attonita st^ alquanto ; 
Poi sciolse al duol la lingua, e gli occhi al pianto. 
Dicea : Fortuna, che piu a far ti resta, 

Accid di roe ti sazii e ti disfami ? 

Che dar ti posso omai piu, se non questa 

Misera vita ? ma tu non la brami ; 

Ch* ora a trarla del mar sei stata presta, 

Quando potea finir suoi giorni grami : 

Percbd ti parve di voler pi^ ancora 

Yedermi tormentar prima ch' io muora. 
Ma che mi possi nuocere non veggio, 

Pill di quel che sin qui nociuto m' hai. 

Per te cacdata son del Real seggio, 

Dove piu ritomar non spero mai : 

Ho perduto V onor, ch' k stato peggio ; 

Chd, se ben con effetto io non peccai, 

Io do perd materia ch' ognun dica, 

Ch' essendo vagabonda, io sia impudica. 
Che aver pud donna al mondo piu di buono, 

A cui la castitii levata sia ? 

Mi nuoce, (ahimd !) ch' io son giovane, e sono 

Tenuta bella, o sia vero o bugia. 

Gia non ringrazio il ciel di questo dono ; 

Ch^ di qui nasce ogni ruina mia. 

Morto per questo fu Argalia mio frate ; 

Che poco gli giov&r V arme incantate : 

154 ORLANDO FURIOSO. [8.43-46 

Per questo il Re di Tartalria Agricane 
Disfece il genitor mio Crakifiroiie, 
Ch* in India, del Cataio era gran Cane ; 
Onde io son giunta a tal condizione, 
Che muto albergo da sera a dimanls. 
Se r aver, se V onor, se le persone 
M' hai tolto, e fatto il mal che far mi puoi, 
A che piu doglia anco serbar mi vnoi ? 

Se r affbgarmi in mar morte non era 
A tuo senno crude!, pur ch' io ti sazii, 
Non recuso che mandi aleuna fera 
Che mi divori, e non tni tenga in str^zii. 
D' ogni martir che sia, pur ch' io ne pera, 
Esser non pud ch' assai non ti ringrazii. 
Cosi dicea la Donna con gran pianto^ 
Quando le apparve 1' Eremita accanto. 

Avea mirato da V estrema cima 
D' un rilevato sasso V Eremita 
Angelica, che giunta alia parte ima 
E de Io scoglio, afflitta esbigottita.- 
Era sei giomi egli venuto prima ; 
Ch' un demonio il porto per via non trita : 
E venne a lei, fingendo divozione 
Quanta avesse mai Paulo, o Ilarione. 

Come la Donna il comincio a vedere, 
Prese, non conoscendolo, conforto ; 
E cesso a poco a poco il suo temere, 
Bench^ ella avesse ancora il viso smorto. 
Come fu presso, disse : Miserere, 
Padre, di me, chi son giunta a mal porto : 
E, con voce interrotta dal singolto, 
Gli disse quel ch' a lui non era occulto. 

s. 47-r^O] CANTO VIII. 155 

Comincia V Eremtta a confortarla 
Con alquante ragion belle e divote ; 
£ pon r audaci man, mentre che parla, 
Or per lo seno, or per 1* omide gote : 
Poi, piu sicuro, va per abbracciarla ; 
£t ella sdegnosetta lo percuote 
Con una man nel petto» e lo rispinge, 
E d' onesto rpssor tutta «i tinge. 

Egli, eh' allato area una tasca, aprilla, 
E trassene una ampolla di liquore ; 
E ne gli occhi possenti, onde sfavilla 
La piu cocente face ch' abbia Amore, 
Spruzzo di quel leggiermente una stilla, 
Che di farla dormire ebbe valore. 
Gia resupina ne V arena giace 
A tutte voglie del vecchio rapace. 

Egli r abbraccia, et a piacer la tocca ; 
Et ella dorme, e non pud fare ischermo. 
Or le bacia il bel pettpj ora la bocca : 
Non e ch' il veggia in quel loco aspro ei ermo. 
Ma ne Y incontro il suo destrier trabocca ; 
Ch' al disio non risponde il corpo infenno : 
Era mal atto, perche avea troppi anni ; 
E potr^ peggio, quarto piu V affanni. 

Tutte le vie, modi tenta; 
Ma quel pigro rozzon non per^ salta : 
Indamo il fren gli scuote, e lo tormenta ; 
E non pud far che tenga la testa alta. 
Al fin presso alia donna 9' addorroenta ; 
E nuova altra sci^gura ancQ V assalta* 
Non comincia Fprtuna maiper poQo« 
Quando un mortal si pigUa A schemo e a gioco. 

156 ORLANDO FURI080. [b. 51-54 

Bisogna, prima ch' io vi narri il caso, 
Ch' un poco dal sender dritto mi torca. 
Nel mar di tramontana in ver 1' occaso 
Oltre r Irlanda una isola si corca, 
Ebuda nominata ; ove h rimaso 
n popul raro, poi che la brutta Orca, 
E r altro marin gre^e la distrusse, 
Ch' in sua vendetta Proteo vi condusse. 

Narran 1* antique istorie, o vere o false, 
Che tenne gia quel luogo un Re possente, 
Ch' ebbe una figlia, in cui bellezza valse 
E grazia si, che pot6 £Eu;ilmente, 
Poi che mostrossi in su V arene salse," 
Proteo lasciare in mezo 1' acqua ardente ; 
E quello (un dt che sola ritrovoUa) 
Compresse, e di se gravida lasciolla. 

La cosa fu gravissima e molesta 
Al padre, pi^ d' ogn' altro empio e severo: 
N^ per iscusa o per pieta, la testa 
Le perdond : si pud lo sdegno fiero. 
Vh per vederla gravida, si resta 
Di subito esequire il crudo impero : 
E '1 nipotin, che non avea peccato, 
Prima fece morir che fosse nato. 

Proteo marin» che pasce il fiero annento 
Di Neptunno, che V onda tutta regge, 
Sente de la sua donna aspro tormento, 
£ per grand' ira rompe ordine e legge 
Si, che a mandare in terra non e lento 
L' orche e le foche, e tutto il marin gregge, 
Che distruggon non sol pecore e buoi, 
Ma'viUe e borghi e li cultori suoi : 

s. 55—58] CANTO VIII. 15? 

£ spesso vanno alle citta murate, 
C d' ognintorno lor mettono assedio, 
l^otte e di stanno le persone annate 
Con gran timore e dispiacevol tedio : 
Xutte hanno le campagne abbandonate ; 
£, per trovarvi al fin qualche runedio, 
Andarsi a consigliar di queste cose 
All' Oracol, che lor cosi rispose : 

Cbe trovar bisognava una donzella, 
Cbe fosse all' altra di bellezza pare, 
£t a Proteo sdegnato o£ferir quella, 
In cambio de la morta, in lito al mare. 
S* a sua satis&zion gli parra beUa, 
Sd la terra, n^ li verra a sturbare : 
Se per questo non sta, se gli appresenti 
Una et ,un' altra, fin che si contenti. 

£ cosi comincid la dura sorte 
Tra quelle che piu grate eran di faccia, 
Ch' a Proteo ciascun giorno una si porte, 
Fin cbe trovino donna cbe gli piaccia. 
La prima e tutte 1' altre ebbeno morte ; 
Cbe tutte giu pel ventre se le caccia 
JJn' Orca, che restd presso alia foce, 
Poi che '1 resto parti del gregge atroce. 

O vera o falsa cbe fosse la cosa 
Di Proteo (ch' io non so che me ne dica), 
Servosse in quella terra, con tal chiosa. 
Contra le donne un' empia lege antica ; 
Cbe di lor came 1' Orca monstruosa 
Cbe viene ogni di al lito, si notrica. 
Ben cb' esser donna sia in tutte le bande 
Danno e sciagura, quivi era pur grande. 

160 ORLANDO FURIOSO. [■.67—70 

E trovar veni non tanto lugrubri, 
Fin che 1 mio spirto stanco si riabbia: 
Che non potrian li squalidi colubri, 
N^ r orba tigre accesa in maggior rabbia, 
Nd cid che da V Atlante ai liti Rubri 
Venenoso erra per la calda sabbia, 
"Sk veder nh pensar senza cordoglio 
Angelica legata al nudo Bcoglio. 

Oh se r avesse il suo Orlando saputo, 
Ch' era per ritrovarla ito a Parigi ; 
O li dui ch' inganno quel vecchio astuto 
Col messo che venia da i luoghi Stigi ! 
Fra mille morti, per donarle aiuto, 
Cercato avrian gli angelici vestigi. 
Ma che fariano, avendone anco spia, 
Poi che distanti son di tanta via ? 

Parigi intanto avea V assedio intomo 
Dal famoso figliuol del Re Troiano ; 
£ venne a tanta estremitade un giomo, 
Che n' ando quasi al suo nimico in mano : 
£, se non che li voti il ciel placomo, 
Che dOago di pioggia oscura il piano, 
Cadea quel di per V Africana lancia 
n santo Imperio e '1 gran nome di Francis. 

II sommo Creator gli occhi rivolse 
Al giusto lamentar del vecchio Carlo ; 
£ con subita pioggia il fiioco tolse : 
N^ forse uman saper potea smorzarlo. 
Savio chiunque a Dio sempre si volse, 
Ch' altri non potd mai meglio aiutarlo ; 
Ben dal devoto Re fu conosciuto, 
Che si salvd per lo divino aiuto. 

8. 71—74] CANTO VUI. . 161 

La notte Orlando alle noiose piume 
Del veloce pensier fa parte assai : 
Or quinci, or quindi il volta, or lo rassume 
Tutto in un loco, e non V afferma mai. 
Qual d'acqua chiara il tremolante lume, 
Dal Sol percossa, o da* nottumi rai. 
Per gli ampli tetti va con lungo salto 
A destra et a sinistra, e basso et alto. 

La donna sua, che gli ritoma a mente, 
Anzi che mai non era indi partita ; 
Gli raccende nel core, e fa piii ardente 
La fiamma, che nel di parea sopita. 
Costei yenuta seco era in Ponente 
Fin dal Cataio ; e qui 1* avea smarrita, 
Ne ritrovato poi vestigio d' ella 
Che Carlo rotto fu presso a Bordella. 

Di questo Orlando avea gran doglia ; e seco 
Indamo a sua sciocchezza ripensava ; 
Cor mio (dicea) come vilmente teco 
Mi son portato ! oim^ quanto mi grava 
Che potendoti aver notte e di meco, 
Quando la tua bonta non mel negava, 
T* abbia lasciato in man di Namo porre, 
Per non sapermi a tanta ingiuria opporre ! 

Non aveva ragione io di scusarme ? 
£ Carlo non m' avria forse disdetto. 
Se pur disdetto, e chi potea sforzarme ? 
Chi ti mi volea torre al mio dispetto ? 
Non poteva io venir piu tosto a Tarme ? 
Lasciar piu tosto trarmi il cor del petto ? 
Ma n^ Carlo, ne tutta la sua gente 
Di tormiti per forza era possente. 


16'2 ORLANDO FURIOSO. [8.75-78 

Almen Tavesse posta in gaardia buona 
Dentro a Parigi, o in qoalche r6cca forte. 
Che I'abbia data a Namo, mi conBona, 
Sol perch^ a perder Tabbia a qnesta sorte. 
Chi la dovea gaaidar meglio persona 
Di me ? ch*io dorea farlo fino a morte : 
Gnaidarla piii chel cor, che gli occhi miei ; 
£ dorea, e potea farlo, e par nol fei. 

Deh dove, senza me, dolce mia vita^ 
Rimasa sei si giovane e si bella ? 
Come, poi che la luce e dipartita, 
Riman tra' boschi la smarrita agnella, 
Che, dal pastor sperando esser udita. 
Si va lagnando in qnesta parte e in qnella ; 
Tanto, chel lapo Tode da lontano ; 
£1 misero pastor ne piagne in vano. 

Dove, i^ranza mia, dove ora sei ? 
Vai tn soletta forse ancora errando ? 
O par tlianno trovata i lapi rei 
Senza la gaardia del tuo fido Orlando ? 
£'1 fior, cb'in ciel potea pormi fira i Dei, 
II fior, ch*intatto io mi venia serbando 
Per non tarbarti, oim^ ! Tanimo casto, 
Oime ! per forza avranno colto e gaasto. 

Oh infelice ! oh misero ! che voglio, 
Se non morir, sei mio bel fior c61to hanno ? 
O sommo Dio, fieonmi sentir cordoglio 
Prima d'ogn'altro, che di questo danno. 
Se questo e ver, con le mie man mi toglio 
La vita, e Talma disperata danno. 
Cosi, piangendo forte e sospirando, 
Seco dicea Taddolorato Orlando. 

s. 79—82] CANTO Vlll. 163 

Gia in ogni parte gli animanti lassi 
Day an riposo a i travag^liati spirti, 
Chi su le plume, e chi su i duri sassi, 
£ chi su Terbe, e chi su faggi o mirti. 
Tu le palpebre, Orlando, a pena abbassi 
Panto da' tuoi pensieri acuti et irti : 
N^ quel si breve e fuggitivo sonno 
Godere in pace anco lasciar ti ponno. 

Parea ad Orlando, s'una verde riva. 
D*odoriferi fior tutta dipinta, 
Mirare il bello avorio, e la nativa 
Purpura, ch' avea Amor di sua man tinta ; 
£ le due chiare stelle, onde nutriva 
Ne le reti d* Amor V anima avvinta : 
lo parlo de' begli occhi, e del bel volto, 
Che gli hanno il cor di mezo il petto tolto. 

Sentia il maggior piacer, ]a ma^ior festa, 
Che sentir possa alcun felice amante ; 
Ma ecco intanto uscire una tempesta, 
Che struggea i fiori, et abbattea le piante. 
Non s^ ne suol veder simile a questa, 
Quando giostra Aquilone, Austro e Levante. 
Parea, che, per trovar qualche coperto, 
Andasse errando in van per un deserto. 

Intanto Tinfelice (e non sa come) 
Perde la Donna sua per V aer fosco : 
Onde di qua, e di la, del suo bel nome 
Fa risonar ogni campagna e bosco : 
£, mentre dice indamo ; misero me ! 
Chi ha cangiata mia dolcezza in tosco ? 
Ode la Donna sua, che gli domanda 
Piangendo aiuto, e se gli raccomanda. 

1 64 ORLANDO FURIOSO. [i . 8S--66 

Onde par ch*e8ca il g^do, va veloce ; 
E quinci e quindi 8*affatica assai. 
Oh quanto e il suo dolore aspro et atrooe, 
Che non pub rivedere i dolci rai ! 
Ecco, ch* altronde ode da un* altra voce : 
Non Bperar piu gioime in terra mai. 
A questo orribil grido nsyeglioMi, 
£ tutto pien di lagrime trovoBsi. 

Senza pensar, che sian 1* imagin Mae, 
Quando per tema, o per diBio si sogna, 
De la Donzella per modo gli calse, 
Che stimo giunta a danno, od a yeigogna, 
Che, fulminando, fuor del letto Balse. 
Di piastra e maglia, quanto gU bisogna 
Tutto guarnisBi, e Brigliadoro tolse ; 
N^ di Bcudiero alcun senrigio volse. 

E, per poter entrare ogni Bentiero, 
Che la sua dignita macchia non pigli, 
Non Tonorata insegna del Quartiero 
Distinta di color bianchi e vermigli. 
Ma portar volse un omamento nero, 
£, forse, accib ch*al suo dolor simigli : 
E quelle avea gia tolto a uno Amostante, 
Ch'uccise di sua man pochi anni inante. 

Da meza notte tacito si parte, 
E non saluta, e non fa motto al Zio ; 
N^ al fido suo compagno Brandimarte, 
Che tanto amar solea, pur dice a Dio. 
Ma, poi che*l Sol. con Y auree chiome sparte 
Del ricco albei*go di Titone uscio, 
E fe' r ombra fuggire umida e nera, 
S'avvide il Re, chel Paladin non v'era. 

s. 87—90] CANTO VIII. 165 

Con suo gran dispiacer s'avvede Carlo, 
Che parti to la notte e'l suo Nipote, 
Quando.esser dovea seco, e piu aiutarlo ; 
£ ritener la colera non puote, 
Ch* a lamentarsi d' esso et a gravarlo 
Non incominci di biasmevol note ; 
C minacciar, se non ritoma, e dire, 
Che lo faiia di tan to error pentire. 

Brandimarte, ch' Orlando amava a pare 
Di Be medesmo, non fece soggiomo : 
O che speraase farlo ritomare, 
O adegno avesse udime biasmo e scomo : 
£ voLse a pena tanto dimorare, 
Ch* uscisse fuor ne V oscurar del giomo. 
A Fiordeligi sua nulla ne disse, 
Perche '1 disegno suo non gl' impedisse. 

Era questa una donna, che fu molto 
Da lui diletta, e ne fu raro senza ; 
Di costumi, di grazia e di bel volto 
Dotata, e d'accortezza e di prudenza ; • 
£, se licenzia or non n' aveva tolto, 
Fu, che sper6 tomarle a la presenza 
II di medesmo ; ma gli accadde poi, 
Che lo tardo piu de i disegni suoi. 

£, poi ch' ella aspettato quasi un mese 
In damo V ebbe, e che tomar nol vide ; 
Di desiderio si di lui s' accese, 
Che si parti senza compagni o guide ; 
£ cercandone ando molto paese, 
Come r istoria al luogo suo dicide. 
Di quest! dua non vi dico or piu inante ; 
Ch^ piu m* importa il cavaUier d* Anglante. 

166 ORLANDO FURIOSO. [s. 01 

11 qoal, poi che matato ebbe d' Almonte 
Le gloriose insegne, andb a la porta, 
£ dlsse ne 1* orecchio : lo sono il Conte 
A un capitan, che vi fi&cea la scorta ; 
£ fattoei abbassar subito il ponte, 
Per quella strada, che piu breve porta 
A gV inimici, Be n* andb diritto : 
Quel, che segui, ne V altro Canto e scritto. 



St. 1. 1. 1. — Per quel religioso rUpettOf diro col Monti, c^ si 

deve alia volonth de* defunti ho seguito I'edizione del 1532 

perd si leggera Cavalliero e non Cavaliero. Pe2Z. The same 

was done by M. who observed : Da cavallo si fa cavalliero 

Delia voce vedesi scritta constantemente con doppia // anche 
neir autografo. I ought to have written Cavalliero in the 
Innamorato, as there is no doubt that Bo. spelt the word 
with IL ' 

St. 1. 1. l.-rGiovenilfurori, See O. I., II. I. 15. 

St. 1. 1. 3. — ^Traendo Tistoria sua da quella del Bojaido, 

siccome colui finse Orlando inriamorato, e intitolo il suo libro 

altiesi di cotal nome, cost il nostro poeta seguendo il fe 

furioso. For. DalP amore si trabocca nel furore. Dolce. 

Since I edited tiie Innamorato the following old legend 
came to my knowledge : Gesta Caroli M, ad dettructionem 
NarboMB et CarcassoMB, It is said to have been written by 
one FiLOMBNA historiographer to Charlemagne, and translated 
by GuLiELMUS Paduanus. It was first edited by Ciampi 
from a MS. in the Laurenziana, Florence, 8vo. 1823. This 
work, as the learned editor observes, was not written before 
the twelfth century, and was probably taken from ancient 
lays and popular songs. He observes also that the deeds 
attributed to Charlemagne were made up of those of other 
heroes, non diversamente dal come in tempi antichissimi 
furon attribuite aV solo Ercole le imprese di varii Eroi ; the 
very illustration which I used, Essay, p. 113. Rotolandus 
is one of the most distinguished heroes mentioned in the 
Gesta ad destr, Narb. and is addressed by Charlemagne as 
Charissime nepos. 

168 NOTES TO C. I. 

SU 2. 1. 5. — Si qaem 

Namina leva linant anditqne vocatus Apollo. 

Georg. 4. 6. 
Abiosto, like Propertios and Gallus, was inspired not 
by a deity but by his lady ; 

Nod mi Calliope, non base mibi cantat Apollo ; 
Ingenium nobis ipsa puella fecit. Prop. ii. 1. 
Ingeniam Galli pulchra Lyooris erat. Martial, viii. 72. 
In the epic poem in terta rimn began by A. and mentioned 
in his life, he addressed lumself to his lady in the folkmiog 

Voi l*usatD favor, occhi soavi, 
Date a Timpresa, voi che del mio ing^^no, 
Occhi miei belli, avete ambe le chiavi. 
Altri vada a Pamaso, ch*ora i' vegno, 
Dolci occhi, a voi, ne chieder altra aita 
A' versi miei, se non da voi, disegno. 
BoJAROO also invoked hb lady in most beautiful venes. 
O. 1., II. IV. 1. &c. 

St. 4. 1. 3. — See respecting Ruggiero Life of Ba^ardo, 
p.lxxz. In the GeUa ad dutr, Narb, two warriors of this name 
are mentioned ; one Rogeriut de Corduba, and the other 
Rogerius Epitcopus Careastofut, who killed King Guarino. 
Turpin, who had previously slain another king, videos hoc, 
ait illi, hilari vultu : Domine Episcope, modo sumus vos et 
ego socii : nam quilibet nostrum unum regem iuterfecit ; 
p. 36. The monk who wrote the legend ad destr. Nar6. seems 
to think there is more merit in destroying moslems than in 
saying prayers : Quidam monachus Raydalphus nomine, de 
nobili genere ortus, gaudeqs de praelio ait sociis suis : 
Karissimi socii ! melius est in centuplum pugnare, quam 
psalterium legere aut cantare ; p. 71. 

St. 4. 1. 5. — The edition of 1532 has de, for instance, in- 
stead of de* and so e instead of e\ for e t, as it should be in 
this case. I have not scrupled to print de* e* whenever I have 
found it necessary, this being a mere orthographical altera- 
tion like many others adopted both by M. and myself when 

St. 5. 1. 1. — Questo e il capo della narrazione che de- 
pende da quel libro intitolato Innamaramento d* Orlando. 

NOTES TO C. I. 169 

11 perche u puo vedere la diligenzia del poeta cbe in questo 
primo verso lo cita, dicendo : Orlando .... intuimorato, 


St. 5. 1. 4 — I have strictly adhered to the edit, of 1532 in 
leaving et wherever I found it, and so has been done by 
M. who makes some excellent remarks on this point ; 
Pref. p. zxziL He says amongst other things : Essa par- 
ticella e importantissima nei versi ove giuochi Ponomatopea, 
per es. zxzi. 53. 8. 

Et atterro trabacche e padiglioni, 
verso di suono si espressivo che mai non mi torna a mente 
senzachemisovvengadel bellissimorpcx^a re icac rtrpax^a 
del 3 deir 11. v. 363. Non pao cangiarsi V et in ed senza pre- 
giudicare notabilmente alia forza imitativa del verso .... La 
particella et e poi necessaria trattandosi di versi che in 
grazia dell* ed contraggono durezza a cacofonia, come Ed 
ad, ed a Dio, ed Odoardo, Ed e di, vede ed ode. (M. quotes 
numerous lines of the Furioto in illustration of his position, 
then he continues). Fa grande uso dell' et anche F. M. 
Zanotti . . . . e non fu alieno dal fame uso ne meno il Farini 
nell' edizione originale del Mattino e del Mezzogiorno non 
che nella strofa delP ode a Silvia scritta nell* inverno del 

Copri, mia Silvia ingenua, 
Copri le luci, et odi. 
St. 7. 1. 3. — ^I have written (2agZt or dagli, aiorai and the 
like, as I found them in the edit, of 1532. M. has not been 
consistent either in following that edit, or in departing from 
it in this respect. 

St. 9. 1. 3 and 4. — I have already observed in the notes 
to BoJARDO, 1. 1. 1., the promiscuous use of e and t, com- 
monly adopted by ancient authors. A., as we shall see, says 
often gente for genti, 

St. 9. 1. 6. — ^Ariosto constantly wrote battezato, and sel- 
dom uses n. In C. vii. st. 55, it will be seen that he did 
so advisedly, altliough he did not systematically object to 
the use of zs, as some have done. Non raddoppio mai la z 
si perche ne i Latini ne i Greci mai Tusan doppia, si perche, 
avendo forza di due lettere, parrebbe che nella sua duplicita 
avesse forza di 4 lettere. Senza che lo Scaligero nella sua 

170 NOTES TO C. I. 

granmaticm, 1. 17. ci tana di qacilo vixioBo raUoppiaineato: 
Itab nt exprinant vitia lingue degeneris a Latina ponunt 
daplez sz. Nisicly, Progin, ii. 46. Dafanzati, in a note 
to his tninalatian of Tacitiis, mmt^ I. 3, says : A me pare 
cbe, oome la lingua Latina in gmu, oxymel e altro, non 
raddoppia k doppie, cosi la volgar nostra non possa ne l*aDa 
-ne Taltra uta nai raddoppiare, percfae wsendo doppie per 
natura .... ciascnna ha il sno snono doj^iio, cfae verrebbe, 
laddof^iandola, rinqnartato con qnattro lettere oonsonanti 
insieme .... Or se la pronnnda la scrittura segue .... 
bisognera, per legger conettamente, metier qnadmplicato 
fiafto, rompersi una vena del petto, e scoppiare ; o leggerle 
sconetlamente. Lodovico Blaitelli .... non consente che 
si raddoppj mai qoesta lettera. I know that we now write 
ItatUtaato, but, as Editor, I fed I have no right to alter the 
orthography of my author, paiticulariy when he has been 
uniform in his principle, and has applied it with discii- 
mination. M. bas not said a word on tiiis point, but has 
adopted the modem spelling. Yet he has left baUisoUaf 
C. szxYiii. sL 23. 

St. 9. 1. S.—Abbandtnutt9 is in all the copies of 1532 tiiat 
I have seen, although I find abamdona, II. x. 2 ; and in 
other places. M., pref. p. xxxi., mentions the word abtmdona 
as one of those which he has always written with one 6, 
following the poet's orthography. The fact is, however, that 
A. was by no means uniform on this point ; and M. him- 
self wrote ahbandona, xxiv. 86, as he found in the edit 
of 1532. 

St. 12. 1. l.—See O. I., III. iv. 39. 

St. 13. 1. 1 and 6. — Observe that A. calls the same horse 
indiscriminately palafreno and destriere. The sixth line in die 
first edition bad covqI, but the vowel a repeated eleven times 
rendered it very disagreeable to the ear. This same animal, 
which has been called palafreno, eavallo, and destriero, is 
called again destriero, inf. Ixxi. 5, and ronsino, Izziii. 6, 
as well as Ixxvi. 7. On the other hand Bajardo is often 
called destriero, but eavallo^ Ixxxi. 4, and repeatedly else- 

St. 14. 1. l.—See O. I., II. xxx. 60. and II. xxxi. 4. 

St. 16.1. 1 and 8^-SeeO. I., II. xv. 33, and II. xxiv. 43. 

NOTES TO C. I. 171 

St. 17. 1. 4—Incude mas. here, and also xxii. 67. Sa- 
rabbe mai questa per caso una di quelle dormizioni a cui 
soggiacciono qualche volta anche i sommi scrittori 1 Monti. 
See O. I., I. HI. 78. II. xxi. 6. 

St. 18. 1. 4. — ^This line is almost literally from an old ro<- 
xnance poem called Tristano, quoted by Lavez. 

Questo di quel» ne quel di questo teme. 

As for Rinaldo and Ferrau being of equal valour may be 
doubted, since according to Bojardo, II. xxix. 54, 56, and 
57, had not Kinaldo been obliged to go elsewhere, he would 
have killed Ferrau. 

St. 19. 1. 1. — See O. I., I. iii.79; and respecting tardicttif 
for tardiam, notes to O. I. 

St. 20. 1. 6.— All the copies of tlie edition of 1532 which 
I have seen, have pruovi not ftrovi. It is so repeatedly in 
this or similar words in other places ; but Rdscelli says 
that in the copy of the Furioso, which Galasso Ariosto showed 
to him, the words nuovOffuocot cucre, had been altered to 
novOf focOf core, and therefore this pruovi may be supposed 
against the author's intention. See Life, page cl. 

St. 21. 1. 1. — See O. I., II. xxii. 42. M. substitutes 
figliitol to figlioLf and mentions the alteration in the last 
table of his edition ; but he left it in other places, and the 
word is not peculiar to A. 

St. 22. 1.2. — All the copies of 32 which I have seen read 
rivali, not rival, as I find in M. 

St. 22. 1. 8. — At the end of his edition of the poem, M. 
bas added a table to show that A. never used dtie with re- 
ference to nouns or names of the masculine gender. This 
is according to the strictest rules, now obsolete. La voce 
due si varia ancor essa, ma solamente nel verso, nel quale si 
dice duo nel genere del maschio e due in quello della fem- 
mina. Nelle prose la parola due e indeclinabile. Ruscelm 
Comment, della ling. Ital, I. 8. 

St. 24. 1. 8.— See O. I., II. xxxi. 14. Both B. and A. 
seem to imply that after all Ferrau recovered his helmet j 
which, however, was not the fact. 

St. 26. 1. 6 and 8. — Marano, and not Marrano, in the 
edition of 1532. See 0. I., I. iii. 66. 

172 NOTES TO C. I. 

St. 28. 1. 5.— With respect to Almonte's helmet conquered 
by Orlando, see note to 0. 1. 1. xiv. 61. As for the conquest 
of that of Mambrino by Rinaldo I cannot now find its history, 
which is, I believe, in an old romance poem, intitled Innanioro- 
ment^di Rinttldo; several editions of which are mentioned by 
MELZk. In the Rinaldo of T. Tasso this young hero does 
not kill Mambriano, as GiNGOENi supposes. Hist, lit, d^Ital. 
Pt. II. c. 17. but only stuns him. Rin. C. xii. 68. In 
old romances, however, the gallantry displayed by Rinaldo 
•gainst King Mambrino is often praised, and in the AUobello 
(edit, of Ven. 1489, 4to. sig. q ii.) it is said that Rinaldo 
used aims, 

Le quali forno di Mambrin gigante. 

Mambrino was uncle to Mambriano. See vol. 1, p. 306. 

St. 29. 1. 6 and 6.— A. follows B. See O. I., I. m. 61 
et scq. The death of Argalia is differently related by 
DoLCB, Pritne imp. d*OrL xvii. 18. 

SL 30. 1. 5. — ^To swear by the ashes of their parents (Lan- 
ftisa was Ferrau's mother,) was a common sort of oath. 
HoR. Od. II. XIII. 2. Mneid, v. 734. S. Padl, Epis. ad 
Heh. vi. 16. See also O. I., I. v. 51. 

St. 32. 1. 2. — I find taltar, not saltare, in the edition of 


St. 33. 1. 1 . — Biasrao e punizione meriterebbe dalle muse 
chiunque non ammirasse I'Ariosto in questa descrizione. 
NisiELY, Prog. II. 53. 

St. 34. 1. 1. — ^This simile has been repeatedly observed 
to be from Horace, Vitas hinnuleo me similis, ChUie, &c. 
Homer has the simile, but supposes the mother to see her 
little ones slaughtered by the lion. Iliad, A, 113 — 119. 

St. 37. 1. 8. — I find ch'el, not cheH as M. has printed in 
the edition of 1532, both here and III. XLI. 6. 

St. 38. 1.1 and 4. — The edition of 1532 has tiener and 
scorca, M. substituted tenere and corca, without taking 
the least notice of the latter alteration. 

St. 39. 1. 1. — ^The edition of 1532 has segli, which may 
be for se gli (gli for le is used, xliii. 114. 8 ; and it is le 
here in 1616 ; or gli for egli, very frequent in this poem) ; 
and may also be for s'egli. Speaking of this gli e for egli e, 

NOTES TO C. I. 173 

so frequently used by A. (who wrote glie), R. observes : 
Egli .... si usa oggi dai Saaesi e dalla piu parte d'ltalia 
di dirsi senza la prima lettera, e non pero mai con altra 
parola appresso che col verbo estere. On the other hand 
Dolce says: Anosto usa spesso glie in luogo di egli e: 
di che ne' buoni poeti non mi sovviene esempio. With 
him agrees the Dictionary of La Cmsea, in which, it 
is said, che e forma plebea e Barbara . This sentence is 
followed by an example from A. 27, st. 77, and another 
from Bbrni, I. v. 49. On this Monti observes : Questa 
volta Toracolo della Crusca pronuncia una sentenza fatale 
ad una delle piii leggiadre proprieta della Toscana favella. 
Se gli pronome in vece di egli e forma plebea e barbara, arci- 
barbari, arciplebei, oltre TAriosto ed il Berm, sono . . . 
quanti mai ebber voce di graziosi Toscani scrittori, perciocche 
tutti ne £ainno uso continuo. 

St. 41. 1. 1. — lo penso che M. Lodovico preferisse ctn- 
giale a cinghiale per cansare I'asprezza generata dalla me2>za 
lettera h, Cosi prefer! veggiare a vegghiare .... £ qui 
ricordando che V Ariosto era Lombardo si pud osservare 
ancora che in molti dialetti di Lombardia queste stesse voci 
non hanno 1'^ Pezzana. See O. I. I. v. 58, II. iii. 43 
and notes. The second reason assigned by Pezzana is cer- 
tainly the right one. M.> as is observed in the life of 
A. p. cli. registers as errors the alterations agghiacci, 
ghiacciOf &c. which occur in some editions. But no editor 
has yet noticed that A. altered many of these words in 
the edit, of 32, and that he probably meant to alter them 
all, so that agiacci, giaccio, &c. are likely to be errors. 
Here are a few instances of the alterations just mentioned : 
Agghiacciata, xix, 29 ; ghiaccio, xxiii, 64 ; agghiacciato, 
xxiv, 67 ; ghiaccio, xxiv, 85 ; agghiaccia, xxv, 62 ; 
ghiaccio, xxxi, 48 ; xxvi, 23 ; xxxvi, 40 ; agghiaccio, xli, 33 ; 
agghiaccia, xlii, 50; ghiaccio, xliii, 102 ; ghiacci, xlv. 38 and 
39. In all these words the h is omitted in the edit, of 1516. 

St. 42.1. 1. — This simile, as has been often observed, is 
imitated from Catullus, Ut flos in septis, &c. See Way*s 
Fabliaux, iii. 5 and 112. 

St. 44. 1. 4. — Qui e posto trionfare per abbondare, sguaz- 
zare. Dolce. 11 here e il godere si nominan per beffa 

174 NOTES TO C. I. 

trionfaie, says Casa ; and it was a favourite expressioQ 
with MoLZA, as we learn from Caro's letters. 

St 45. I. 7« — E verb makes the sense clearer, or rather 
the only sense that can be drawn from this passage. 
St. 48. 1. 8. — ^Ma come noi veggiam venir in ora 
Cosa che in miUe anni non awiene, 
Cosi n' avvenne verame&te allora. 

Teseid, v. 77. 

St. 53. 1. 8. — Innante, the edit, of 1532, not inante as in 
M. who found fault with the change of inanti to innanti. 
Pref. p. xzzi. 

St. 54. I. 1. — GiRALDi finds fault with the third line 
more particularly, which, he says, e pieno d' una non con-* 
venevole lascivia. Hear Erasmus, a pious and grave 
divine, vmting from England: Sunt hie nimphte divinis 
vultibus, blandiB, faciles et quas tu tuis Camoenis facile 
anteponas. Est prsterea mos numquam satis laudatas. 
Sive quo venias, omnium osculis exciperis, sive disoedas 
aliquo, osculis dimitteris ; redis, redduntur suavia ; venitor 
ad te, propinantur suavia ; disceditur abs te, dividuntur basia ; 
occurritur alicubi, basiatur afiatim ; denique quocumqae 
te moveas, suaviorum plena sunt omnia. Qus si tu, Fauste, 
gustasses semel quam sint mollicula, quam fragrantia, pro- 
fecto cuperes, non decennium solum, ut Solon fecit, sed ad 
mortem usque in Anglia peregrinare. Opp, vol. iii. p. 56, 
Amsterd. edit. Manners have altered for the worse, as 
Erasmus would think. This learned man made no dis- 
tinction between osculum, banum and suavium, and there 
must be none, as he was so great a scholar. Basiare, some 
have thought to be minus civile quam tnculari, but Erasmos 
knew better. 

St. 55. 1. 1. See O. I. II. v. 64, and II. xix. 50. 

St. 56. 1. 5, 7 and 8.— O. I. I. xxix. 52. Ovid, A. A. 
III. 674. 

St. 60. 1. 3. — Nieve, tiepido, &c. are peculiar to A. 

St. 61. 1. 7 and 8.— O. I, I. ix. 53. 

St. 62. 1. l.-^Ne con altro romor si dan di petto 
Doi fier leon quando son corrocciati 
O ver dui tauri raossi dal diletto 
De qualche vacca sopra gli ampli prati 

NOTES TO C. I. 175 

Che si percoton senza alcun rispetto 
Sin alia morte come disperad. 

Mambriano, C. 1. 
St. 63. 1. 1.->0. T. I. XXI. 2 and I. ix. 54. 
St. 65.1.1. — Sideve considerare quanto sia coinpiuta e 
propria qaesta comparazione. Forn. The third line is 
probably suggested by Vibgil, CuUx. 

Fnlminibus coelo veluti fragor editus alto. 

I find il Pin not pin in 1532, and I have adopted it as it 
serves to individualize that pin, as was intended by the il 
prefixed to it, and which Nisiely would have changed to 
un, because he had more learning than taste. The com pa* 
risen occurs in Ariosto's Latin epistle to Fio, on the 
deatk of his mother. 

Deprensus veluti sub querno termine pastor, 
Cujus glandiferos populatur fulmine ramos 
Juppiter, ut rutilo reteguntur lumine sylvae 
£t prout horrent! quatitur nemus omne fragore : 
Labitur ille impos mentis, rigor occupat artus, 
Stant immoti oculi, ora immota, immobile pondus. 

Much inferior to the Italian. 

St. 67. 1. 1. — Re Manfredonio il Cavallo spronava 
£ Ulivieri a lo scudo giugneva 
£ si gran colpo fii quel che gli diede 
Che Ulivier nostro si trovava a piede. 

£d ogni cosa la donzella vide .... 
£ fra se stessa di tal colpo ride. 
Ulivier, come un lion, mena vampo .... 
Dicendo : appunto al bisogno qui inciampo : 
Caduto son dirimpetto alia dama 
Donde ho perduto il suo amore e la fama .... 

Per gentilezza allor quella fanciuUa 
Se gli accostava e diceva : Ulivieri 
Rimonta, vuoi tu aiuto 1 in sul destrieri. 

Or questo fu ben del doppio lo scomo, 
£ parve fuoco la faccia vermiglia .... 
£ pel dolor dubito senza fallo 
Nou poter risalir sopra al cavallo. 

Morg. Mag. vii. 57 — 60. 

176 NOTES TO C. I. 

Obfierve the taste of A. in comparison with Fnici. 
Angelica says so very little: but how pointed the irony, 
and yet how fine and delicate ! See also Morg. Mag, xxi. 
58, 63 and 64. 

St. 69. 1. 7 and 8. — Sinodoro, a prisoner of Bradamante, 
without knowing it, in the Mambriano^ asks (C. 6.) 

Chi e stato quel barone 
Ch' oggi tanti de' nostri in campo ha morti 1 
Allor, ridendo, Vivian dal bastone .... 
Questa e colei, che ti cavo di sella 
A me cogina e a Benaldo sorella. 
St. 7 1. 1. 3 and 5. — Ahbatuio in 1532. Probably an error : 
M. has abbattuto hare, but has left abbatea in viii. 81, as it is 
in 1532. O.I. II. xix. 56. 

St. 73. 1. 8.— O. I. II. XIX. 47. 

St. 74. 1. 3.— O. I. I. VII. 25. 

St. 78. 1. I. — Much has been said concerning these 
two fountains in the notes to O. I. See I. ill. 32 and 37 ; 
II. XV. 60 ; II. XX. 45. 

St. 80. 1. 8.— O. 1. 1. XI. 36. 

St. 87. 1. 7. — ^Among other ridiculous criticisms of 
NisiELY, the following deserves notice • L'Ariosto a guisa 
d' un poeta scenico o mitologico licenzia la gente nel fine 
d' ogni canto, sicche mi par la canzone dell' uccellino, 
dove non si vede ne varieta, ne gravita, ne diletto alcuno. 
Prog. I. 12. It was certainly no fault of A. if this petulant 
critic did not see what every one else does in the conclusions 
of A.'s cantos. 


St. 1. 1 1. — From Horace; Od. i. 33. Vol for vuoi 
occurs repeatedly in the edition of 1532. See inf. st. 61. 

St. 2. 1. 6.— O. I., II. XV. 54. 

St. 4. 1. 1. — ^The manner in which Rinaldo addresses 
Sacripante, as well as the answer of the Circassian, are not 
uncommon in old romances and poems. See O. I., I. xxvi. 
62. The robberies of Rinaldo were famous, and he boasted 

NOTES TO C. n. 177 

of them. O. I., II. ix. 32. As for the tu te ne menti it is 
the technical answer to an imputation accompanied by a 
challenge ; and A. is said to be very correct in these par- 
ticulars. Mattei mentions tliat an edition of the FuriosOf 
with the Pareri in duello, sold, for this reason only, at an 
extravagant price ; and in his Seienza Cavalleresca, lib,, ii. 
€. 7, he says : Sovvienmi d' aver veduto rompere un maneggio 
di pace, rieusando Tuna delle parti di passare nficio alcuno, 
perche in simile avvenimento non si vedea che passato Tavesse 

St. 5. 1. 1. — NisiELY finds great fault with this compari- 
son. He would have changed his opinion had he known 
that Berni imitated it, or rather nearly copied it See the 
Rif. of O. I., I. XXVII. 8. 

St. 6. 1. 5. — O. I., L XXVI. 27, and notes. 
St. 7. 1. 4. — There should be a full stop at the end of this 

St. 8. 1. 6.~^ee O. I., I. xvi. 22. Miss Brooke's Reliq. 
of Irish Poet, p. 60. 

St. 9. 1. 1. — Non puo darsi ipotiposi piu bella in questo 
genere. Monti. He read crescerey as in 1532, not crescer, 
as MoR. 

St. 10. I. 5. — Fusberta, the name of Rinaldo's sword. 
In speaking of the names of these weapons, I forgot to men- 
tion Curtana or Cortcma, certainly from the power which it 
has of shorteriing, that is cutting off, heads. It was Oggero's 
sword, now the sword of justice of the King of England. 
See, however, note to O. I., I. vii. 1. 

St. 11. 1. 1.— O. I., I. II. 14, and II. xxi. 6. 
St. 13. 1. 4. — Scrvpulosa in 1532. M. Scrupolosa. Nel 
favoleggiamento d' Angelica e del ribaldo Eremita allude a 
un somiglievole avvenimento che accadde a una nobile gio- 
vane con un vecchio Priore in un monastero di solitari frati 
che '1 vulgo sciocco riverisce ed adora. Fornari. 

St. 17. 1. 3. — Mottegiando here, and xzviii. 66., the ed. of 
1532. That of 1516, motteggiando in both places ; and so M. 
St. 20. i. 1. — lo so che forsi alcun si maraviglia 

Come Bajardo si lasciasse prendere .... 
Tutti gli autoii afferman che Bajardo 
Non si lasciava approssimar persona, 

178 NOTES TO C. U. 

Se non Renaldo, o alcun del sao stendaido, 
II che aiico per me si canta e sona ; 
Pure in quel giomo ranimal gagliaido - 
Mttto natua, e fii sorte non bona, 
Che Belzabu, per far morir Renaldo, 
L' avea constretto a obbedir Ginisbaldo. 

Mamh. C. 31. 

St 22. 1. 1.— There should be no stop at the end of this 

St, 22. 1. 4.— O. I., III. IV. 29. 

St. 26, 1. 3. — I find not in any credible aaAor of Rinaldo's 
embassage into England. Harrington » 

St 28. 1. 1.— O. I., II. VI. 3. 

St 31. 1. 8.— O. I., II. VI. 23. 

St 32. 1. 4.— See L^e »/ Bof. pag. Izxxiii. O. I., II. 1. 72. 
Also III. IV. 55. 

St 35. 1. 1.— O. I., I. XIV. 10 and 40 ; I. xvi. 60. 

St 37. 1. 4. — Dolce asserts that al is an error, and that 
A. wrote a. Elegante, page 299. Rus. adopted a. 1 thiuk 
A. wrote aL 

St 37. 1. 7. — B4)donna o Roduntia citta secondo Tolomeo 
vicino al fiume Rodano. MoL. 

St 37. 1. 8. — ^A grifone which could carry a man is io 
O. I., I. XIII. 6. 

St 39. 1. 3. — Inadvertenza in 1532, not inawertensa^ 
as M. 

St. 43. 1. 5. — ^The vellnm copy of 1532 has ripari instead 
of ripar ; an error, corrected however whilst the work 
was going through the press. I find ripar in the copy once 
belonging to Mr. Hanrott, as well as in one which Earl 
Spbncbr has placed in my hands ; and in another, for the 
perusal of which I am indebted to Messrs. Payne and Foss. 
Of these two copies, the former comes from the Barotti, 
and the other from the Rein a collections. 

St 44. 1. 7.— O. I., I. XVII. 8, 

St 45. 1. 1.— O. I., III. VII. 56. 

St 49. 1. 1.-— O. I., I. XIII. 16. 

St. 50. 1. 8. — Addosao here, but adosso above st. 10, in the 
edition of 1532, and also in M. 

St. 51. 1. 6. — Gradasso rode a mare, (alfana,) although 

NOTES TO C. II. 179 

against the laws of chivalry, having sworn to conquer Ba- 

jardo, and scorning to use any other steed. 

St. 52. 1. 6.~Kus. finds fault with rineulb, but Dolce 

observes : Questo verbo e proprio de' cavalli, ed A. ebbe 

I'occhio alia propriety usandolo. Eleg, p. 282. 

St. 55. I. 6. — ^Thus Medusa's head carried by Perseus 

petrified persons who beheld it The next line is copied 

from Dante. 

St. 58. 1. 3. — Pinabel une espie qui estoit a Charlemagne. 

Thus this worthy is mentioned in the Quatre Fitz Aymon, 

ch. 16. 

St. 63. 1. 5. — Martilia both here and next stanza in 

1532. M. prints Maniglia here, but Martilia in the fol- 
lowing stanza. 

St. 64. 1. 5. — Maraviglia the edit, of 1532, not meraviglia 

as I find in M., who, however, left maraviglia in this same 

canto, stanzas 41 and 54. 

St. 65. 1. 8.— The edit, of 1516 and 1532 have prigionera, 

not prigioniera, as I find in M., and frrigionero in 30, 39. 
In XIV. 52 the edit, of 1516 has prigionera, but that of 1532; 

prigioniera. I ought not to have followed M. who took 
notice only of the alteration in this stanza, but not of that in 
30, 39. As for the substance of this passage, see O. I. II. 
IX. 46, and II. xiii. 51. 

St. 72.1.4. — Argumento, 1532. M,argoinefito, 
St. 75.1. 1. — The plan of getting rid of a powerful and 
brave enemy resorted to by the cowardly Pinabello, was 
adopted, if we are to believe Dictys Cketehsis, debello Troi, 
lib. 2, by Diomedes and Ulysses against Palamedes. 
Simulato quod thesaurum repertum in puteo cum eo partiri 
vellent, remotb procul omnibus, persuadent ut ipse potius 
descenderet. Eumque nihil insidiose metuentem, admini- 
culo funis usum deponunt : ac propere arreptis sazb, quae 
circum erant, desuper obruunt. Ita .... interiit. Dares, 
followed by Giudo dalle Colonne, says on the contrary 
that Sarpedon was killed by Palamedes, cui Alexander 
Paris sagitta coUum transfigit .... atque ita Palamedes 
occiditur. GuiDO adds only that Paris killed him quadam 
venenata sagitta in ipsum emissa. This part of the Furioto 
however is imitated from Gyron le Courtoys. There we 

180 NOTES TO c. n. 

find : ComnieDt la demoiselle que breuz sans pitie aymott 
qaeroit occasion de le faire monrir. Et comment par la 
namiaistie delle elle fist descendre bfehns dedans vne cane 
OQ il cuyda rompre le col cuydant quil nen denst iamais 
saillir. Brehns being eager to pursue a young lady who, 
be had been told by his treacherous damsel, was at the bottom 
of the cave, did exactly like Bradamante : Sen vient a ung 
grant arbre ettrenche labranche . . . . et maintenant se prent 
a la brancheet entre dedans. La damoiselle qui moult vonl- 
sist que il se rompist le col au cheoir de la ius laisse aller la 
branche de Tarbre apres luy. £t .... est il durement est- 
stoaidy est estonne au cheoir .... La damoiselle .... dist 
moult hardiement. ' Sire brehns comment vous estil. Even 
some of the particulars, as far as they suited A. are taken 
hence. Thus, according to A. la stansa was quadra e spa- 
ziosa. In the old romance we find that Brehns treuue vne 
moult belle chambre assez petite . . . . et estoit toute faicte 
en quarre. Bradamante found Melissa in that cave, saw 
the tomb of Merlin, and was informed of the names and 
deeds of her illustrious posterity : Brehns found the 
Knight Febtts lying dead on a magnificent bed in his ca?e, 
after which we learn : Comment .... vint verslui CBrehus) 
ung cheualier de grant aage, auecques lequel il deuisa de 
plusieurs choses. £t comment le dit cheualier luy fit cog- 
noistre de quelle lignee estoit gyron le courtoys descendu. 
Alamanni has not omitted this adventure in his Giron 
Cortege ; C. 12 and 13. 


St. 1. 1. 1.— See O. 1. 1, xxvii. 1. Life of Boj. p. xxiii. 
St. 2. 1. 3. — ^Solqui terrarum flammis opera omnia lustras. 

ufJn. IV. 607. 
Sol omnia sua luce illustrat et complet. Cic. Som, Scip. iv. 
St. 3. 1. 3« — Qualem te memorant Satumo rege fugato 
Victori laudes concinuisse Jovi. 

TlBUL. II. 5. 


St. 9. ]. 5. — Sante, that is invioUtbilL So sacri busti, 
xiv. 101 ; cerimonie sante, xiz. 33 ; sacerdoti santif xl. 13. 

St. 24. ]. I. — The person here alluded to is Ruggerelto, 
Rvggerino, or Ruggino, the supposed son of Ruggiero and 
Bradatnante, mentioned in the life of A. p. cxxiii. I had in- 
tended to give a short biography of the various personages of 
the House of Este mentioned by Bojardo and Ariosto, 
but I soon discovered that the notes on these points would 
extend to a considerable length, partly to correct the histo- 
rical mistakes of B. and A., partly to illustrate their allu- 
sions, or to distinguish the ti'uth from the errors with which 
they abound. The subject moreover would have been un- 
interesting to most readers who do not wish to study the 
history of the House of Este in the Furioto, The inquisitive 
reader is referred to Leibnitz Script, Rer. Brumwicensium ; 
MuRATORi Antichita Est. and hiTT a famig lie celebri Ita- 
iiane, a splendid work which does great credit to the learning, 
patriotism, and critical knowledge of the author. 
St. 26. 1. 1.— O. I., II. XXI. 66. 
St. 29. 1. 1.-0. 1., II. XXV. 43. 
St. 32. 1. 7»— O. I., II. XXI. 67, and xxv. 46. 
St. 33. 1. 5. — Apo in 1532, not appo, as in M. 
St. 34. 1. 5. — lo spiego : quando I'elettro, piima che fosse 
tale, fu pianto (sostantivo) e lagrima delle sorelle di Fetonte. 
Bar. Had he said Riucelli spiega instead of lo spiego it 
would have been more candid and honourable. 
St. 35 and 38.— O. I., II.xxi.57. 
St. 41. 1. 1 and 3. — Rovigo (Rhodigium from podog) 
and Comacchio. 

St; 41. 1. 8. — Papulose in 1532 altered by MAnXopopolose^ 
as he constantly altered populo into popolo. But he left 
jjopular in XLVi. 2 and often elsewhere. 
St. 46. 1. 1.— O. I., II. XXI. 59. 

St. 48. 1. 2. — Avra costui, as in M., makes no sense. 
The edit, of 1532 has correctly avrd a costui. 
St. 55. 1. 4.— Ju«o 1632, GiulioM. 
St. 56. 1. 7.— The edit, of 1632 has iusto ; M. giusto, 
St. 56. 1. 8. — Andrea Marone. See notes to C. 46, st 13. 
That the poet intended to praise himself as another Virgil is 
an absurd supposition. 

1^2 NOTES TO C. ill. 

Su 67. I. 6tf— Jocottcio 1532 ; gioeondo M. See notes. to 

St. 62. 1. 1.— The edit, of 1532, bona ; M. btuma. 

St 62. 1. 7.— M. dolc€ ; bat 1532 doUie. 

St 62. 1. 8. — Awutreggiart, 1532 ; amareggiar, M. 

St 63. L 8« — Aeeitd in the edit of 1532, not aeeiar as sab- 
ttituted by M. Aeciai\ is used instead of aeciaio, as Te^^V 
and PitUn' in Dante and Pbtrarca. So cuoV (ot ewno in 
BoJARDO, O. I., I. lY. 41. See note on that line. 

St 65. 1. 4^— O. I., II. XXVI. 20. 

St 69. 1 1.-^. I., I. 39 ; II. v. 33, and xvi. 14. 

St 72. 1. l.-O. I., II. HI. 40. 

St 72. 1. 8.— Instead of <£stretto' lead 'Estretto'. 

St 73. 1. 4. — ^BojARiM) often uses mano for mani, the 
reason for which is given in the notes to the O. I. In the 
fintedit of the Furuae the same had been done by A., who, 
however, altered it as well as the two rhyming words in the 
errata, as was observed by DoLCE. This proves how common 
the use of matio for mani must have been in B.'s time. 

St 76. 1. 5. — Prewiita in. 1532 ; which was observed by 
M. who substituted provitta, as in &e first edit. 


St. 3. 1. 1 and 2,^Atnadu de Gaula, 1. 38. 

St 3. 1. 6 and 7.— O. I., II. xii. 10. II. xviii. 52. 

St 6. 1. 7. — Affato for affatto is the reading of the edition 
of 1532. The second is preferable. 

St. 10. 1.4. — If NisiELY had known that few horses were 
used both to travel and to fight, he would have spared the 
following ridiculous observation : perche non disse ancfae 
s'era buono a someggiarel Progin. iii. 162. 

St. 11. 1. 2. — Giunseno in 1532 ; giutuero M., who took 
notice of the alteration. 

St 12. 1. 5.— O. I., I. xvii. 8 ; xxii. 14. II. xvi. 20. 

St. 13. 1. 2. — The eicpression ' a fil della sinopia,' is Pul- 
ci's. See M. M. xxii. 214. 

NOTES TO C. IV. 183 

St. 14. 1. 1.— O.L, 11. XXVI. 60. 

St. 18. 1. 1. — Respecting this Hyppogriph, see O. I., I* 
XIII. 6, already quoted, where mention is made of a griflfon 
'virhich carried a man into the air. Sir W. Jones, de la Poet, 
Or, § 2, after having mentioned one of these animals in Fer- 
Dusi's Chahnasne, adds : C'est de ce griffon .... que V A. 
a probablement emprunt^ son hypogriffe. I doubt it. A 
borse with wings is in Pulci, M.M. xiii. 51 : 

Un gran destrier co' denti e con le penne. 

Of animals like this Calais and Zethes are classical instances ; 
aad the line of Ovid, Met, vi. 713, 

Cetera qui matris, pennas genitoris haberent, 

was certainly in A.'s mind when he wrote this stanza. Vir- 
gil, Ee. viii. 27, had said, to denote a portentous event, 
' Jungentur jam gryphes equis ; ' upon which Servius 
observes: Griphes genus ferarum in Hyperboreis nascitui 
montibus ; omni parte leones sunt, alis et facie aquilis similes, 
equis vehementer infesti. A. supposed the Ippogrifo bora 
of a grifo, and a horse, because it was thought to be so 
extraordinary ihat it should never happen ; but the story is 
taken from Virgil, and classical tradition. 

St. 23. 1. 7 and 8.— O. I., I. xiil. 21 ; II. iv. 54. ; III. 
VI. 26. 

St. 30. 1. 1^— Boccaccio Teteid. 1. 24 ; O. I., I. xiii. 32, 
St. 35. 1. 6.— O. I., II. XVI. 36. 
St. 37. 1. 2.— O. I., II. V. 24. 

St. 38. 1. 1. — ^That spirits dwelt under the houses of which 
they took care, and precisely under the threshold, is an old 
Scottish superstition. "The Scottish fairies," says Sir W. 
Scott, Min, of Scot, bord,, vol. ii. p. 169, (fourth edit.) 
** sometimes reside in subterranean abodes, in the vicinity of 
human habitations, or, according to the popular phrase, under 
the ' door stane,' or threshold." See also xxii. 23. As for 
the sudden disappearance of the palace, see O. I., I. xiv. 
47 ; II. V. 15. 

St. 40. 1. 2 and 4. — For Prasildo and Iroldo, see O. I., 


St. 41. 1. 2.— O. I., III. V. 45, and vi. 33 and 39. 


184 NOTES TO C. IV. 

St. 43, 1. 7 and 8.— PoLCi, M. M. 24, 95. 

St. 49. 1. },'^Lateiarlo is a misprint for Uueitirlo, 

St. 54. K 4. — This passage has more the air of the old 
romances than most parts of the poem. A prince sent from 
his sovereign on an embassy to a foreign power .... wanders 
in search of adventures. Hoole. 

St. 58. 1. I. — Of ladies accused of being false, and proved 
innocent by a •knight who took their part, and killed their 
calumniators, or made them retract, old romances are fall ; 
and ballads as well as stories on the subject, are to 
be found in Scott's, Percy's, and £llis*s collections. 
Ginevra, the queen of Arthur, was repeatedly accused, 
condemned to be burned, and delivered by Sir Launcelot 
(although not innocent, but owing to some technical 
mistake). See Sir Launcelot^ I. 177 ; II. 17 retro ; III. 
164 and 169, of the Paris edition of 1520, fol. As 
for the punishment that awaited Ginevra, hear Amadisde 
GauUf I. I. En aquella sazon era por lei establecido que 
qualquiera muger por de estado grande et senorio que fuesse 
si en adttlterio se hallaua, no se podia en ninguna guisa 
escusar la muerte. These words are almost literally trans- 
lated in the first four lines of the next stanza. 

St. 60. 1. 4.— The edition of 1532 has diffesa both here 
and in st. 65 of this canto, not difesa as in M. 

St. 66. 1. 3. — I find toave only in one of my copies of the 
edition of 1532, but tuave in all the others. 


St. 1. 1. 3. — Instead of ' o rissa,' read ' a rissa.* 
St. 1. 1. 5. — Lavez. doubts the conjugal concord of beasts, 
more pailicularly of bears. Ho letto presso degno autore un 
orso aver cavato un occhio ad un' orsa con la zampa. The 
reader may choose between A. and this nameless author, 
which of them is to be believed. I, of course, am for my poet. 
St. 5. 1. 5. — Chart in 1532 certainly meant for chiari a.s 
it is in 1516 and in M. 

NOTES TO C. V. 185 

SU 8. 1. 3.— O. I., I. XXI. 61. 
St. 18. 1. 5. — ^This hyperbole b of claasical origin. 
Qui tantum arderem quantum Trinaeria rupes. Cat. 
and Horace, Epod. svii. 30. 

O mare, et terra ; ardeo 
Quantum neque atro delibutus Hercules 
Messi crucne, nee Sicanafervida 
Furens in iEtna flamma. 
St. 24. 1.2, 4, 6. — All thecopiesof 1532 which I have seen 
have pruova and ritruava, and, with the exception of one, 
also giuova. The other has giova as it is in 1516, and M. 
Truovi and prucvi in st. 38 of this canto : all giovi. Nuoca 
pruova and truova St. 67 ; truove and pruove st 69 ; and often 
elsewhere. M. has generally (not always) omitted the u. 

St. 27. 1. 6 and 8. — Che is certainly superfluous in the 
eighth line. A. often repeats che without necessity, and 
sometimes renders the sense clearer ; but the practice had 
better been avoided. M. has quoted examples of other 
writers who did the same ; but, if to do so is UDgrammatical, 
no authority can justify it 

St. 41. 1. 1> — Non potea il poeta piu fisicamente ne 
con piu brevita hi rispondere a Polinesso Tinfelice Ario- 
dante. Nisiely, ii. 48. The circumstance of Ariodante 
having the bocea amara is, I believe, an original thought of 
A. repeated xlii. 41. 

St. 50.1.8. — ^The edit of 1516 and 1532 read mandagli, 
clearly instead of mandaigli. M. printed mandagU. I 
thought tnanda*gli preferable as it shows the omission of 
the t. 

St. 74. 1. 7. — There is no doubt that the plot of Shake- 
speare's Much Ado about Nothing is taken from A. as far as 
respects Borachio's treacherous device for calumniating Hero, 
and the conduct of Margaret, who answers to Dalinda of A. 
Don Pedro and Claudio of S. are Lurcanio and Ariodante 
of A« Instead of the gentleman re-appearing after being 
supposed dead, the lady does so in S. when less expected. 
Pope said that the stoiy of S. was taken from this canto of A. , 
but Steevens says that although the story of S. somewhat 
resembles that of A., yet it seems that a novel of Belleforest 

186 NOTES TO C. VI. 

copied from one of Bandello, has furnished S. with bis 
fable, as it approaches nearer in all particulan to the play in 
question. I cannot find any novel of Bandello of which 
this can be said, nor is the reference to the 18th history of 
the 3d vol. correct in any of the edit which I have seen 
either of the original or of Bellbforest*s translation. 

St. 87. 1. 5« — I have never seen the word riputato used in 
the sense in which it seems to be here used by A. RipUato 
here cannot mean wpptued, as it would tend to clear Polinesso 
of a vice ; which is against the poef s intention. Here I svp- 
pose r^toto to meui generally known. 


• St. 1. 1. 1. — ^This stanza is almost translated iram CiCBSO 
defin, Etsivero molita [humana mens] quippiamest, quam- 
vis occulte fecerit, numquam tamen confidet id fore semper 
occultum. Plerumque im^bomm (acta primo suspicio 
inaequitur, deinde serino atque iama, tum accusator, tum 
index, multietiam (utme consule) ipsi se indicaverunt* And 
Lucretius with his usyal Idftiness, 

Inde metus macolat poenarum praemia vitae : 
Circumretit &iim vis, atque injuria, quemqoe ; 
Atque, unde exorta.e8t, ad eum plerumque revortit : 
Nee facile est placidam, ac pacatam, degere vitam. 
Qui violat factis communia foedera pacis. 
£t si fallit enim Divdm genus humandmque 
Perpetuo tamen id fore clam di£Sdere debet : 
Quippe ubi se multei, per somma siepe loquentes, 
Aut morbo delirantes, protraze ferantur, 
£t celata diu, in medium peccata dedisse. 

De N^ R. y. 1160, et seq. 
St. 10. 1. 8. — ^Instead of morti read morto. 
St. 13. 1. 4. — Verde.giiillo : denoting despair. Little hope 
(green) with yellow (dead) : the colour of dead leaves. See 
XXII. 46, and 47. 

NOTES TO C. VI. 187 

St. 14. 1. 1 and 2t — ^M. has printed 

Narrato v*ho come 11 fatto successe, 
Come fa conosciuto Ariodante. 
I think the panctaatbn I have adopted is better. 

St. 17. 1. 1.— O. I., III. VII. 26. 

St. 19. 1. 5. — ^The tiblt of Arethusa is so well known that 
I need not repeat it. But it is remarkable that no one has 
yet observed that, strange as it may seem, the fact of a 
river turning up in an island, after having passed under the 
sea, is not physically impossible. Nell' iaola Strofadia del 
mare del Zante, che si trova 40 miglia in circa per garbino 
kntaDo dal fiume Alieo, si osserva un pozzo o una fonte 
d'acqua perfettissima : la quale isola circondata dal mare 
noa ha altro fonte, nl fiume, che questa. Assicurano que' 
romid chiamati Callogeri, non avere la detta altra origine che 
dal fiume Alfeo, che per vie sotterranee viene a formarla. 
La prova grande di una tal verita si e, che la menzionata 
fonte si trova quasi sempre piena.di foglie di platano, de' 
quali alberi non ve n' e alcunb nella detta isola, ma sola- 
mente guemiscono le ripe del fiume Alfeo che scorre nella 
Morea < • • . Da questo si puo comprendere, che an altro 
ramo delle dette acque sotterranee portate fra strato e strato» 
come per inarcati sifoni, passino sotto il restante del mare, 
e vadsino a sboccare uel regno della Sicilia. Val^isnieri 
Raeeolta d*0s8er,compiL da Daniblli ; Ou* 31. 

St. 20. 1. 1.-— The first line stands thus in M. 
Non vide ne piu bel, ne '1 piu giocondo. 
It is so in one of the copies of 1532, but in the three others 
it stands as I have printed it, and it should be ' ne *l piu 
bel,' since it is ' ne 'i piu giocondo.' 

St 22. 1. 2 and 8.— Three copies of 1532 tiepida ; only 
one tepida^ as in M. And so luoghi and loehu 

St. 27. 1. 1.— See Mn, iii. 26, et seq. Metam. ii. 359, and 
viii. 743 ; but more particularly Dante Inf, xiii. 40 : 
Come d' un stizzo venle, ch' arso sia 
Dair un de* capi, che dall' altro geme, 
£ cigola per vento che va via. 
- Su quest! versi TAriosto compose questa otiava che di bel- 
lezza gareggia col suo modello, che che altri cianci in con- 
trario. (This alludes to the late prince of pedants, Biagioli.) 

188 NOTES TO C. VI. 

11 cigdare per vento e la sola bellezza che manchi nel fer- 
nrese ; ma queati ooU' ipotiposi degli altimi due Yexti sapera 
U fiorentino. Monti. 

St. 31. 1. 3 and 4. — Questa ripedzione molto gentilinente 
fatta riesce piena di graada e da gran forza al parlare, ed e 
quasi naturale a questa sorte di composizioni. Giraldi de' 
Rom.p, 118. 

St. 33. 1. 1.— See Genealogical table and notes in die 
Etsay. In the Gesta ad dettr, Carcats. mention is made of 
Estoldos 61ius Odonis. 

St. 34. 1. 1. — O. I., II. XIII. 54. ' Onde liberate,* a con^ 
struction peculiar to A., too often used by him. It was 
tkey, not the forces, that were delivered ; and therefore it 
should be liberati. Against this rule, founded on reason, no 
eiample can, or, at least, ought to prevail. 

St. 36. 1. 1. — ^With respect to the natural history of these 
several sea-monsters and fishes, the reader may consult 
Pliny's Nat. H, lib. iz. in princ. where even the sleep of 
the ' vecchi (vituli) marini ' is recorded. It seems that 
the Phy$iter and capidoglio are one and the same fish. 
RoNDELET quoted by Harduin notes to Pliny viii. 3. 
See O. I., II. XIII. 57, and Solin Polyhist. C. 52. 

St. 45. 1. 3.— -The first edit, had golfo in the text, but in 
the errata fiume has been substituted because C. 10. st. 43, 
instead of quello ttretto had pieciolfiume. 

St. 45. 1. 6. — Rivera, as in M., I find only in one copy 
of 1532. The others, as well as the errata of 1516, read 

St. 47. 1. 3.— Only one copy of 1532 ' fra mortali' as 
M. ; the others ' fra t mortali.' 

SU 47. 1. 6.— Three copies of 1532 ' stavomi/ only one 
and M. stavami. 

St. 51. 1. 4.>-The fairy Uriella did exactly the same. 
Mambriano, xxxviii. 18. 

St. 73. 1. 8. — See xxv. 80. from Horace Carm. See, 59. 
Apparetque beata plena — Copia comu. 

St. 78. 1. 3. — Aro ardire di etimologizare il nome d' Erefila 
per Tavarizia, o siesi voce grecolatina, cioe amatrice di me- 
tallo [so says Fomari], o greca da aipoi overo aipcM si- 
gnificamenti di possedere, di occupare, di levar via, privitegi 


d'avariraa ; o pure nome proprio delta moglie d' Anfiarao, 
storia publica, e acconcia al nostro proposito. Mi coDferma 
Tottavo verao della st. 4 [of the next Canto], volto per 
incidenza a tassar di tal vizio sifiatte persone ; le satire sue 
ne fanno fede. Accresce il verisimile il cavalcar un lupo, 
atteso che Tavarizia si lascia trasportare dalla sua cupidigia 
insaziabile e rapacissima qual e il lupo. [Thus Dante repre- 
sents the avarice of the Court of Rome under the emblem of 
a wolf at the beginning of the Inferno.'] Mi assicura di cid 
infallibilmente la botta [vii. 5] della quale scrive Alberto 
Magno lib. 26 Anim, che de terrestri humido non comedit 
nisi quantum mane simul capere poterit, timens quod ei 
tota terra non sufficiat. Nisiely Prog* iii. 71. 


St. 1. 1. 1. — That under the history of Alcina is concealed 
an allegory ' where more is meant than meets the ear/ is 
evident from the beginning of this Canto. But what the 
meaning is I shall not inquire. It is not difficult to guess 
a tolerable explanation, but it would be long and tiresome 
to support it with proofs ; and therefore I shall content 
myself with short notes on such words or circumstances as 
may assist those who wish to enter into an examination of 
this allegory. 

St. 4. 1. 1. — Horace celebrates the wolves from Puglia 
for their size. 

St. 4. 1. 6. — ^The colour of sand is pale, livid. See O. I., 
II. IX. 5, and x.6. The words ' maledetta lue ' are from Pru- 
DEMTius, who said ' lues improba ' speaking of avarice, as 
we find in Barotti. I prefer Corte to corte, as the poet did 
not mean courts in general, but the Court of Rome. 

St. 6. 1. 6.— O. I., II. XVI. 32. 

St. 10. 1. 1. — I have left escellente, however strange the 
word may seem, as besides being so here, I find escelUntia, 
X. 60, a proof that it is not an error of the press. The same 
is to be said of escede xvii. 15 and 60 of this canto so written 
instead of eccede in the edit, of 1532. 

190 NOTE& TO C. Yll. 

St. 1 1. 1. 1 .-~I tiiaU not undertake 'to poini out the several 
originals from which A. drew parts of this famous descriptioD 
of Alcina's beauty, hut I cannot omit transcribing two 
extracts, the one from a Latin, the odier from an Italian 
poet, not generally read, which, there is no doubt, were 
in the mind of the author of the Furtoso when he wrote 
this description. The first is a Latin poem attributed by 
some to Gallus, by others to Cato ad Lydiam ; which is 
as follows : — 

Lydia, bella puella, Candida 
Que bene superas lac et Ulium, 
Albamque simul rosam rubidam, 
Aut expolitum ebur Indicum ; 
Pande, puella, pande capillulos 
Flavos, lucentes ut aurum nitidum. 
Pande, puella, collum candidum 
Produdtum bene caadidis humeris. 
Pande, puella, stellatos oculos, 
Flexaque super nigra cilia. 
Pande, puella, genas roseas, 
Perfusas rubro purpurs Tyris. 
Porrige labra, labra corallina. 
Da columbatim mitia basia : 
Sugis amentis partem animi. 
Cor mihi penetrant hiec tua basia. 
Quid mihi sugis vivumsanguinem? 
Conde papillas, conde gemipomas 
Compresso lacte quae mode puUulant. 
Sinu*8 expansa profert cinnama : 
Undique surgunt ex te delicis. 
Conde papillas, quae me sauciant 
Candore et luxu nivei pectoris. 
Ssva ! non cernis quod ego langueo? 
Sic me destituis jam semimortuum 1 

The other is from Boccaccio's Theseide, C. xxii. st. 53, 
in which the poet describes Emilia's charms. As I am 
only able to consult the Ferrara edit, of 1475, I shall make 
such orthographical emendations as are requisite by the sense 
or metre. 


Era la giovinetta di persona 

Grande ed ischietta convenevolmente, 

E, se lo ver Tantichita ragiona, 

Eir era candidisnma e piacente ; 

Ed i suoi crini sotto una corona 

Longhi en assai ; e d^oro veramente 

Si sarien detti : ^ il suo aspetto umile, 

Ed il suo moto onesto e signorile. 
lo dico che i suoi crin parevan d'oro 

Non in trezza ristretti, ma soluti, 

£ pettinati si che infra di loro 

Non n*era un torto ; e cadean sostenuti 

Sopra li candidi umeri, ne foro 

Prima ne poi si bei gia mai veduti ; 

Ne altro sopra quelli essa portava 

Che una corona che assai s^estimava. 
La fronte sua era ampia e spazVosa, 

E bianca e piana e molto delicata, 

Sotto la qual in volta tortiiosa 

Quasi di mezzo cerchio terminata, 

Eran due ciglia, piu che aitra cosa 

Nerissime e sottil ; tra le qual lata 

Bianchezza si vedea lor dividendo 

Ne '1 debito passavan se estendendo. 
Di sotto a questi eran gli occhi lucenti, 

E piu che Stella scintillanti assai ; 

Egli eran gravi e larghi e ben sedenti 

£ bnini quant* altri che fusser mai. 

Ed oltxe a questo, egli eran si potenti 

D* ascosa forza che alcuno giammai 

Non li mird, ne fu da lor mirato, 

Che amore in se non sentisse svegliato. 
lo ritraggio di lor poveramente, 

Dico a rispetto della lor bellezza. 

Ma lascioli a chiunque d'amor sente 

Che imaginando venga lor chiarezza. 

Ma sotto ad essi, non troppo eminente 

Ne poco ancora e di bella longhezza, 

II naso si videa affilato e dretto, 

Qual si voleva all' angelico aspetto. 


La guancie sue non eian tumofose 
Ne magre fuor di debita misoia, 
Adzi eran delicate e graziose, 
Blanche e venniglie, Don d'altra mistura, 
Che intra i gigli e le vermiglie rose. 
£ questa non depinta, ma natura 
Glie Tavea data il cui color monstrava 
Percio che*n cid piu non le besognava. 

Eir aveva la bocca piccoletta 
Tutta ridente e bella da basciare, 
Ed era piu di granavermiglietta 
Con le labra sottili : e nel parlare 
A cui la udia, pareva un angioletta. 
I denti suoi potevan somigliare 
A bianche perle, spessi ed ordinati 
£ picciolini e ben proporzionati. 

£d oltre a questo il mento piccolino 
£ tondo qual al viso si chiedea, 
Nel mezzo ad esso aveva un forellino 
Che piu vezzosa assai ne la facea ; 
£d era vermiglietto un pocolino, 
Di che assai piu bella ne parea ; 
Quinci la gola Candida e cerchiata . 
Non di superchio, e bella e delicata. 

Pieno era il collo e longo e ben sedente 
Sopra gli omeri candidi e ritondi ; 
Tutto mostrava essere gaudente 
Di sostegnere li abbracciar giocondi ; 
£ poi el petto era un poco eminente 
Di pomi vaghi per mostranza tondi, 
Che per durezza avean combattimento 
Sempre portando in fori el vestimento. 

Eran le braccia sue grosse e distese, 
Longhe le mani e le dita sottili 
Articolate bene, e tutte prese 
Ancor di anella molto signorili. 
£ brevemente in tutto quel paese 
Altra non so che si atti gentili 
Avesse, come lei, ch'erain cintura 
Sottile e schietta con degna misura. 


Neir anchc groMa e tutta ben formata 
£d U pie piccolmo. Qaal poi fusse 
La parte agli occhi del corpo celata 
Colui sel seppe, poi colui la tolse. 
In the above extracts the original is to be found of the 
' ciglia sere e chiome bionde,' on which Barotti wrote a 
discmine which I have not seen. Who does not know that 
a perfect beauty is to have 

Biomb chioma, occhio anirro, e nero ciglio 1 
St. 12. 1. 8. — Non illud carpere livor 

Possit opus. Metam, vi. 129. 
St. 13. 1. 7 and 8. — Gittd parlando un lampeggiante riso 

Tal che sembro s'aprisse il paradiso. 
Roman AnU quoted by Lavez. 
St. 18. 1. 1 and 2. — ^These two lines are almost verbatim 
from Petraroa. 

St. 18. L 5. — Orava, ftcolpisce : gravare (fr. graver^ scol- 

St. 19. 1. 1.— The 1st edit, has ' Nanti a la mensa.' The 
pronoun qu$lla of the edit, of 1532 without minsa havii^ 
ever been mentioned, is not very intelligible. 

St. 20. 1. 1. — Instead of trionfante, I ought to have printed 
tri4mfanU, as it is in the edit, of 1532 ; and likewise triomfi 
instead of triar^t st. 61 of this Canto. 
SU21.— RiTSON, Rom. iii. 163. 

St. 23. L7. — L'Ariosto dipinge anzi vivifica nella imita- 
zion di Ruggiero tutte quelle circustanze d'aspettazion 
amorosa che potessono la natura e I'arte e amore figurare u^ 
una persona. £ fo giudizio che in cid superi Ovidio. Thus 
NisiELYy who, afler having compared the several passages 
continues: II medesimo Ariosto ritenta, e divinamente 
gli riesce C. 32. st. 10 — 16, una evidenza di Bradamante 
d*aspettar Ruggiero .... Apelle non arebbe piii al naturale 
ritratto quel che descrive TAriosto. Prog. i. 22. 

St. 25. 1. 4. — Donde for dove m the edit, of 1516, as well 
as 1532. C. 24. st. 79 in 1532 has ' onde il pensar di 
voi' which M. has changed into ' ove,' following the 1st 
edit. But if donde be correct here, onde is not an error 

ORL. FUR. I. o 


St. 25. 1. B.— Tra la spica e la man quel moro e messo. 


St. 29. 1. 3.— The edit, of 1532 has dui, not d«/ as I find 

St. 29.1. 7 and 8.-^. I., I. xix. 61. 

St. 40. 1. 2. — ^The edit of 1532 has reggier, not reggfr, as 
1 find in M., who could not object to it, having throughout the 
poem adopted the name Ruggier and not changed it into 
Rugger, the former being the spelling of the edit, of 1532. 

St. 47. 1. 7.~rra for trae. See note^ to O. 1., III. 
VI. 47. 

St. 49. 1. 7 and 8..-0. 1., I. ix. 10. 

St. 50. 1. 1.— Alichino in Dante. 

St. 50. 1. 3 and 4. — Hobat. Sat, I. viii. 23. Ovid. 
Met, VII. 183. ' Chiome passe,* is Horace's-' passo^e cajillo.' 

St. 50. 1. 7 and 8. — O. I , I. xii. 42. 

St. 51. 1. \,—Tratismutosse in 1532, not traunutosse, ds 
was substituted by M. 

St. 54. 1. 8.— M. changed qua, which is in 1532, into 
qual, making a note of it however* But I believe that qua\ 
for quai or quali, is more common and more Qorrect than 

St. 55. 1. 6. — Here mezzo is spelt with sx, as are also the 
corresponding words, prezzo and awezzo. The difference be- 
tween mezo and mezzo did not escape Dolce. £ da sapere che 
quando la voce mezo significa medium, cioe la meta, scrivesi 
per semplice z ragionevolmente. £ cosi trovasi sempre ne' 
propri testi deir Ariosto. See above, note to st. 9. c. 1. 

St. 57. 1. 1.— O. I., II. 1. 74, and III. v. 35. 

St. 60. 1. 2.— It is often that, owing to the promiscuous 
use of e for i, we find, both in the edition of 1516 and 1532, 
chi used instead of che, and vice versa. M. has left chi here, 
but has substituted che, C. 5, st. 68, v. 5 ; C. 10. st. 28, 
V. 5, and st. 97, v. 8 ; and G. 38, st. 16, v. 5 -, and has 
mentioned these alterations. In C. 8, st. 46, v. 6, instead 
of chi he has printed ch*i. 

St. 65. 1.4.— O. I., I. XIV. 43. 

St. 66. 1. 1.— The edition of 1532 has ?nj(ant«; M.istante, 

St. 66. 1. 6.— -On Melissa's name, Fornari observes: 

NOTES to C. VIII. 196 

Suona nella Greca lingua quel-che nella nostra diciamo cura 
et eaercitatione. I do not know how this can be made out : 
MeXctrtra or McXtrra, a bee, has been considered a /leXi 
cujus est opifex dicta. It is however true that it is a most 
industrious animal, but I do not see how this fact may be 
made use of for the etymology of the word. In the last 
edition of Stephanos' Lexicon, MtXurva is said to be 
mulier fatidica, and Aristophanes is quoted. I cannot 
find the passages referred to in Aristophanes, but, taking 
the fact to be correct, there is no doubt that it was from this 
poet that it derived the name of his fairy. 

St. 68. 1. 6. — Instead of a full stop at the end of this lihe, 
there should be only a comma. 

St. 69. 1. 3 — Comendb the edition of 1532 ; eommendd 

St. 74. 1. 3 and 4.'— These two lines are from Petrarca. 

St. 74. 1. d.—'Ruggiero the edition of 1532 ; Ruggier M. 

St 79. I. 8. — Donde both 1516 and 1532 ; D'tmde M. 
It seems to me that this word is used as observed above. 


St. 6. 1. 3. — This sale for scende has been often condemned. 
Bar. says it is for ttUta; but is it right to use the word in 
that signification 1 

St. 7. 1. 8.— O. I., II. IX. 10. 

St. 8. 1« 1. &c« — This is no doubt allegorical, but who can 
explain the meaning 1 Mazzoni, Dif, di Daute, 1. 1. 19, 
has tried to raise the veil, and asserts that " the left foot is 
the seat of the passions." When such are the foundations 
on which explanations of allegories are built, it would be 
worse than useless to enter into them. 

St. 14. h 8. --Mazzoni says: Rombo era stromento 
magico il quale si componeva con certe fila torte. I)if» di 
Dante, I. I. 12. This critic proves that what the Greeks 
called pofLfioc was called turbo by the Latins, and that 
therefore ' rombi e turbini' are the same thing. 

196 NOTES TO C. Vni. 

BL 16. 1. 1.-4). I., U. n. 14. 

8t. 16. 1. 6.—- The editioii of 1532 has ban, not buon 9s M. 

St 30. 1. 6ir— ' I diMi't know how etery body ahnost in 
England came to imagine diat the ctmtfc in the Roman wri- 
ten was the lame with oar grasshopper [jgriUo in Italian] ; 
§u thmr charaders are difierent enongfa to have prevented 
any mch mistake. The eiemda is what the Italians now call 
omIa, and die French c^gisi^ They make one constant 
nnifonn noise all day long in summer time, winch is ex* 
tiemely disagieeable-and tireaome, porticalaily in the great 
heats .... ViEOU. calls the ekadm ptenU^ and twiec: 
Maetial mrgmt^ and inhummut. Their note is the aiore 
troableaomeyfaecanse in the great beats they sing alone. Any 
one who has passed a summer in Italy, or in the Sovith of 
France, will not think die epithet tftMrniaiuB too severe for 
them.' Spskcb qnoted by Warton ap. Hoole. 

St.22. L 2.~The edition of 16, has figliupla^ and was 
followed by M., vrho obenved that theeditiooof 1532 has 
figUola. He leftj^Jioto, C. 32, St. 51. 

St. 27. 1. l.^TrttgkkwUf in 1532 ; tragkiUarh, M. 

St. 33. 1 5«— The edition of 1532 has tenttno, as was ob- 
served by M., who substitated smUmo, 

St 35. 1. 4, &c.--This is imitated chiefly from Ovid's 
Rape of Europa, to which the reader is referred. 

St 37. I. 3. — ^The following note of Rns. on this Une is 
not withont interest Con fat prima ragione di qoesle due, 
cioe die achi va per mare par che il lito si muovi e cammini, 
vttol il Cardinal di Cuaa con alcuni altii mostrare che fonda- 
mento (sebben del tutto vano) abbian ooloio che vorrebbon 
lar credere, che non i deli si muovano ordinariaraente e di 
continuo, ma la terra. 

St 47. 1. 8.— The last line is imitated from Dante, 
£ di bianca paura si dipinse. 

St .46. 1. \.—'Ai\a%o is often in 1532, as printed by M., in 
this place. He, however, on some other occasiBn snbstitttted 
a lato. AUm, instead of a lui, often occurs in 1532. 

St 51. 1. 3, &c.— Sono pii^ oltre dell' Inghilterra e 40 
miglia I'Orcade isole .... Laonde pareva al poeta for {»n veii- 
simile questa finzion dell" orca perche in quel mare appajooo 
piu che altrove spesae e grandi le orcfae. Perdie da qnesto 


quelle isol^ preserp il noqie. Dol. and Fob. Adyenerat 
ex partibus Hibernici maris inaiidiUB feiitatU belvja, quia 
incolas maritimos sine mtermissione devorabat. Cumque 
fami^ejus (Morindi) auies attigisset, accessit ipse ad iUam et 
solus cum sola congiessus est. At euro omnia tela in illam 
invanum consumpsisset, acceleravit monstram illnd, et 
apertis faucibus, ipsum velut pisciculum devoravit. Godef. 
MoHMUT. 1. 20. See inf. xi. 37 and note. 
St. 69. 1. 4, &c.— O. I., III. VIII. 51. 
St. 71. I. 4, &c. — ^This simile occurs in the fifth letter 
of the second book of ARisTiENETUs, upon which Bois- 
soNADB gives an important note, of which the follow- 
ing is part : Totam ptniv Apollonio Rh. hi. 753 sub- 
lectam fnisse monuit Ruhnk .... Virgilius i£n. viii. 

20 ; magno curarum flactuat aestu, &c quern imi- 

tati passim Latini et Itali poets. Egregie Aiiost. C. viii. 
St. 71. Greoor. Nazianz. Or. 28 eztr. ; Ovidius A. A. ii. 
271. yoi.TAiRies Henr.x. ex Virgilio profecit : Telle on 
voit du soleil, &c., ubi Beaumellius in commeniario hujus 
comparationis proprietatem, elegantiam pnedicat et npvi- 
tatem : £o jecur Zenodoti ! Voltaiiio et Ronsardus : De9a 
de la virant, &c. To these may be added Cam6es, Lms. 
viii. 87. 

Qual reflexo lume da polido 

Espelho de a90, ou de christal fermoso, 

Que do rayo solar sendo ferido, 

Vay ferir noutra parte luminoso : 

£ sendo da ociosa mao mpvido 

Pela casa do mo90 curioso, 

Anda pelas paredes, & telhado 

Tremulo aqui, & alii dessossegado. 
Musorave, in a note to his translation, observes : ' This 
simile is taken from Virgil, but with an additional circum- 
stance that adds te its grace and beauty. The sudden tran* 
sitions of reflected light are augmented and varied by the 
sportive playfulness of a child, and they become therefore a 
truer emblem of the wavering inconstancy of an agitated 
mind. .... Orlando's perplexity of mind is similarly but 
less happily expressed.' What is there le$» happy in Ariosto's 
lines 1 

198 NOTES TO C. Tin. 

8t 7(^.1. 2, flcc^This is a tendei beftntifiil tamile, and 
ftltogcther origina'. Hoole. 

St. 77. L 5. — II Petraica ed il Boocaodo dando rartioold 
a Dei dineio lempre gli Dei . • . . Ora avendo il poeta 
ouenrato qnesto aio feoe qoealo mntamento. 

£ *1 fior che potea pormi fira gli Dei. 

£d avengache in qaesto luogo e nel rimanente dell* opera 
•i l^ggc * Dei, tener si dee per certo cid esser trascuraggine 
d^U correttori, che non posero mente alle correziom del suo 
ultimo Furioto nel quale corr^;ge sempfe i Dei in gli Dei, 
mutando se bisogna tutto il verso. Pigna, Scontri, n. 13. 
This proves that we have not the text of the poem as last 
corrected by the poet» and that Rdscelli's assertion on this 
head is quite correct* 

St. 83. 1. 6. — iN^early Petrarca's line, 

Non sperar pid vedermi in terra mai. 

St. 84. 1. 5. — PoRCACCHi, note to st. 56. c. Xix, says that 
A. used salire, as the Spanish do, instead of uscire, and 
refers to this very passage. For this and next st. see O. I., 
1. 11. 27. 

St. 85. 1. 7. — RooLE says that Amosiante is a proper 
name, and refers to the poem Aspramonte, In spite of such 
an authority I believe that this is not the case. 

St. 88. 1. 1, &c. — ^Brandimarte constantly followed Or- 
lando. See O. I., n. xxvii. 36. 

St. 91. 1. 6.— The edit, of 1532, instead of ' e^ piu breve/ 
reads ' eon piu breve.' Dolce says it is undoubtedly a mis- 
print, and suggests the ^eading which I have adopted after M. 


C. Whittingbani. Tooks Court, Cb«aoerf Lan«. 

« fi 





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